Isabella II , Queen of Jerusalem
and wife of Emperor Friedrich II , dies in Andria .
|1228 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||676/677 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1771/72 (southern Buddhism); 1770/71 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||590/591 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||625/626 (turn of the year 29/30 November)|
|Jewish calendar||4988/89 (September 1st and 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1538/39 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1539/40 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1284/85 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Crusade of Frederick II
- April 25th : Isabella II of Jerusalem , wife of the Roman-German Emperor Friedrich II, dies giving birth to her son Konrad . Conrad becomes King of Jerusalem under the tutelage of his father.
- The barons of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, who expressed doubts about the legitimate rule of Frederick because of the papal ban, deposed the governor Thomas I of Aquino, appointed by Frederick, and appointed Odo von Montbéliard, a local baron, to this office.
- June 28th : After the epidemic in the crusaders' camp subsided and Emperor Friedrich II himself recovered, he set off with 40 ships from Brindisi on his crusade, which has been planned for three years, to the Holy Land, without having previously met Pope Gregory IX. who excommunicated him the previous year to seek a reconciliation. He is accompanied by Hermann von Salza , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order , among others . The largest crusader contingents in support of Frederick come from Central Germany (Hesse, Meissen, Thuringia) and from the Hohenstaufen power regions in the south-west of the empire (Swabia, Alsace and Burgundy). His armed forces include around 1,000 knights and around 10,000 foot soldiers.
- July 21 : The crusade army lands in the Cypriot port city of Limassol . After a dispute, there was a brief armed confrontation with the local regent, John I of Beirut , who, however, submitted within a few days.
- September 7th : After a six-week stopover in Cyprus , where the supreme sovereignty of the empire has been affirmed, Friedrich reaches Acre in the Kingdom of Jerusalem . The conflict with the Pope divided his crusader army. Templars and Johanniter refuse allegiance to the excommunicated ruler.
- Autumn: Al-Kamil , Sultan of the Ayyubids in Egypt , who has allied himself with his brother al-Ashraf Musa against his nephew an-Nasir Dawud , gradually conquers his fortresses in Syria, including Jerusalem , Bethlehem and Nazareth . Then he enters into negotiations with Friedrich.
Byzantine Empire / Crusader States
The Latin Emperor Robert de Courtenay dies on the way back from Rome to Constantinople . His eleven-year-old brother Baldwin II succeeds him on the throne. Instead of his mother Maria von Courtenay , the barons appoint Narjot de Toucy as guardian and regent. This negotiates a one-year armistice including free trade with the despot and self-proclaimed Byzantine emperor in exile Theodoros I. Komnenos Dukas from Thessaloniki .
Holy Roman Empire
- December 25th : The underage Roman-German King Heinrich releases himself from the guardianship of the imperial gubernator Ludwig I of Bavaria , who has switched from the imperial to the papal side. From now on, Heinrich runs the government himself.
France / Occitania
- Humbert de Beaujeu starts a military operation in the summer, which leads to the collapse of the Occitan resistance against the crusade of Louis IX. leads: He first conquered Lavaur , but then apparently spontaneously swung his army in the direction of Toulouse . Count Raymond VII of Toulouse is not present in the city at this time. Instead of wiping out his forces in a siege of the heavily fortified city, Beaujeu only lets them cut off from the outside world by occupying its access routes. He then sets out to devastate the outskirts of the city with a systematic application of the “scorched earth” tactics. Around the same time in Paris, the Queen Regent Blanka of Castile and the papal cardinal legate Romano Bonaventura were already planning to end the war.
- June 25 : Pope Gregory IX. Issues a dispensation from the Holy See for a possible marriage project between the heiress Raimund and a brother of the king.
- December 10 : Raimund and the consuls of Toulouse agree to the regent's terms of submission, i.e. oath to the crown and the obligation to fight heretics. In addition, Raimund renounced the Margraviate Provence and the Duchy of Narbonne .
England / Wales
- April: The English King Henry III. transfers the Welsh castle Montgomery Castle to his Justiciar Hubert de Burgh for administration. The Welsh men under Llywelyn from Iorwerth , Prince of Gwynedd , respond with attacks on the workers and begin the siege of the castle in August.
- With a small contingent , de Burgh and Heinrich march to Wales . The Welsh withdrew before the English army, so that the English can relieve Montgomery Castle on September 3rd . Then de Burgh burns the nearby Cistercian Abbey of Ceri , which served as a base for the Welsh people. Instead of the monastery, he begins building a castle, but the poorly supplied English are attacked by the Welsh on the construction site, who destroy the castle under construction and take the Marcher Lord William de Braose prisoner. After three months, the king has to make a shameful peace with the Welsh prince.
- December 23rd : King James I of Aragón solemnly takes the cross to conquer Mallorca , which is ruled independently by Wali Abu Yahya , who was appointed by the Almohads . On December 30th he determines the hierarchical integration of the Balearic Islands under the diocese of Barcelona and receives from Pope Gregory IX. the official sanctioning of the campaign as a crusade .
- The rebellion of Ibn Hud against the rule of the Almohads under Idris I al-Ma'mun breaks out in al-Andalus .
