battle of Evesham , Crown Prince
Edward Plantagenet prevailed against Simon de Montfort .
Charles I of Anjou
is enfeoffed with the
Kingdom of Sicily .
becomes Pope Clement IV.
|1265 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||713/714 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1808/09 (southern Buddhism); 1807/08 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||66th (67th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||627/628 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||663/664 (turn of the year 12/13 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5025/26 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1575/76 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1576/77 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1321/22 (turn of the year April)|
In 1265 the first representative parliament of England met in London. De Montfort's Parliament was convened by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester , who fought last year in the Barons' Second War against King Henry III. and raised his son Edward . But after the devastating defeat at the Battle of Evesham , the barons' uprising quickly collapses.
In Italy the newly elected Pope Clement IV enfeoffed Karl von Anjou , the brother of the French King Louis IX. , with the Kingdom of Sicily . He is to the terminal where the spell Staufer King Manfred expel from the throne.
Politics and world events
- January 20 : Parliament convened by Simon V. de Montfort at the end of the previous year , the first representative parliament in England , meets at the Palace of Westminster in London. It is primarily intended to deal with the release of Crown Prince Edward from captivity after the Battle of Lewes . On February 15th it will split up again.
- On March 31st, Crown Prince Edward undertook to agree to a general amnesty and to refrain from any future persecution of Montfort, Gloucester and the citizens of London.
- April: Montfort's closest ally Gilbert de Clare, 6th Earl of Hertford , changes sides.
- May 28 : Prince Edward escapes from Henry de Montfort's captivity .
- June 19 : Simon de Montfort and the Welsh prince Llywelyn ap Gruffudd close the agreement Pipton-on-Wye .
- July 31 : Simon VI. de Montfort is defeated by royal forces in a surprise attack at Kenilworth Castle . Simon's banner also falls into Edward's hands, which he uses four days later for a ruse.
- August 4th : At the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire , the royal troops under Crown Prince Eduard Plantagenet prevail against an army of insurgent English barons headed by Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester . In the battle, Montfort is killed, as is his son Henry .
- Immediately after the battle, King Heinrich III. and Prince Edward to restore royal authority. They call on Bristol Castle and the other remaining castles in the hands of the supporters of Montfort to submission, whereupon most of the castles surrender.
- August 10 : Walter Giffard , bishop of the Diocese of Bath and Wells since January 4th, who excommunicated Simon de Montfort and his followers on behalf of Archbishop Boniface of Canterbury, who lived in exile in France , is promoted to Lord Chancellor .
- On October 1st , Heinrich III. the cancellation of all measures that he had to take after the Battle of Lewes under the control of Montfort. The king rewards his followers and favorites with the goods of the rebels. However, in the parliament called to Winchester in mid-September there is also resistance to royal politics.
- Simon VI. de Montfort continues to occupy Kenilworth Castle. The rebels who remained and who were driven from their estates, the so-called "disinherited", form bands of robbers. Due to the change of ownership and the continued looting, the administration and the economy collapse in large parts of the country over the next two years.
Holy Roman Empire
- February 25 : Ulrich II inherits his father Ulrich I as Count of Württemberg . Since he was only eleven years old at the time, he is presumably under the guardianship of Hartmann I von Grüningen .
- The Fulda prince abbot Bertho II von Leibolz had the castle Niederschlitz, known as the robber knight's nest, storm and razed. He also had Wartenberg Castle destroyed after the lords of the castle conspired against the monastery with the monastery bailiff Gottfried V von Ziegenhain .
- Guido Novello da Polenta takes control of Ravenna .
- Napoleone della Torre from the patrician family of the Torriani becomes ruler of Milan .
- around 1265: After the death of Bernhard III. there is a dispute between his two sons over the inheritance. The rule Lippe is finally divided. Hermann III. receives Lippstadt and Rheda , Bernhard IV. receives Horn and the eastern part of the Lippe area.
- May 23 : Karl von Anjou moves into Rome as senator .
