Calendar overview 1236
Mongols under Batu Khan
against the Volga Bulgarians begins.
|1236 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||684/685 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1779/80 (southern Buddhism); 1778/79 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||598/599 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||633/634 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th September)|
|Jewish calendar||4996/97 (September 1st and 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1546/47 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1547/48 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1292/93 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- February 7th : King Ferdinand III. of Castile and León arrives with around 100 knights before Córdoba and begins the siege of the city.
- June 29th : As part of the Reconquista , after the previous siege of Cordoba, the Castilian King Ferdinand III. the recapture of the city from the Almohads . The Mezquita de Córdoba mosque is being converted into a cathedral.
- January 14th : King Henry III. von England marries 13-year-old Eleanor of Provence in Canterbury , and on January 20th she is crowned Queen of England in Westminster Abbey. With their support, Heinrich can further break away from the influence of his old ministers and advisers.
- January 18 : After the death of Owain ap Gruffydd from the Dinefwr dynasty , his son Maredudd inherits the Welsh principality of Deheubarth from Owain .
- After the death of Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor , his five sons split up the Powys Fadog territory . As the eldest son, Gruffydd Maelor ap Madog is nominally in control, but the brothers soon quarrel.
Jewish pogroms in the Holy Roman Empire and France
- After a due to a blood libel made anti-Jewish pogrom in Fulda , in which 30 people are murdered, asks Emperor Frederick II. Of England, France and Spain converted to Christianity, Jewish scholars to his court to send. This commission of experts refutes the allegations made against the Jews. With the consent of the princes, the Jews are acquitted in a document issued at the Augsburg court in July. Friedrich II. Extends the Worms privilege of 1090 to all Jews in his jurisdiction by means of a transsump . They are known as “ servants of our chamber ” ( servi camere nostri ) and have to pay for imperial protection.
- In France, too, there are pogroms against parts of the Jewish population because of legends of ritual murder .
Other events in the Holy Roman Empire
- June 20 : In the Treaty of Kremmen , Duke Wartislaw III. of Pomerania towards the margraves Johann I and Otto III. the Brandenburg feudal sovereignty and cedes areas to the Mark Brandenburg .
- July: At the Reichstag in Augsburg, Emperor Friedrich II decreed the eighth of the Babenberg Duke Friedrich the Warriors of Austria after he refused to appear at the Hoftag in Hagenau in January and commented on the complaints made against him by several princes to take.
- Mongol invasion of the Rus : The siege of Bilar by the Mongols under Batu Khan ends in August after 45 days with the capture and complete destruction of the city and a massacre of the population. The Volga Bulgarians are effectively defeated, even if some cities in the north of their empire do not submit to the Mongols.
- September 22nd : Lithuanian wars of the Teutonic Order : In the battle of Schaulen, the sword brothers and crusaders suffer a crushing defeat against the Schemeites under the leadership of Prince Vykintas and the Lithuanians under Mindaugas . Master of the Order Volkwin von Naumburg dies in the battle.
- Alexander Nevsky from the Rurikid dynasty is appointed military leader and prince of Novgorod by the local wetsche .
North Africa and Middle East
- As the leader of the Berber Banu Abd al-Wad, Abu Yahya made himself independent of the declining Almohads under Caliph Abd al-Wahid II ar-Rashid and founded the Abdalwadid Empire with the capital Tlemcen in western Algeria . As a result, however, the young empire is threatened by the emerging Merinids in Morocco and the Hafsids in Ifrīqiya , who declare their independence from the Almohads in the same year.
- After the death of al-Aziz Muhammad, he was followed by his eight-year-old son an-Nasir Yusuf as emir of Aleppo. Since he is still a minor, his grandmother, Daifah Khatun, initially takes over the reign. Their brother, Sultan al-Kamil , intends to reunite Syria with Egypt and comes up with an army. Daifah Khatun then allies with al-Ashraf of Damascus.
City rights and first documentary mentions
- First documented mention of Aarberg , Altenzaun , Arch , Autafond , Brenzikofen , Dietwil , Großheppach , Grünkraut , Hasle , Heuchlingen , Jena , Kiesen , Lüttingen , Oberrüti , Oberwil bei Büren , Olsberg , Root and Stetten
- Plön ( Lübeck law ) and Recklinghausen receive city rights .
