Diocese of Münster

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Diocese of Münster
Erzbistum Freiburg Erzbistum Bamberg Erzbistum Berlin Erzbistum Hamburg Erzbistum Köln Erzbistum München und Freising Erzbistum Paderborn Bistum Aachen Bistum Augsburg Bistum Dresden-Meißen Bistum Eichstätt Bistum Erfurt Bistum Essen Bistum Fulda Bistum Görlitz Bistum Hildesheim Bistum Limburg Bistum Magdeburg Bistum Mainz Bistum Mainz Bistum Münster Bistum Münster Bistum Osnabrück Bistum Passau Bistum Regensburg Diözese Rottenburg-Stuttgart Bistum Speyer Bistum Trier Bistum Trier Bistum WürzburgMap of the Diocese of Münster
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Basic data
Country Germany
Ecclesiastical province Cologne
Metropolitan bishopric Archdiocese of Cologne
Diocesan bishop Felix Genn
Auxiliary bishop Christoph Hegge
Wilfried Theising
Stefan Zekorn
Rolf Lohmann
Auxiliary Bishop Emeritus Heinrich Janssen
Dieter Geerlings
Vicar General Klaus Winterkamp
surface 15,265 km²
Dean's offices City / district
deans: 8 deans: 39 (April 16, 2015)
Parishes 211 (December 31, 2018)
Residents 4,305,468 (December 31, 2017)
Catholics 1,853,185 (December 31, 2018)
proportion of 43%
Diocesan priest 1,029 (December 31, 2017)
Religious priest 245 (December 31, 2017)
Catholics per priest 1,455
Permanent deacons 306 (December 31, 2017)
Friars 317 (December 31, 2017)
Religious sisters 1,784 (December 31, 2017)
rite Roman rite
Liturgical language Latin , German
cathedral St. Paul Cathedral
address Domplatz 27
48143 Münster
Website www.bistum-muenster.de
Ecclesiastical province
Erzbistum Freiburg Erzbistum Bamberg Erzbistum Berlin Erzbistum Hamburg Erzbistum Köln Erzbistum München und Freising Erzbistum Paderborn Bistum Aachen Bistum Augsburg Bistum Dresden-Meißen Bistum Eichstätt Bistum Erfurt Bistum Essen Bistum Fulda Bistum Görlitz Bistum Hildesheim Bistum Limburg Bistum Magdeburg Bistum Mainz Bistum Mainz Bistum Münster Bistum Münster Bistum Osnabrück Bistum Passau Bistum Regensburg Diözese Rottenburg-Stuttgart Bistum Speyer Bistum Trier Bistum Trier Bistum WürzburgMap of the Church Province of Cologne
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The diocese of Münster ( Latin: Dioecesis Monasteriensis ) is a non-contiguous Roman Catholic diocese in the Münsterland and on the Lower Rhine ( North Rhine-Westphalia ) and in the Oldenburger Land ( Lower Saxony ). As a suffragan, it is part of the church province of Cologne .

Diocese structure

Today the diocese of Münster comprises:

  1. in Westphalia the independent cities of Münster and Hamm north of the Lippe , the districts of Borken , Coesfeld , Recklinghausen (including the formerly independent communities Kirchhellen and Henrichenburg , but without the cities of Gladbeck and Castrop-Rauxel ), Steinfurt and Warendorf , the part north of the Lippe of the district of Unna (towns of Selm , Werne , northern Lünen ) and from the district of Gütersloh the town of Harsewinkel , the town of Benteler (district of Langenberg ) and the town of Möhler (town of Herzebrock-Clarholz ) and, in the district of Soest, the towns of Bad Waldliesborn (in Lippstadt due), Herzfeld and Lippborg .
  2. on the Lower Rhine the districts of Kleve (including the Tönisberg district of the city of Kempen ) and Wesel , Walsum and the districts of Duisburg on the left bank of the Rhine .
  3. in Lower Saxony as the Bischöflich Münstersches officialate, the former Free State of Oldenburg (previously the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg ), the independent cities of Delmenhorst , Oldenburg and Wilhelmshaven and the districts of Ammerland , Cloppenburg , but without the districts of Gehlenberg and Neuvrees of the city of Friesoythe and without the district of Wachtum of the city of Löningen, Friesland including the East Frisian island of Wangerooge , Oldenburg (including the districts of Stuhr, Moordeich and Varrel of the unified municipality of Stuhr , but without the integrated municipality of Harpstedt ), Vechta , but without the district of Vörden of the municipality of Neuenkirchen-Vörden and Wesermarsch (including Dedesdorf , municipality of Loxstedt ).

