Calendar overview 1263
Håkon IV. Håkonson
, his son Magnus Lagabætir becomes King of Norway .
|1263 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||711/712 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||1806/07 (southern Buddhism); 1805/06 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||65th (66th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||625/626 (turn of the year April)|
|Islamic calendar||661/662 (turn of the year 3rd / 4th November)|
|Jewish calendar||5023/24 (September 5-6)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1573/74 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1574/75 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1319/20 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- April 20 : After the death of Johann I , his two underage sons Adolf V and Johann II rule the county of Holstein-Kiel together. They are under the tutelage of their uncle Gerhard I , Count of Holstein-Itzehoe .
- September 11th : The Langsdorf Peace ends the Thuringian-Hessian War of Succession . Langsdorf is chosen as a neutral place to negotiate territorial disputes between Margrave Heinrich the Illustrious of Meissen , Sophie of Brabant and the Archbishop and Elector of Mainz , Werner von Eppstein . The result is the separation of Hesse from the Landgraviate of Thuringia . Sophie's son Heinrich I becomes the first Landgrave of Hesse .
- Heinrich the Illustrious from the Wettin family hands over the Landgraviate in Thuringia to his son Albrecht (the degenerate).
- Filippo della Torre from the patrician family of the Torriani becomes ruler of Milan .
- December 16 : After the death of Håkon IV. Håkonson , his son Magnus Lagabætir becomes sole king of Norway , having been crowned in 1261 .
England / Wales
- April 25th : In a meeting of the English barons in Oxford they demand that King Henry III. the recognition of the Provisions of Oxford . This strictly rejects this.
- In England there are renewed uprisings by Gilbert de Clare and Roger de Clifford. Simon de Montfort takes control of the Cinque Ports . In London , a revolutionary group overthrew the city's oligarchs and sided with the barons while the king was in the Tower of London .
- July 15 : The rebels occupy London, one day later Henry III accepts. their demands.
- September 9th : Henry has to publicly recognize the Provisions of Oxford , Simon de Montfort agrees to an arbitration ruling by the French king on their legality.
- December 28 : Heinrich III. travels to Amiens to see the arbitration award of the French King Louis IX. in conflict with the English barons under the leadership of Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester .
- The Welsh Dafydd ap Gruffydd joins the English King Henry III. in the fight against his brother Llywelyn ap Gruffydd .
- The first constitution of the Republic of San Marino is drawn up.
- In the course of the Reconquista , the city of Arcos de la Frontera is conquered by the Christians.
- Verde di Salizzole married Alberto I della Scala and became the ancestor of the Scaliger family in Verona .
Asia and North Africa
- March: After the death of Manuel I , his son Andronikos II becomes Emperor and Grand Commander of Trebizond in Asia Minor. Under his rule the empire became a flourishing trading center.
- Spring: Baibars I , Sultan of the Mamluks in Egypt, conquers Kerak and takes the Emir al-Mughith Umar prisoner, whom he has executed a little later. On the way he conquered the Christian-Frankish Nazareth and led a first attack on Acre , which however was repulsed. Then he begins in Cairo with large-scale armaments in preparation for a war against the Christian crusader states in the Levant .
- The victory of the Golden Horde under Berke Khan in the Battle of Terek does not bring it any long-term advantage in the Inner Mongolian war against the Persian Empire of the Ilkhan under Hülegü .
Founding of cities and first mentions in documents
- Through the construction of the castle Neersen the same community arises Neersen .
- Bangerten , Belp , Deisswil near Münchenbuchsee , Oekingen , Rothrist and Strengelbach and the Ukrainian Swaljawa are first mentioned in a document.
- Jakab Cseszneky , sword bearer of King Béla IV , built the Csesznek Castle in central Hungary and founded the Cseszneky family .
- Hageneck Castle is first mentioned in a document.
science and technology
Religion and culture
- January 3 : Hermann I von Schladen becomes Bishop of Schwerin as the successor to Rudolf I, who died in the previous year . The episcopal ordination will probably take place in February after the approval of the Archbishop of Bremen , Hildebold von Wunstorf .
- June 1st : Urban IV approves the Order of the Cölestines .
- Urban IV wrote the Apostolic Exhortation Exultavit cor nostrum . He made contact with the leader of the Mongolian dynasty of the Ilkhan .
- Urban IV issues a rule for what he called the Order of the Poor Clares for the first time , in which the possession of goods and the use of servants are permitted (hence also called "urbanists" or "rich Poor Clares").
- At a provincial synod in Arles , the writings of Joachim von Fiore are condemned as heretical.
- A blood miracle is said to be taking place in Bolsena .
- The Stephanskirche in Vienna is solemnly consecrated.
- The Marienkapelle on the Gollenberg is first mentioned in a document.
- In Český Krumlov , King Ottokar II. Přemysl founds the Heiligenkron monastery and settled it with monks from the Lower Austrian Cistercian monastery Heiligenkreuz . It belongs to the filiation of the Primary Abbey Morimond . This also expresses Ottokar's efforts to integrate the Bohemian and Babenberg countries into a new, unified state. Since the monastery property is directly adjacent to the Witigonian possessions in South Bohemia, it is assumed that Ottokar also wanted to hinder the further expansion of the Witigonen by founding the monastery.
- from 1263: Raimundus Lullus attempts to prove the sole truth of Christian teaching and, above all, to proselytize the Arab world.
- Isabel de Clare , English nobleman († 1338 )
- Isabelle de Villehardouin , Princess of Achaia and Morea († 1312 )
- Napoleone Orsini , Cardinal of the Catholic Church († 1342 ), however, uncertain
- Rosaline von Villeneuve , French nobleman and Catholic saint († 1329 )
- Theobald II , Duke of Lorraine († 1312 )
First half of the year
- before January 7th : Agnes von Andechs , Duchess of Austria, Styria and Carinthia (* around 1215 )
- February 12 : Walter von Geroldseck , Bishop of Strasbourg (* 1231 )
- February 25th : John de Plessis , English magnate from France
- March 18 : Eberhard IV. , Count von Eberstein, owner of the Stauf rule and founder of the monastery (* around 1190 )
- March 19 : Hugo von Saint-Cher , French Dominican and cardinal, papal advisor and diplomat and Bible commentator (* around 1200 )
- March: Manuel I , Emperor and Grand Commander of Trebizond (* 1218 )
- April 20 : Johann I , Count of Holstein-Kiel (* around 1229 )
- June 7th : Boniface , Count of Savoy (* 1244 )
Second half of the year
- August 20 : Gobert VI. von Apremont , French nobleman (* around 1187 )
- Autumn: Einar Smjørbak Gunnarsson , Norwegian Archbishop in Nidaros
- September 11th : Otto I. , Count of Tecklenburg (* around 1185 )
- September 12 : Mindaugas , Grand Duke and King of Lithuania (* around 1203 )
- November 14th , Alexander Newski , Russian Prince of Novgorod, Grand Prince of Kiev and Vladimir, saint of the Orthodox Church (* around 1220)
- December 16 : Håkon IV. Håkonsson , King of Norway (* 1204 )
- December: Hugh de Vere, 4th Earl of Oxford , English nobleman (* around 1210 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Jona Gerondi , Catalan rabbi and moralist (* 1200 )
- Guido I. de la Roche , French nobleman, grand lord of Athens and Thebes (* around 1205 )
- Hugo Libergier , French builder (* 1229 )
- Shinran , Japanese founder of the Buddhist school of Jodo Shinshu (* 1173 )
- al-Mughith Umar , Emir of Kerak