- Toruń is moved to its current location .
- Start of construction on the Strasbourg Cathedral
- In the statutes of the city of Padua it is stated that documents on paper have no legal force .
- In the school year 1236/ 1237 occurs Alexander of Hales the age of 51 years Franciscan Order in.
- The female branch of the Trinitarian Order is born.
- Bertrand de Comps succeeds the late Guérin Lebrun as Grand Master of the Order of St. John .
Founding monasteries and foundations
- Bishop Eckbert von Bamberg founds Griffen Abbey .
- Johann von Apremont , Bishop of Metz , confirms in Saarbrücken the foundation of the Commander St. Elisabeth in 1227 .
- The Santa María de la Real monastery is founded in the Kingdom of Mallorca , which has just been conquered by Aragón .
- The Wülfinghausen monastery is founded.
- January 1 : Baldwin de Redvers, 7th Earl of Devon , English nobleman, Lord of the Isle of Wight († 1262 )
- October: Qutb ad-Din al-Shirazi , Persian scientist († 1311 )
- after October: Alice de Lusignan , French-English noblewoman († 1290 )
- Albrecht I , Duke of Braunschweig and Lüneburg and first regent of the Principality of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel († 1279 )
- Jakob ibn Tibbon , South French Jewish author, translator and astronomer († around 1307 )
- Tolomeo da Lucca , Italian theologian, author of ecclesiastical pamphlets and bishop († 1327 )
- Violante of Aragón , Queen of Castile and León († 1301 )
- 1235/36 : Plaisance of Antioch , Queen and Regent of Cyprus, Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem († 1263 )
- around 1236: Agnes von Arnsberg , abbess of the Meschede Abbey and of Oedingen Abbey († 1306 )
Date of death secured
- January 14th : Sava of Serbia , first Orthodox Archbishop of Serbia, writer and apostle-like saint of the Christian Orthodox Churches (* 1175 )
- January 18 : Owain ap Gruffydd , Lord of the Welsh Principality of Deheubarth
- February 16 : Philippa Mareri , Italian abbess and founder of the monastery (* 1200 )
- February 20 : Henry II. , Count of Schwarzburg-Blankenburg (* around 1150 / 55 )
- May 1st or May 6th : William d'Aubigné , English nobleman and rebel (* around 1150 )
- May 6th : Roger von Wendover , English monk and chronicler
- June 10 : Diana Andalò , Italian Dominican and monastery founder
- June 16 : Erhard II , Lord of Chacenay
- July 29th : Ingeborg of Denmark , Danish princess and queen of France (* around 1175 )
- August 16 : Thomas de Blundeville , Bishop of Norwich
- August 17 : William de Blois , Bishop of Worcester
- August 17th : John II of Dražice , Bishop of Prague
- August 18 : Theodorus von Celles , founder and first Prior General of the Order of the Holy Cross (* 1166 )
- September 22nd : Volkwin von Naumburg zu Winterstätten , Lord Master of the Brothers of the Sword
- December 23 : Philip the Chancellor , Parisian poet, philosopher and theologian, Chancellor of the Chapter of Notre-Dame
- December 24th : Conrad IV von Tann , Bishop of Speyer
Exact date of death unknown
- February / March: John I the Old of Ibelin , Lord of Beirut and Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus (* 1177 )
- November: Al-Aziz Muhammad , Emir of Aleppo (* 1213 )
- Dirk van Teylingen , Dutch knight and Dapifer of the Count of Holland (* around 1180 )
- Guérin Lebrun , Grand Master of the Order of St. John
- Helmold II von Plesse , nobleman in the entourage of Duke Heinrich the Lion and his son Emperor Otto IV.
- Iltutmish , Sultan of Delhi
- Madog ap Gruffydd Maelor , Prince of the Welsh Principality of Powys
- Raul the Good , Count of Soissons
- Sulayman Shah , allegedly the grandfather of the founder of the Ottoman Empire, Osman I. (* around 1178 )