A secular rule was connected with the bishopric of Münster until 1803, the duchy of Münster . It was divided into the Oberstift, which roughly corresponded to today's Münsterland , and the Niederstift , which corresponded to today's Oldenburger Münsterland and today's Emsland district . The area of ​​the secular diocese was larger than that of the ecclesiastical until 1666, as the Niederstift ecclesiastically belonged to the diocese of Osnabrück .

Since 1815, today's Emsland district has been part of the Osnabrück diocese again , while the Oldenburger Münsterland remained part of the Münster diocese.

Regions, deaneries & district deaneries

The diocese of Münster is divided into three regions in North Rhine-Westphalia, which consist of a total of seven district and one city dean's offices , and in Lower Saxony into eight dean's offices , which form the official district of Vechta.

The pastoral care regions in NRW are each headed by an auxiliary bishop as a regional bishop without their own administration and jurisdiction:

  1. Münster - Warendorf - Coesfeld : Stefan Zekorn
  2. Borken - Steinfurt : Christoph Hegge
  3. Lower Rhine , Recklinghausen : Rolf Lohmann

Another auxiliary bishop heads the Oldenburg official district as an episcopal official and in this function has extensive autonomy from the vicariate general in Münster.

  1. Wilfried Theising .

Until Auxiliary Bishop Dieter Geerlings retired in November 2017, the district deans of Coesfeld and Recklinghausen formed their own region, which was dissolved.

Church institutions

Diocese archive

Georgskommende 19
48143 Münster

Diocesan Library

Überwasserkirchplatz 2
48143 Münster

Institute for the History of the Diocese of Münster

Wegesende 6
48143 Münster

Training centers

Association of Catholic Adult Education in the Diocese of Münster

Youth education centers in the diocese of Münster

Assets and financial situation

In addition to the regular budget, which must be accounted for, the Diocese of Münster does not have to account for the “Episcopal See” as long as no public funds are used in it. The financial assets of the Episcopal See in October 2013 were around 2.37 million euros. This does not include the real estate assets of the diocese, which are primarily used for official purposes. For the first time since its inception, the Münster diocese published its financial situation.

The budget for 2020 for the North Rhine-Westphalian part of the Münster diocese amounts to 676.9 million euros.

For 2025, the diocese expects a deficit of 32.7 million euros, after which the budget deficit will tend to grow due to demographic change . In January 2020, the diocese announced staff reductions and personnel changes in the Episcopal General Vicariate and associated offices, as well as a short-term savings and strategy process.

Culture and sights

Church building

Diocese newspaper

Kirche + Leben is the weekly church newspaper in the diocese of Münster.

Library work

The libraries in the Diocese of Münster are open to everyone - regardless of age, nationality or religion.

In the diocese of Münster there are currently (as of December 31, 2004) around 500 libraries:

  • Catholic public libraries in the parishes,
  • Catholic libraries in hospitals,
  • Catholic libraries in old people's homes and homes.

More than 5,300 mostly volunteer employees have a wide range of offers ready:

  • 2.3 million media - from books to DVDs,
  • 6000 events for children, young people and adults,
  • Time and a comfortable environment for discussions about literature and other topics.

Episcopal General Vicariate Münster
Group Books and Libraries
Specialist for Catholic Public Libraries

St. Paul Cathedral

The St. Paulus Cathedral in Munster

The mother church is the St. Paulus Dom in the heart of Münster. It is already the third cathedral at this point. In 1225 the foundation stone was laid for today's cathedral, which was consecrated in 1264 . It was badly damaged during the Second World War. The former main portal, which was not rebuilt, was replaced by a new wall with round windows arranged in a circle. The consecration for the rebuilt cathedral took place in 1956. All important church services (e.g. ordinations) take place in the cathedral. In 1987 John Paul II prayed at the grave of the former Bishop of Münster, Clemens August Cardinal von Galen . Von Galen is buried in the cathedral's Ludgerus chapel. His grave is the focal point for many believers.


