Calendar overview 1231
Friedrich II. Issues the Melfi Constitutions ,
a collection of laws for the Kingdom of Sicily .
|1231 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||679/680 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1774/75 (southern Buddhism); 1773/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||593/594 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||628/629 (turn of the year 28/29 October)|
|Jewish calendar||4991/92 (August 29/30)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1541/42 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1542/43 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1287/88 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- May 1 : King Henry (VII.) Is on the court day to Worms the Statutum in favorem principum out. It contains the establishment of all privileges ( regalia ) granted to the princes and acquired by them up to this point in 23 articles. In addition, this document means a guarantee of the aforementioned privileges for the future, such as independence in the administration of one's own territory, jurisdiction and the collection of customs duties. Together with the Confoederatio cum principibus ecclesiasticis , it forms the starting point for the federalist development in the Reich and its successor states . The Holy Roman Empire goes through this recognition of a federal system a different path than the other - to be centralized - European empires.
- September 15 : The Bavarian Duke Ludwig der Kelheim from the Wittelsbach family is murdered by an unknown assassin on the bridge in Kelheim . His son Otto the Illustrious takes over the reign in the Duchy of Bavaria .
- In response to the announcement by Emperor Frederick II that a Reichstag would be held in Ravenna on November 1st, the Lombard League, hostile to the Hohenstaufen , blocked the Alpine passes and prevented the German princes from moving to the Emperor. Finally, on the Hoftag there is a ban on all German cities to appoint city councils and mayors or to form agreements, brotherhoods or guilds . In addition, the already of is I. Friedrich made investiture of the Brandenburg Askanier with Pomerania including Pommerellen renewed.
- Formation and growth of the Old Confederation : King Heinrich (VII.) Gives Uri the freedom of the empire with extensive self-administration by a Landammann .
- Duke Friedrich II. Of Austria forces the crossing over the Danube and conquers the rulership of the Kuenringer and their allies (e.g. Dürnstein , Zwettl etc.).
Kingdom of Sicily
- August: Emperor Friedrich II. In Melfi , Sicily , issues the Melfi Constitutions , provisions for the Kingdom of Sicily . The comprehensive set of laws with 219 individual laws on all areas of public life is based on the legal reform that had already begun under Frederick's grandfather Roger II and was valid in Naples and Sicily until the 19th century. The most important individual regulations are the prohibition of violent self-help and the restriction of the judicial system of the estates. The law gives the royal judiciary the sole right to prosecute, even in cases that border on ecclesiastical law, such as adultery, blasphemy or gambling.
- Lombard War : Emperor Friedrich II appoints his Marshal Richard Filangieri as his new governor in Outremer , who sets off with a fleet and troops in the spring for the rebellious Kingdom of Cyprus . The rebels under John I of Beirut succeed in preventing a landing, whereupon the governor goes to the Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he is initially recognized as regent. But then there was a change on the mainland as well, when Filangieri marched against Beirut to seize the city of the greatest imperial enemy. He can occupy the lower town, but Johann Ibelin's eldest son Balian of Beirut holed up in the castle. The displeasure over Filangieri's disregard for the judicial authority of the Haute Cour immediately led to the formation of a fronde against him, because no baron of the kingdom may be deprived of his property without the express consent of the Haute Cour. Even the previously imperial-minded Balian von Sidon and Odo von Montbéliard now switch to the side of the opposition, which takes its seat in Acre .
- Autumn: Johann von Brienne arrives in Constantinople and is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire next to his future son-in-law Baldwin II in Hagia Sophia .
- King Sancho VII of Navarre sees himself from the expanding Kingdom of Castile under Ferdinand III. threatens and turns to the Kingdom of Aragon for help . On February 2nd, Sancho and James I of Aragón sign a treaty in which Aragón pledges military support to Navarre. In return, Sancho adopts Jakob and promises to succeed him in his kingdom after his death. This treaty was invoked on April 4th by the Aragonese and Navarre nobles.
- June 17 : With the conclusion of the Treaty of Capdepera , Menorca becomes a tributary to Jacob I, but remains an independent Muslim island state under the Almohad Qādī Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ahmad ibn Hisham .
Teutonic Order State
- German Ostsiedlung / German Order State : The German Order exceeds the Vistula , founded Thorn (Toruń) , builds a Ordensburg in Kulm (Chelmno) and begins the subjugation of the Prussians .
- August 17 : Jalal ad-Din , the last of the Khorezm Shahs , suffers a final defeat by the Mongols . While on the run, he is murdered by his own people. Over the next few years, his leaderless cavalry troops continued to plunder the Rum Seljuks and Ayyubids under the name of Khwarezmiyya .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- In Erdbuch Danish King Waldemar II. Many places in the then Danish territory are first mentioned.
- Bingen , Bojendorf on Fehmarn , Dinklage , Hochberg , Homberg (Efze) , Horw , Kallnach , Gengenbach , Leuggern , Niendorf on Fehmarn , and on October 28, 1231 Eldingen Kr. Celle are first mentioned in a document.
- The city of Harderwijk (Holland) receives city rights .