- June 28th : Pope Clement IV enfeoffs Karl von Anjou, the brother of the French King Louis IX. , with the Kingdom of Sicily . He is supposed to drive the banned King Manfred from the throne.
- King James I of Aragón finally conquered the cities of Alicante and Murcia from the Moors as part of the Reconquista .
- Probably 1265: Under King Alfonso X , the Castilian law book Las Siete Partidas is completed, which was important in Spain and Latin America until the 18th century.
Asia and North Africa
- February 8 : Abaqa , previously governor of Khorasan and Māzandarān , after a failed attempt throne of his younger brother is Yošmut with the support of his stepmother Doquz Khatun , succeeding his late father Hülegü second Ilkhan of Persia . His enthronement will not take place in any form until June 19 on the banks of the Čağan Na'ur near Arak .
- After raids by the Frankish crusader states on Askalon and Bethsan , Baibars I , ruler of the Mamluks , begins his conquest of the Levant from Cairo and takes Caesarea , Haifa and Arsuf one after the other .
- Kılıç Arslan IV. , Sultan in the Sultanate of the Rum Seljuks , which has been under the rule of the Mongolian Ilkhan for years, is murdered by the Mongols at a banquet. His underage son Kai Khosrau III. appoint as new sultan.
City foundations, city rights and first documentary mentions
- September 27th : King Ottokar II of Bohemia commissions the locator Konrad von Levendorf to found the city of Politschka as a base for his kingdom. The king gives the locator the favor of running an inn in the village of Laubendorf.
- After the unification of several settlements around the Petrikirche , the Nikolaikirche , the Marienkirche and the Jakobikirche to the city of Rostock , the systematic expansion of the Rostock city fortifications begins .
- Hugo I. von Werdenberg-Heiligenberg founds the town of Bludenz in what is now Vorarlberg .
- Ipsach and Strümpfelbach are first mentioned in a document .
- Pacanów receives city rights .
- In the dispute with the city of Stade over their stacking rights from 1259 , Hamburg submitted a - forged - license from Friedrich Barbarossa from 1189 , in which he allegedly assured the Hamburg port of duty-free from the sea to the city. By submitting these “older rights”, Hamburg, which was smaller at the time, can secure the privilege of free trade .
science and technology
- Construction of the Pont Saint-Esprit , a stone arch bridge over the Rhone , begins. For a long time it was the only stone bridge between Lyon and the sea and the longest bridge in Europe.
- Niccolò Pisano designed the cathedral pulpit in Siena with his son Giovanni (until 1267 ).
- In Budweis , Bohemia , a beer is brewed for the first time that is still produced today (see Budweiser Budvar ).
- The Dominican Ulrich von Strasbourg begins with his main work De summo bono (until 1274 ).
- February 5th : Guy le gros Foulques is elected Pope in Perugia as the successor to Urban IV, who died the previous year , and takes the name Clement IV . As a cardinal in Paris from 1263 he got to know and appreciate Roger Bacon , to whom he now has protection and promotion. In a private correspondence, Clement IV uses the fisherman's ring for the first time , which will later be regarded as the signet ring of the popes. Just like his predecessors, he does not enter the city of Rome because of the ongoing power struggles within the Roman nobility .
- April 22nd : After Ulrich von Seckau's resignation , Wladislaw of Silesia is elected Archbishop of Salzburg . On November 20, Clement IV gave his approval for the appointment and, at the same time, the dispensation because of the not yet reached canonical age and the lack of higher ordinations of the candidate. His court master Petrus von Passau follows him as Prince-Bishop of Passau .
- Pentecost: At the General Chapter of the Dominicans in Montpellier it is stipulated that entry into the order with the making of profession can take place at the earliest at the age of 15.