For the medieval and early modern minster in Westphalia , two developments can be noted, concerning the diocese and the city.

Monasteriensis Episcopatus , 1645

The diocese , which was ordered by Ludgerus, also called Liudger and founded by Charlemagne , initially remained at the disposal of the Liudgerid bishops Gerfried (809-839) and Altfried (839-849) , who were associated with Werden . The formation of a comprehensive parish organization up to the 10th century contrasted with noble and royal (women's) monasteries such as those in Vreden (from around 839) and Freckenhorst (from around 856). The High Middle Ages saw the Münster bishops largely on the side of German royalty.

In the turmoil of the investiture dispute (1075–1122), Münster fell victim to an attack by the Saxon Duke (and later Roman Emperor and German King) Lothar von Supplinburg (1106–1137) (1121). As reparation, Lothar's comrade Gottfried von Cappenberg , Count of Dreingau , signed over his possessions to the diocese in the following year.

In the later Middle Ages and the early modern period, the bishops became sovereigns of a territory between Ems and Hunte , of the (high and low) monastery of Münster, which also included the county of Ravensberg and with the subordination of the nobility and the formation of the three estates of Cathedral chapters , knights and cities was increasingly more firmly organized.

However, there were shocks, such as the Münster collegiate feud (1450-1457), in which two candidates and their parties faced each other in the fight for the bishopric, the introduction of the Reformation (1524) or the Anabaptist Empire of Münster (1533 / 1534-1535) demonstrate.

In the early modern period, after the Reformation and Counter-Reformation , after the Thirty Years War (1618-1648) and Westphalian Peace (1648), the bishopric of Münster as the main, fortress and garrison town center of a bishopric, a Catholic confessional state of the absolutist ruling prince bishops , under including a Christoph Bernhard von Galen (1650–1678) who took part in the campaign against Bremen-Verden in the Swedish-Brandenburg War as commander in chief or a Ferdinand II von Fürstenberg (1678–1683).

The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss (1803) then ended the existence of the episcopal state. A large part fell as the Hereditary Principality of Münster to Prussia , which took possession of its territory and capital as early as 1802. The size of the diocese remained unchanged until 1822. During the reorganization in 1822, the then Grand Duchy of Oldenburg came completely to the diocese, while the now Hanoverian shares fell to the diocese of Osnabrück . This structure is still in place today, although Oldenburg has not existed as a state since 1946.

In December 2018, local bishop Felix Genn called for the statute of limitations for sexual abuse to be abolished and for sex offenders to be punished more severely. The background was the case of a priest in the diocese who had sexually harassed adults several times and relapsed, although expert assessments had forecast the opposite.

Role in National Socialism

When it comes to the role of the German bishops in National Socialism, critics criticize the fact that the complaints of the Catholic Church in Germany were always aimed at violating Catholic interests, not the National Socialist system as such. For a long time during the 1930s and during the Second World War, the German bishops had limited themselves to protesting against grievances by submitting petitions to the Reich government, as there was a protracted conflict and a leadership crisis among the bishops, as well as differing views on how to proceed. Protests by the German bishops against the judicial murders of their opponents, against the persecution of liberals, democrats and communists did not take place. There was no protest by the bishops against Hitler's attack on Austria, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Holland, France or the Soviet Union, nor was there a protest against pogroms against the Jews, the destruction of synagogues, the deportation and gassing of Jews.

The diocese of Münster was no exception. The then Bishop of Münster (1933–1946), Clemens August Graf von Galen, described the National Socialist government as a lawfully installed authority and supported Germany's striving for great power. Apart from the commitment of Galens against the destruction of so-called unworthy life and the disenfranchisement of Catholic institutions, numerous episcopal and ecclesiastical statements from the diocese of Münster testify to approval of Hitler and his goals. In a vademecum for the Catholic soldier , which was given the imprimatur of the episcopal ordinariate (November 8, 1938) before the war began , it says: “The Führer embodies the unity of the people and the empire. He is the supreme bearer of state power. The Christian German is bound in his conscience to obey him as such, even without an oath [...]. Is it made easy for the German soldier to pledge such loyalty to his Führer and Supreme Commander, because he recognizes in him the example of a true soldierly character and soldierly loyalty, because he gives his loyalty to a man who gives the meaning of his life in the increase of size and If he sees the honor of his people and himself sets the example of loyalty day and night, then the Christian soldier will be able to speak his vow with seriousness and joy of heart because his faith teaches him, in the person of the ruler, about the purely human abilities and Achievements in addition to recognizing and recognizing the glory and honor bestowed on him by God. ”A prayer that the Catholic clergy of the diocese had to say on the occasion of the German bombing raids on Warsaw in autumn 1939 on the instructions of Bishop Count Galen was:“ Almighty Eternal God ! We ask you to take our fatherland under your constant protection: enlighten its rulers with the light of your wisdom, so that they may recognize what is for the true welfare of the people and what is right in your power. Protect all members of our armed forces and keep them in your grace, strengthen the fighting [...]. "

