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Heads of State · Nekrolog

The Norman-Hohenstaufen castle of Melfi
Emperor Friedrich II. Issues the Melfi Constitutions ,
a collection of laws for the Kingdom of Sicily .
1231 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 679/680 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1223/24
Buddhist calendar 1774/75 (southern Buddhism); 1773/74 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 65th (66th) cycle

Year of the metal rabbit辛卯 ( at the beginning of the year metal tiger 庚寅)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 593/594 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 609/610
Islamic calendar 628/629 (turn of the year 28/29 October)
Jewish calendar 4991/92 (August 29/30)
Coptic calendar 947/948
Malayalam calendar 406/407
Seleucid era Babylon: 1541/42 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1542/43 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1269
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1287/88 (turn of the year April)


Politics and world events

Holy Roman Empire

Princely images of Scheyern monastery: The murder of Ludwig Kelheimer

Kingdom of Sicily

  • August: Emperor Friedrich II. In Melfi , Sicily , issues the Melfi Constitutions , provisions for the Kingdom of Sicily . The comprehensive set of laws with 219 individual laws on all areas of public life is based on the legal reform that had already begun under Frederick's grandfather Roger II and was valid in Naples and Sicily until the 19th century. The most important individual regulations are the prohibition of violent self-help and the restriction of the judicial system of the estates. The law gives the royal judiciary the sole right to prosecute, even in cases that border on ecclesiastical law, such as adultery, blasphemy or gambling.

Crusader States

  • Lombard War : Emperor Friedrich II appoints his Marshal Richard Filangieri as his new governor in Outremer , who sets off with a fleet and troops in the spring for the rebellious Kingdom of Cyprus . The rebels under John I of Beirut succeed in preventing a landing, whereupon the governor goes to the Kingdom of Jerusalem , where he is initially recognized as regent. But then there was a change on the mainland as well, when Filangieri marched against Beirut to seize the city of the greatest imperial enemy. He can occupy the lower town, but Johann Ibelin's eldest son Balian of Beirut holed up in the castle. The displeasure over Filangieri's disregard for the judicial authority of the Haute Cour immediately led to the formation of a fronde against him, because no baron of the kingdom may be deprived of his property without the express consent of the Haute Cour. Even the previously imperial-minded Balian von Sidon and Odo von Montbéliard now switch to the side of the opposition, which takes its seat in Acre .
  • Autumn: Johann von Brienne arrives in Constantinople and is crowned Emperor of the Latin Empire next to his future son-in-law Baldwin II in Hagia Sophia .

Iberian Peninsula

The Punta de Capdepera , the place where the contract is concluded

Teutonic Order State


City rights and first documentary mentions


Administrative division of Denmark at the time of King Waldemar

science and technology



  • Pope Gregory IX In an edict to the Inquisition , it defines the criminal law conditions for the persecution of heretics , with which predominantly Dominicans are entrusted. The maximum penalty is death by burning. Gregor himself conducts an inquisition process that ends with prison sentences and death sentences. The ecclesiastical principle of Ecclesia non sitit sanguinem is circumvented by handing the condemned over to the “secular arm” of justice for execution. In the same year a call to persecute heretics was sent to the Dominican convent in Friesach .

Religious orders

Foundations of monasteries

Former Cistercian monastery church Frauenroth


Date of birth saved

Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1231


Date of death secured

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1231

Web links

Commons : 1231  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files