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Heads of State · Nekrolog

Depiction of the Battle of Benevento from the Nuova Cronica by Giovanni Villani, 14th century
Charles I of Anjou defeated a German-Sicilian army under Manfred of Sicily in the battle of Benevento .
1266 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 714/715 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1258/59
Buddhist calendar 1809/10 (southern Buddhism); 1808/09 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 66th (67th) cycle

Year of the fire tiger丙寅 ( at the beginning of the year wood buffalo 乙丑)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 628/629 (turn of the year April)
Iranian calendar 644/645
Islamic calendar 664/665 (turn of the year 1st / 2nd October)
Jewish calendar 5026/27 (September 1st / 2nd)
Coptic calendar 982/983
Malayalam calendar 441/442
Seleucid era Babylon: 1576/77 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 1577/78 (turn of the year October)

Spanish era 1304
Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1322/23 (turn of the year April)

The year 1266 brought the end of the Hohenstaufen rule in southern Italy . The Hohenstaufen Manfred is defeated in the battle of Benevento . His opponent Charles I and with him the House of Anjou , supported by Pope Clement IV , took control of the Kingdom of Sicily and the Principality of Taranto .

In the Kingdom of England , King Henry III. finally through against the rebellious barons and subject them to the Dictum of Kenilworth . The last members of the rebellious noble family Montfort-l'Amaury leave the country for France.

At the other end of the world, the Venetians Niccolò and Maffeo Polo arrive at the court of Kublai Khan in China after more than a year and are warmly welcomed there.


Politics and world events

Kingdom of Sicily

Pope Clement IV crowns Charles of Anjou
  • January 6th: Charles I of Anjou is crowned King of Sicily and Prince of Taranto by five cardinals in Rome . The coronation takes place with the consent of Pope Clement IV , who, however, does not enter Rome during his entire pontificate due to the fighting within the Roman nobility . Karl's main army is now crossing the Alps.
  • February 26th: Charles I of Anjou defeats a German-Sicilian army under Manfred of Sicily in the battle of Benevento . With Manfred's death in battle, the rule of the Hohenstaufen in southern Italy ends . Manfred's widow Helena Angelina Dukaina receives news of his death at Lucera Castle , flees in the direction of her home town Epirus , but is imprisoned in Trani with her children by the bailiff there and handed over to Karl von Anjou on March 6th.
  • March 7th: Charles I and his troops enter Naples . He established a centralized and efficient administration here and relied largely on French officials, who exert extreme tax pressure on the population.

War of the Barons in England

  • February 10: Simon VI. de Montfort fled his captivity in London to Winchelsea with his brother Guy . There he briefly leads a group of pirates and then goes into exile in France.
Seal of Henry of Almain
Kenilworth Castle as seen from the west
  • June: The siege of Kenilworth Castle by royal troops begins. After initial attacks have been repulsed by the defenders, Heinrich III orders. the blockade and starvation of the castle.
  • Summer: Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , is working with Crown Prince Edward and the papal legate Ottobono Fieschi to find a balance between the parties to the dispute.
  • October 30: Heinrich III. submits the Dictum of Kenilworth as an offer of peace to the rebelling barons . In it, the king stipulates that, in compliance with the Magna Carta, he remains in full possession of his power and can exercise it freely. The Provisions of Oxford and other orders issued by the rebels under Montfort are declared void. Amnesty is promised to all rebels who submit within 40 days, and they can buy back their confiscated goods for a high price. At the same time, the king forbids them to continue the fight. Despite the harsh regulations, many rebels submit to the king, given the hopelessness of their situation. Others, however, continue the fight, including their remaining leaders who have been banned from the repurchase offer. Kenilworth Castle does not surrender until December 14th after the last supplies have been used up.

Scandinavia / Scotland

Central and Eastern Europe

Seal of Mestwin

Crusader States

The papal legate and Cardinal Simon de Brie preaches to King Louis IX. for the seventh crusade; Chroniques de Saint-Denis , 14th century.

Asia Minor

The Mamluks defeat the Armenians at the Battle of Mari; Representation from the 15th century


  • The Venetian traveling salesman Niccolò Polo and his brother Maffeo arrive at the court of Kublai Khan in Cambaluc after more than a year , where they say they are welcomed and received by the Chan. Equipped with a gold plaque, which grants them the right to provide provisions, guides and a hostel throughout the entire Kublais kingdom, they begin their journey home. The Mongolian Great Khan also gives them a message to Pope Clement IV to send him anointed oil from the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem and about a hundred Christian scholars to spread the Gospel among his subjects.
  • Munetaka , 6th Shogun of the Kamakura Shogunate in Japan , is deposed and replaced by his two-year-old son Koreyasu . Like his father, he is a puppet ruler; the real power lies with the Hojo rulers.

City rights and first documentary mentions


"Grossus denarius Turonus", 1266

Culture and society

The Jews' privilege in Cologne Cathedral


Church hierarchy

Other religious events

Vale Royal Abbey,
St. Mary's Whitegate Church


Exact date of birth unknown

Born around 1266


First half of the year

  • around January 1st: Simon of Walton , English clergyman and judge, Bishop of Norwich
Swantopolk's statue

Second half of the year

Birger Jarl's cenotaph in Stockholm
  • October 21: Birger Jarl , Swedish statesman, Jarl of Sweden and founder of Stockholm (* around 1210)
  • October 29: Margarete von Babenberg , Austrian princess and queen of Bohemia (* 1204 or 1205)
  • before November 7th: Hugh Bigod , English nobleman, Justiciar of the government of the barons (* around 1220)
  • December 3: Heinrich III. , Duke of Silesia-Breslau (* 1227/1230)
  • December 7th: John of Ibelin , Count of Jaffa, Lord of Ramla and Regent of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (* 1215)
  • December 19: Ruprecht von Querfurt , Archbishop of Magdeburg

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1266

Web links

Commons : 1266  - Collection of pictures, videos and audio files