On April 29, 2020, the German bishops commented on the relationship of the German Catholic bishops to the Second World War in a “word about the end of the Second World War 75 years ago” entitled “ German Bishops in World War II ”. They criticized the failure of the German bishops to protest openly against the Nazi war of extermination both when the war broke out in 1939 and afterwards, and described the behavior of their predecessors as "difficult to understand, if not wrong." The bishops continued to write in 2020: “Even against the monstrous crimes against others who were discriminated against and persecuted as 'non-racial' and persecuted, especially the Jews, hardly a voice was raised in the church in Germany.” Only after an impetus from patient murders and “ monastery storms ” had individual bishops dared open contradiction.

“Ultimately, the bishops found no way out of the tension that arose from the shared idea of ​​patriotic obligation in war, the legitimacy of state authorities, the resulting obligations of obedience and the obvious crimes. [...] By not saying a clear 'no' to the war, but rather strengthening the will to persevere in most of them, they made themselves complicit in the war. "

- German bishops in World War I , p. 15

Pilgrimage sites

The following pilgrimage sites are known in the diocese of Münster:

image Pilgrimage site place church category Remarks
Pilgrimage chapel in Aengenesch Sorrowful mother Aengenesch Pilgrimage chapel Miraculous image
Image of grace in Bethen Sorrowful mother Bethen (near Cloppenburg ) St. Mary, Mother of the Seven Sorrows Miraculous image northernmost Marian pilgrimage site in Germany
Pilgrimage church in Billerbeck Holy Liudger Billerbeck Provost church of St. Ludgerus Place of death
Bocholt Cross Bocholt Cross Bocholt St. George Church cross
Pilgrimage chapel in Breischen b.  Hops Mother Anna Breischen (near Hopsten ) St. Anna Miraculous image
Sorrowful mother Buddenbaum (near Warendorf - Hoetmar ) Pilgrimage chapel Miraculous image
Coesfeld Cross Holy cross Coesfeld St. Lamberti cross
Blessed Maria Droste zu Vischering Darfeld (near Rosendahl ) St. Nicholas Baptistery
Holy Cross in Dülmen Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerick Dülmen Holy Cross Church dig
Mary in the Burlo Altar Mother of God Eggerode (near Schöppingen ) Pilgrimage chapel Miraculous image
Freckenhorst collegiate church Holy cross Freckenhorst St. Boniface cross
St. Maria Himmelfahrtkirche in Ginderich Mother of God Ginderich St. Mary of the Assumption Miraculous image
Church tower of the Maria Magdalena parish church Saint Arnold Janssen Goch Parish Church of Maria Magdalena place of birth
Image of grace in Haltern am See Mother Anna Haltern am See St. Anna Miraculous image
Holy cross Heek Holy Cross Church cross
Shrine of St. Ida Holy Ida Herzfeld (in Lippetal ) St. Ida dig
Gnadenbild Kevelaer.png Mother of God, Comforter of the afflicted Kevelaer Marienbasilika Miraculous image largest place of pilgrimage in northwestern Europe
Kranenburg Cross Holy cross Kranenburg Kranenburg cruise pilgrimage cross
Gnadenbild.jpg Mother of God Luenen St. Mary Image of grace from 1260 Pilgrimage proven since 1335
Church in Marienbaum Mother of God Marienbaum (near Xanten ) St. Mary of the Assumption Miraculous image
Sepulcher of Sr. Euthymia Blessed Sister Maria Euthymia Üffing Muenster Central cemetery in Munster dig
Grave slab of Clemens August Graf von Galens Blessed Cardinal Clemens August Graf von Galen Muenster St. Paul Cathedral dig
Nottuln Collegiate Church Holy Heriburg of Nottuln Nottuln Nottuln Abbey dig
St. Otger Stadtlohn Mother of God City wages St. Otger Miraculous image
South view of the pilgrimage church Holy cross Stromberg (near Oelde ) Pilgrimage church cross
Mother Anna Südlohne (at Lohne ) Pilgrimage chapel Miraculous image
Telgter pilgrimage chapel Painful mother from Telgte Telgte Telgter pilgrimage Miraculous image
Monastery church in Vinnenberg Vinnenberg image of grace Vinnenberg in Milte (near Warendorf ) Vinnenberg Monastery Miraculous image
St. Laurentius in Warendorf Mother of God Warendorf St. Laurence Miraculous image
South tower of the Xanten Cathedral Saint Viktor von Xanten and companions Xanten St. Viktor Cathedral dig

