Heinrich I (Hesse)
After the death of the last Ludowing Landgrave of Thuringia , Heinrich Raspe , the Thuringian-Hessian War of Succession (1247 to 1264) broke out. Heinrich's mother Sophie, as the niece and next heiress of Heinrich Raspe, fought for her son for the entire Thuringia-Hesse inheritance against the Wettin Heinrich the illustrious of Meissen . As early as 1247 Heinrich had them proclaimed landgrave on the Mader Heide and in Marburg. Through the Langsdorf Treaty of 1263, Sophie secured her son the Hessian possessions of the Ludowingers, which Heinrich ruled independently from now on. At that time, these areas included the region between Wolfhagen , Zierenberg , Eschwege , Alsfeld , Grünberg , Frankenberg and Biedenkopf . In the same year Heinrich acquired part of the County of Gleiberg with Gießen from Count Ulrich I of Asperg († 1283) from the house of the Count Palatine of Tübingen . First he made Marburg, then from 1277 Kassel his residence and now called himself "Landgrave of Hesse". Heinrich asserted himself against the strong influence of the Archbishops of Mainz in his sphere of influence. He was ostracized by Mainz in 1274, but prevailed against his rivals by 1280 at the latest when he defeated an army of the Archbishop of Mainz , Werner von Eppstein , near Fritzlar and thus ended the further use of archbishop's broadcasting courts in landgrave cities.
Heinrich supported King Rudolf I of Habsburg in his war against Ottokar of Bohemia and helped him to conquer Vienna in 1276 . He never gave up his claim to the heritage in Brabant , as his full title "Heinrich, born Duke of Brabant and Lorraine, Landgrave of Hesse" makes clear. In the Limburg succession dispute (1283 to 1289) he supported his Brabant nephew Johann I against Geldern and Luxemburg .
On May 12, 1292 he offered the city of Eschwege to King Adolf von Nassau as an imperial fief and immediately received it and the imperial castle Boyneburg back as a hereditary imperial fief. With this he acquired the dignity of imperial prince , which considerably strengthened his position of power in Hesse. Heinrich expanded Kassel as a residence from 1277 and built the Marburg Castle . Through skillful diplomacy, he came into the possession of Sooden-Allendorf , Kaufungen , Witzenhausen , Immenhausen , Grebenstein , Wanfried , Staufenberg , Trendelburg and the Reinhardswald , among others . He acquired the rule of Bilstein an der Werra by buying it in 1301.
From 1292 there were inheritance disputes with his sons from the first marriage, as his second wife demanded hereditary consideration of her own sons. This led to civil wars that lasted until Heinrich's death. Heinrich died in 1308 on a trip to Marburg and was buried there in the Elisabeth Church.
The legacy was finally divided in 1308. Otto I. von Hessen from his first marriage received the " Land an der Lahn " with Marburg and Johann von Hessen from his second marriage received Niederhessen with Kassel. Since Johann died in 1311, Niederhessen then also fell to Otto.
- Sophie (1264–1331), married to Count Otto I. von Waldeck
- Heinrich the Younger (1265–1298), married to Agnes, Duchess of Bavaria
- Mechthild (1267–1332), first married to Count Gottfried VI. von Ziegenhain , in second marriage with Count Philipp III. from Falkenstein -Münzenberg
- Adelheid (1268–1317), married to Count Berthold VII. Von Henneberg
- Elisabeth the Elder (1269–19 February 1293), married to Count Johann I von Sayn-Sponheim
- Otto I (around 1272–1328), Landgrave of Upper Hesse in 1308 and of Lower Hesse in 1311
- Elisabeth the Middle (1276–1306), first married to Duke Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (1270–1292); second marriage to Count Gerhard V. von Eppstein .
- Agnes (1277–1335), married to Burgrave Johann I von Nürnberg-Zollern
- Johann (1278–1311), Landgrave of Niederhessen, married to Adelheid von Braunschweig-Göttingen
- Ludwig (1282–1357), 1310 Bishop of Munster
- Elisabeth the Younger (1284–1308), married to Count Albert II of Görz-Lienz
- Katharina (1286–1322), married to Count Otto IV. Von Orlamünde
- Jutta (1289–1317), married to Duke Otto von Braunschweig-Göttingen
- Heinrich, 33 HI, the child . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 8, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 322.
- Walter Heinemeyer: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 8, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1969, ISBN 3-428-00189-3 , p. 355 f. ( ). In:
- Arthur Wyß: Heinrich I, Landgrave of Hesse . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1880, pp. 516-519.
- Hessen, Heinrich I. Landgrave of. Hessian biography. (As of January 31, 2020). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Document from May 14, 1301, Count Otto von Bilstein sells his feudal estates in (Lower) Hesse (Hassia) to Landgrave Heinrich from the Werra river to the Hecheno forest ( Memento of the original from September 3, 2014 in Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. .
- Gen Ma ( Memento of October 1, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
Landgrave of Hesse
Otto I. ( Upper Hesse )
Johann ( Lower Hesse )
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Heinrich I of Hesse; Child of Brabant|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||first Landgrave of Hesse and founder of the Hessian Princely House|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 24, 1244|
|DATE OF DEATH||December 21, 1308|
|Place of death||Marburg|