- May: Wladyslaw III. from the Piast family is elected as the successor to his cousin Leszek I, who died the previous year, as Senior Duke of Poland in Krakow . However, he comes into conflict with his nephew Władysław Odonic and his cousin Conrad I of Mazovia .
- On the initiative of Konrad von Mazovia, Bishop Christian von Oliva founds the order of the Brothers of Dobrin to protect the Mazovian heartland against the Prussians .
- The Livonian Confederation in the Baltic States is established. It is made up of five smaller states, the area controlled directly by the Order of the Brothers of the Sword , the Archdiocese of Riga , the Diocese of Dorpat , the Diocese of Ösel-Wiek and the Diocese of Courland . This division is made by the papal envoy William of Modena and represents a compromise between the Church and the powerful Livonian Order after the German knights had conquered the territories of the Estonians and Livs and the Baltic tribes of the Latgals , Selons , Semgallians and Kurds .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- 14./15. July: Rees and Xanten receive city rights from the Archbishop of Cologne Heinrich I von Müllenark .
- First documentary mention of the communities Aeschi bei Spiez , Assamstadt , Ballaigues , Bargen , Barsbüttel , Bösingen , Därstetten , Engollon , Fontaines , Gerzensee , Heiningen (district of Göppingen) , Heitenried , Inzlingen , Henggart , Kappelen , Kirchdorf , Kuchen , Lichtensteig , Pieterlen , Port , Saanen , Steinheuterode , Täuffelen , Vinelz and Worben
- After more than 75 years of construction, the St. Zeno Church in Bad Reichenhall is consecrated; today it is the largest Romanesque basilica in Old Bavaria.
- The beginning of the creation time exploitable Tannhauser (between 1228/ 1229 and 1256 / 1266 )
- around 1228: "Modesty" (collection of rules of life and proverbs) Freidanks arises.
- After March 24th: Elisabeth of Thuringia founds the hospital later named after her in Marburg, including a "modest chapel" .
- July 16 : Pope Gregory IX. carries out the canonization of Francis of Assisi .
- Bertrand de Thessy succeeds the late Garin de Montaigu as Grand Master of the Order of St. John .
- The Marienthal Monastery in Netze is founded.
Date of birth saved
- February: Wilhelm von Holland , Roman-German King († 1256 )
- April 25 : Conrad IV , Duke of Swabia, King of the Holy Roman Empire, of Sicily and Jerusalem († 1254 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Alfonso of Aragon , heir to the Aragonese throne († 1260 )
- David VI. , King of Georgia and Imeretia († 1293 )
- Robert de Tibetot , Anglo-Norman knight († 1298 )
- William de Clare , English knight († 1258 )
Born around 1228
- Aymer de Lusignan , Bishop of Winchester († 1260 )
- Florens the Vogt , Regent of Holland and Zealand († 1258 )
- Leo I , Rurikid prince, prince of Bels, Halych-Volodymyr and Przemyśl, king of Galicia and grand prince of Kiev († around 1301 )
- Trần Hưng Đạo , Vietnamese general of the Trần dynasty († 1300 )
First half of the year
- January 13 : Jutta von Huy , Flemish benefactress and Christian mystic (* 1158 )
- January 31 : Guido von Montfort , Lord of Castres, La Ferté-Alais and Bréthencourt, crusader and regent of the County of Sidon (* before 1170)
- January: Robert , Emperor of the Latin Empire (* around 1200 )
- before February 1st: Robert de Vieuxpont , Anglo-Norman magnate
- February 17th : Heinrich I , Count of Schwerin (* around 1155 )
- a few days after April 25: Isabella II , Queen of Jerusalem and Roman-German Empress (* 1212 )
- June 9th : Reginald de Braose , cambro-Norman nobleman (* 1178 )
- June 18 : Mathilde I , mistress of Bourbon (* around 1167 )
Second half of the year
- July 9 : Stephen Langton , English theologian, cardinal and Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1150 )
- July 18 : Heinrich , Margrave of Istria-Carniola and Count von Stein (* around 1175 )
- July 30th : Guido II , Bishop of Assisi
- September 15 : Heinrich I. von Zipplingen , Prince-Bishop of Eichstätt
- September: Maria von Courtenay , Empress and Regent of the Latin Empire (* around 1204 )
- October 31 : Eustace de Fauconberg , English prelate, Treasurer of the Exchequer and Bishop of London (* around 1170 )
- November 6th : Lambert von Barmstede , Bishop of Ratzeburg
- December 4th : Bruno II of Porstendorf , Bishop of Meißen
- December 16 : Beatrix , Dauphine von Viennois, Countess of Albon, Grenoble, Oisans and Briançon (* 1161 )
- December 17th : Geoffrey de Burgh , Bishop of Ely (* around 1180 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Gerlach , abbot of the Mühlhausen monastery in Bohemia (* 1165 )
- Gottfried I of Villehardouin , Prince of Achaia
- Heinrich I , Count of Zweibrücken
- Hugo I. , Count of Bregenz and Montfort
- Kojata IV. Von Hrabischitz , Bohemian nobleman
- Guerau de Cabrera , Count of Urgell