- The Danish King Waldemar II had the Waldemar Erdbuch created , a tax registration book in Latin that records the king's possessions and income.
science and technology
- April 13th : Pope Gregory IX. sets new rules for the Paris Sorbonne University in his bull Parens scientiarum , which will strengthen its self-government .
- Emperor Friedrich II. Forbids the use of paper for important documents in the Kingdom of Sicily because of the poor durability compared to vellum and parchment .
- Pope Gregory IX In an edict to the Inquisition , it defines the criminal law conditions for the persecution of heretics , with which predominantly Dominicans are entrusted. The maximum penalty is death by burning. Gregor himself conducts an inquisition process that ends with prison sentences and death sentences. The ecclesiastical principle of Ecclesia non sitit sanguinem is circumvented by handing the condemned over to the “secular arm” of justice for execution. In the same year a call to persecute heretics was sent to the Dominican convent in Friesach .
- August 21 : Pope Gregory IX. promulgates the Papal Bull Nimis Iniqua . With this apostolic letter he places the Franciscan Order directly under the jurisdiction of the Holy See .
- Silvestro Guzzolini founds the religious order of the Silvestrin in Fabriano .
- Guérin Lebrun succeeds the late Bertrand de Thessy as Grand Master of the Order of St. John .
Foundations of monasteries
- The minstrel and crusader Otto von Botenlauben and his wife Beatrix von Courtenay , who after their return from the crusade sold their property at Burg Botenlauben near Bad Kissingen to the diocese of Würzburg in order to withdraw from the earthly world, found the Frauenroth monastery .
- Henry I , Count of Vianden and Margrave of Namur, and his wife Margareta von Courtenay found the Grandpré monastery in honor of Philip II Courtenay , who died in the Albigensian Crusade in 1226 .
- The Neuenkamp Monastery and the Cavatigozzi Monastery are founded.
Date of birth saved
Exact date of birth unknown
- Beatrix of Provence , Countess of Provence and Queen of Sicily († 1267 )
- Guo Shoujing , Chinese hydraulic engineer, astronomer and mathematician († 1316 )
- John of Burgundy , Count of Charolais and Lord of Bourbon († 1268 )
- Roger Mortimer, 1st Baron Mortimer , Cambronormann nobleman in the Welsh Marches († 1282 )
- Odo , Lord of Bourbon and Count of Nevers, Auxerre and Tonnerre († 1266 )
- Walter von Geroldseck , Bishop of Strasbourg († 1263 )
- John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey , English nobleman and military leader († 1304 )
Born around 1231
- Yolanda von Vianden , prioress of the Marienthal Monastery († 1283 )
- Marino Zorzi , Doge of Venice († 1312 )
Date of death secured
- March 19 : Rapoto II , Count Palatine of Bavaria and Count of Kraiburg and Marquartstein
- March 29th : Gerold von Waldeck , Bishop of Freising
- April 6th : William Marshal, 2nd Earl of Pembroke , English knight of Norman descent (* around 1190 )
- May 7th : Beatrix II , Countess Palatine of Burgundy (* around 1193 )
- May 22nd : Ulschalk , Bishop of Gurk
- June 13th : Anthony of Padua , Portuguese Franciscan and saint (* around 1195 )
- July 2nd : Heinrich I , Margrave of Baden-Hachberg and Verona (* before 1190)
- July 9 : Heinrich II. Von Dischingen , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
- July 11th : Agnes von Beaujeu , Countess of Champagne (* around 1202 )
- August 3 : Richard Grant , Archbishop of Canterbury
- August 5th : Iso von Wölpe , Bishop of Verden (* 1167 )
- August 28 : Eleanor of Portugal , Portuguese Infanta, Queen of Denmark (* 1211 )
- August: Aurembiaix , Countess of Urgell, mistress of Jacob I of Aragón
- August: Jalal ad-Din , last Khorezm Shah from the Anushteginid dynasty
- September 3 : William II of Dampierre , Lord of Dampierre-sur-l'Aube and Saint-Dizier
- September 15 : Ludwig the Kelheimer , Duke of Bavaria and Count Palatine of the Rhine (* 1173 )
- November 3rd : Wladyslaw III. , Duke of Greater Poland, Senior Duke of Poland in Krakow (* 1161 )
- November 6 : Tsuchimikado , Emperor of Japan (* 1196 )
- November 17 : Elisabeth of Thuringia , Landgrave of Thuringia and saint of the Catholic Church (* 1207 )
- November 28 : Waldemar , Duke of Schleswig and as co-regent King of Denmark (* 1209 )
- December 11th : Ida von Nivelles , Dutch nun and mystic (* around 1190 )
- December 25th : Folquet de Marselha , French trobador, abbot of Thoronet and bishop in Toulouse (* around 1150 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Abd al-Latif al-Baghdadi , Arab traveler, polymath, historian and physician (* 1163 )
- Elisabeth von Brandenburg , Landgravine of Thuringia (* around 1206 )
- Nicholas de Verdon , Anglo-Irish nobleman
- Zhao Rukuo , Chinese trade officer (* 1170 )