Calendar overview 1239
the barons' crusade was defeated by the Ayyubids
in the battle of Gaza .
|1239 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||687/688 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1782/83 (southern Buddhism); 1781/82 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||601/602 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||636/637 (turn of the year 2/3 August)|
|Jewish calendar||4999/5000 (August 31 / September 1)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1549/50 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1550/51 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1295/96 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire / Italy
- Beginning of the year: Emperor Frederick II makes his son Enzio king of Sardinia and general legate in central and northern Italy. In this function he leads military operations against the imperial Lombard League in Romagna, Marche and Tuscany .
- March 20 : Frederick II , who is on his way to Italy again , is supported by Pope Gregory IX. again excommunicated.
- March 20 : After the death of Hermann von Salza , Konrad von Thuringia is elected Grand Master of the Teutonic Order . Hermann played an important role in mediating between the emperor and the pope, which from now on will be completely eliminated.
- July 1 : In a papal encyclical presumably written by Cardinal Raniero Capocci and addressed to all kings, princes and bishops of Christendom , Emperor Friedrich II is described as a heretic and forerunner of the end-time Antichrist.
- In the Battle of Aimonte , the Portuguese under Sancho II defeated the Moors . As a result, Sancho succeeds in conquering the entire Alentejo and large parts of the Algarve .
- June 24th : Baldwin II , Emperor of the Latin Empire , sets off for Constantinople after his first trip to the west from France . Before that, he had his county of Namur , threatened by Luxembourg , under the protection of the French King Louis IX. posed.
- The armistice negotiated in the Peace of Jaffa between Emperor Friedrich II and Sultan al-Kamil in 1229 ends in August . In July, a large army, consisting of French knights under the leadership of important barons, including Peter Mauclerc , Count Theobald IV of Champagne , from 1234 as Theobald I also King of Navarre , Duke Hugo IV of Burgundy , Count , gathered in Lyon in July Amalrich VII von Montfort , Count Heinrich II von Bar and many others. King Louis IX of France gives financial support and opens the ports to the crusaders.
- September 1st : The barons' crusade reaches Acre with its first ships . In the following days the rest of the fleet, which had been dispersed by storms, arrives.
- November 2 : The crusader army moves from Akkon to Askalon . Peter Mauclerc leads a successful little skirmish against a Muslim convoy to Damascus.
- November 13th : A partial army of the barons' crusade under Amalrich von Montfort and Heinrich von Bar suffer a devastating defeat against the Egyptian Ayyubids in the battle of Gaza .
- August: In the Ayyubid fratricidal war , as-Salih Ayyub undertakes a campaign against his half-brother al-Adil II in Egypt . His uncle al-Salih Ismail , however, denied him the military successes and used al-Salih Ayyub's absence to take Damascus and make himself Sultan of Damascus. As-Salih Ayyub was abandoned by the majority of his troops and was taken prisoner by local Bedouins, who handed him over to an-Nasir Dawud , the Ayyubid Emir of Kerak , another nephew of Ismail and Ayyub's cousin. However, the prisoner succeeds in making an alliance with an-Nasir, who now lends him troops for the incursion into Egypt.
- In the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks , the Babai uprising breaks out .
- The Tarabi uprising in the Mongol Empire continues.
First documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Beu , Brehmen , Döttingen , Klingnau , Ostermundigen , Perleberg , Prohn , Rietheim and Steinmauern
- The noble family Rothenstein is mentioned for the first time in a document from the Kempten monastery .
- around 1237: "Original riddle game" (see Singers' War at the Wartburg )
- May 13th : 183 people accused and convicted of heresy are burned at stake in front of the castle on Mont Aimé . Because the fanatical inquisitor Robert the Bulgarian had some people unlawfully executed, the Dominican subsequently lost his office with the Pope under pressure from the northern French clergy .
- May: first documentary mention of the St. Elizabeth convent in Strasbourg
- August 15 : The monastery church of the Porta Coeli monastery, built in the Romanesque-Gothic transition style , is consecrated.
- Bützow becomes the main residence of the Schwerin diocese .
- Thomas Aquinas begins studying Artes Liberales at the University of Naples .
- The monastery of La Clarté-Dieu and the Netley Abbey are at the instigation of the late last year Peter des Roches , Bishop of Winchester , was founded.
- The Bible Concordance , developed by the Dominicans in the Jacobin monastery in Paris since about 1230 , is used (see Hugo von St. Charo ).
nature and environment
- June 3 : A solar eclipse can be observed in southern Europe and the Middle East , reported by the Italian monk Ristoro d'Arezzo and the Byzantine scholar Georgios Akropolites , among others .
Date of birth saved
- January 4 : John II , Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond († 1305 )
- June 17 : Edward I , King of England and Prince of Wales († 1307 )
- December 17th : Kujō Yoritsugu , Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan († 1256 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Balian of Arsuf , Lord of Arsuf, constable of Jerusalem and Bailli of Jerusalem († 1277 )
- Gottfried I , Count of Habsburg-Laufenburg, Landgrave in Klettgau and Count of Kyburg († 1271 )
- Stephan V , King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama († 1272 )
- Thomas I , Margrave of Saluzzo († 1296 )
Born around 1239
- Robert de Ferrers, 6th Earl of Derby , English magnate and rebel († 1279 )
- Ramkhamhaeng , King of the Thai Kingdom of Sukhothai († around 1298 )
First half of the year
- March 5 : Hermann von Balk , Knight of the Teutonic Order, German Master, Land Master of Prussia and Livonia
- March 20 : Hermann von Salza , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and politician (* around 1162 )
- March 28 : Go-Toba , Emperor of Japan (* 1180 )
- April 7th : William de Cantilupe , Anglo-Norman nobleman and civil servant
- May 10th : Agnes von Zähringen , German noblewoman (* around 1158 )
- June 5 : Władysław Odonic , Duke of Greater Poland (* 1190 )
Second half of the year
- August 4th : Friedrich III. von Ortenburg , provost of the Reichersberg monastery and provost of the Berchtesgaden monastery
- Mid-August: Thomas von Capua , papal notary, cardinal, elected Archbishop of Naples
- September 7th : Gerold of Jerusalem , Abbot of Molesme Abbey and Cluny Abbey, Bishop of Valence and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem
- October 5th : Robert von Courtenay , grand cupbearer of France and Lord von Champignelles, Château-Renard, Charny, Chantecoq, Nonancourt, Conches-en-Ouche and Mehun-sur-Yèvre (* 1168 )
- October 16 : Přemysl , Margrave of Moravia (* around 1209 )
- November 1 : William of Savoy , Bishop of Valence and Liège (* around 1201 )
- November 13 : Heinrich II. , Count of Bar and Lord of Ligny (* 1190 )
- November 19 : Heinrich von Taufers , Bishop of Brixen
- November 25th : Albrecht IV. , Count in Aargau and Frickgau with the Habsburgs, Brugg, Bremgarten and Muri, Landgrave in Upper Alsace and Field Captain of Strasbourg and Vogt of the Säckingen Monastery (* around 1188 )
- November: Johann von Braine , Count of Vienne and Mâcon (* 1198 )
- December 21 : Henry de Trubleville , Anglo- Norman military and civil servant
- December 22nd : John II of Nesle , Lord of Nesle and Burgrave of Bruges
Exact date of death unknown
- Archambaud II , Count of Périgord
- Bertrand de Comps , Grand Master of the Order of St. John
- Friedrich I. von Hagen , canon and provost in Hildesheim and Verden as well as bishop in the diocese of Schwerin (* around 1158 )
- Simon von Dammartin , Count of Aumale and Ponthieu