Diocesan calendar

In the diocese of Münster, the regional calendar for the German-speaking area is supplemented by the following celebrations (followed by the rank and the liturgical color ).

H = solemn festival , F = festival , G = required day of remembrance , g = non-mandatory day of remembrance

date Own celebration description rank lit. colour Date of death
13th January Gottfried von Cappenberg Religious, founder of the Cappenberg Abbey G White Jan. 13, 1127
15. January Arnold Janssen Priest, founder of the order of the Steyler missionaries G White Jan 15, 1909
22nd of January Vincent Pallotti priest G White Jan. 22, 1850
February 9 Sel. Anna Katharina Emmerick Religious, mystic G White Feb 9, 1824
March 22 Sel. Clemens August Graf von Galen Cardinal, Bishop of Munster G White March 22, 1946
26th of March Liudger Messenger of faith, first bishop of Münster (since March 30, 805) H White March 26, 809
8th June Sel. Maria Droste to Vischering Religious G White June 8, 1899
July 27th Sel. Titus Brandsma Religious priests and martyrs G red July 26, 1942
12. August Sel. Karl Leisner Priests and martyrs G red Aug 12, 1945
September 4th Ida von Herzfeld Church founder G White 4th Sep 825
September 4th Irmgard von Aspel Founder of the Abbey G White around 1080
the 9th of September Sel. Maria Euthymia Üffing Religious G White Sep 9 1955
Anniversary of the consecration of the cathedral in Münster (1264) H / F -
October 3 The two Ewalde, Schwarzer Ewald and Weißer Ewald Messengers of faith in the Lower Rhine and Westphalia, martyrs G red Oct 3, 695
October 10th Viktor and companions Martyrs in Xanten in the 3rd century G red
October 13th Anniversary of the consecration of churches that do not know their consecration day H White -
November 7th Willibrord Bishop of Utrecht, messenger of faith among the Frisians G White Nov 7, 739
November 8th Willehad Bishop of Bremen, messenger of faith among the Saxons and Frisians G White Nov 8, 789
25. November Sel. Niels Stensen bishop G White Nov. 25, 1686 ( July )
December 4th Sel. Adolph Kolping priest G White Dec. 4, 1865

Church goers, church closings

Development of membership numbers

For years the numbers in church life have been falling. A comparison of the current statistics with previous decades reinforces the impression. In 2008 there were 2,008,322 Catholics in the diocese of Münster, 15,872 fewer than in the previous year. The number of people attending church services is falling sharply: in 2008, an average of 12.6 percent of Catholics attended Sunday mass, in 2004 it was 14.5 percent. In a ten-year comparison it becomes clear how much the attendance at Mass has changed: in 1995 the percentage was 19.9 (416,406 people attending church services); In 1985 it was 29.3 percent (614,839); In 1975, 35.1 percent (787,582) went to church services on Sundays - a good half a million Catholics more than in 2006.

Dramatically declining church tax revenues and the number of Catholics as well as a shortage of priests are forcing not only to merge parishes and to form pastoral care units, but also to close churches. The buildings are used for other church purposes, possibly also converted as living space, given to other Christian denominations or demolished.