- June 9th : With the papal bull Parvus fons , Clement IV strengthens the general chapter of the Cistercians and settles disputes that have lasted for years.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
Exact date of birth unknown
- January: Kunigunde of Bohemia , Duchess of Mazovia and Abbess of St. George's Monastery in Prague Castle († 1321 )
- May or June: Dante Alighieri , Italian poet and philosopher († 1321 )
- Alfons III , King of Aragón, Count of Barcelona and King of Valencia († 1291 )
- Anselm , Lord of Joinville († 1343 )
- Gottfried von Hohenlohe , Grand Master of the Teutonic Order († 1309 )
- Johann II. , Count of Dreux, Montfort-l'Amaury and Braine and Lord of Montpensier († 1309 )
- Ramon Muntaner , Catalan chronicler and royal official († 1336 )
- Timur Khan , Emperor of the Mongolian Yuan Dynasty in China († 1307 )
- Ulrich von Ramschwag , Reichsvogt in the Prince Abbey of St. Gallen († 1291 )
Born around 1265
- Friedrich von Alvensleben , last master of the Knights Templar in Alemannia and Slavia († around 1313 )
- Andrew III , King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia and Rama († 1301 )
- Andrew de Moray , Scottish nobleman, political leader in the Scottish War of Independence († 1297 )
- Bonagratia of Bergamo , Italian Franciscan, lawyer and politician († 1340 )
- Peregrinus Laziosi , Italian clergyman, saint of the Roman Catholic Church († 1345 )
- Hartung Münch , Bishop of Basel († 1332 )
- Notburga von Rattenberg , Tyrolean folk saint († 1313 )
- Otto III. , Duke of Carinthia and Carniola, Count of Gorizia and Tyrol († 1310 )
- Waldemar IV , Duke of Schleswig († 1312 )
Date of death secured
- January 12th : Godfrey de Ludham , Archbishop of York
- before February 7: John Mansel , English civil servant, royal advisor and diplomat, Lord Keeper of the Great Seal
- February 8 : Hülegü , Mongolian prince and general, founder of the Ilkhan Empire in Persia (* around 1217 )
- February 24th : Roger IV , Count of Foix
- February 25 : Ulrich I , the founder, Count of Württemberg (* 1226 )
- March 13 : Agnes of Silesia-Liegnitz , Duchess of Liegnitz and Countess of Württemberg (* after 1242)
- May 11 : Heinrich I of Liechtenstein , governor of Styria (* 1216 )
- May 16 : Simon Stock , English clergyman, prior general of the Carmelites and Roman Catholic saint (* around 1165 )
- May 15 or 17 : Albrecht I , Prince of Mecklenburg (* after 1230)
- May 19th : Guichard V , Lord of Beaujeu and Connétable of France
- June 16 : Doquz-Chatun , Keraitic princess and main wife of the Mongol ruler Hülegü
- August 4th : Ralph Basset , English knight and rebel
- 4th August : Hugh le Despenser, 1st Baron le Despenser , English nobleman and rebel, Chief Justiciar of England (* around 1223 )
- August 4th : Henry de Montfort , English nobleman and rebel (* 1238 )
- August 4th : Peter de Montfort , English nobleman and rebel, first speaker of an English parliament (* around 1205 )
- 4th August : Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester , English nobleman and rebel leader, de facto regent of England (* 1208 )
- 4th August : Roger de St John , English nobleman and rebel (* around 1221 )
- August 26 : Anna of Bohemia , Duchess of Silesia (* 1201 or 1204 )
- October 27th : Humphrey V. de Bohun , English nobleman and rebel
- November 2nd : Iring von Reinstein-Homburg , Bishop of Würzburg
- before November 29th: Philippa Basset , English noblewoman
Exact date of death unknown
- Albrecht I of Borna , Bishop of Merseburg
- Eva von Lüttich , Flemish recluse and Roman Catholic blessed (* around 1190 )
- Henri II. Clément , Lord of Le Mez, Argentan and Sai and Marshal of France (* after 1224)
- Kılıç Arslan IV. , Sultan of the Rum Seljuks
- Maredudd ap Owain , Welsh nobleman
- William Marshal , English nobleman and rebel
- Otto von Lonsdorf , Bishop of Passau
Died around 1265
- Anna Dandolo , Queen of the Serbs