See also


  • Collection of church edicts, ordinances and notices for the diocese of Münster . 2nd Edition. Verl. D. Westphalian Association Dr., Münster 1925. ( digitized )
  • Arnold Angenendt (Ed.): History of the Diocese of Münster. 5 volumes. Dialog, Münster 1998 ff., ISBN 3-933144-06-X , ISBN 3-933144-08-6 , ISBN 3-933144-09-4 , ISBN 3-933144-10-8 .
  • Episcopal Vicariate General Münster (Ed.): Directory for the Diocese of Münster 2006–2007. Greven 2006.
  • Wilhelm Damberg, Gisela Muschiol: The diocese of Münster. An Illustrated Story 805–2005. Aschendorff, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-402-03414-X .
  • Johannes Loy, Jürgen Peperhowe: Celebrations of Faith 2005. Münster - Cologne - Rome. Diocese anniversary - election of the Pope - World Youth Day - beatification. Aschendorff, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-402-00407-0 .
  • Dorothea Sattler: To commemorate and create? 1200 years of the diocese of Münster. Aschendorff, Münster, ISBN 3-402-00213-2 .
  • Werner Thissen (ed.): The diocese of Münster. 3 volumes. Regensberg, Münster 1993, ISBN 3-7923-0646-8 .
  • Norbert Kleyboldt (Ed.): A year like no other. 805–2005: 1200 years of the diocese of Münster. The documentation. Dialogverlag, Münster 2005, ISBN 3-937961-21-6 .
  • Peter Veddeler: The coats of arms of the diocese of Münster and the cathedral chapter after 1802 . In: Peter Veddeler: The Munster beam coat of arms. Origin and development of a regional coat of arms ( Westphalia. Hefte für Geschichte, Kunst und Volkskunde , 69th volume, 1991), pp. 147–156, ISSN  0043-4337 .
  • Imagination of the invisible , 1200 years of visual arts in the diocese of Münster. Landschaftsverband Westfalen-Lippe, 1993, printing: typesetting and printing Contzen, Lünen, ISBN 3-88789-111-2 .
  • Max Georg von Twickel : The Catholic church order in Oldenburg after 1803. Origin and development of regional independence in association with the diocese of Münster . Aschendorff, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-402-13055-1 .

Web links

Commons : Diocese of Münster  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. a b Catholic Church in Germany. (PDF; 1 MB) Statistical data 2018. Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference, July 19, 2019, p. 3 , accessed on July 19, 2019 .
  2. AP2019
  3. Bischöflich Münstersches official office: Deanery Delmenhorst - Bischöflich Münstersches official office. Retrieved September 10, 2017 .
  4. ^ Schäfer, Rolf: Churches and schools in the Oldenburg region in the 19th and 20th centuries . In: Albrecht Eckhardt, Heinrich Schmidt (Hrsg.): History of the state of Oldenburg . 1st edition. Holzberg, Oldenburg 1987, ISBN 3-87358-285-6 , p. 791-841 .
  5. Catholic St. Paule - Stuhr parish. Retrieved September 10, 2017 .
  6. New Deanery Ahaus-Vreden , on: Bistum-Münster.de, accessed on January 28, 2020.
  7. Information
  8. ^ Die Glocke , Diocese of Münster reveals finances , newspaper article from October 15, 2013.
  9. Deutsche Welle: Dioceses disclose their assets ( memento from October 19, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  10. bistum-muenster.de: Budget plan 2020 (PDF) p. 21.
  11. bistum-muenster.de: Saving and developing strategies , January 21, 2020 , accessed on January 23, 2020.
  12. ^ Bishop Felix Genn calls for the end of the limitation period. Westfälische Nachrichten of December 20, 2018
  13. a b c Deschner, Karlheinz: The cock crowed again . Econ Verlag, Düsseldorf / Vienna 1980, ISBN 3-430-12064-0 , p. 903 .
  14. Stelter, Dirk: Resistance - Protest - Adaptation - Support: The Churches in National Socialism . In: Stefan Rahner, Franz-Helmut Richter, Stefan Riese, Dirk Stelter (eds.) : “We are faithful to German - we are also Catholic”. Cardinal von Galen and the Third Reich . WURF, Münster 1987, ISBN 3-923881-21-5 , p. 28 ff .
  15. Quotation in Gesamtdeutsche Rundschau , March 14, 1958, p. 3.
  16. ^ Ecclesiastical gazette for the diocese of Münster , vol. 73, no.25
  17. dbk.de: German Bishops in World War I (PDF) April 29, 2020, pp. 14 and 16.
  18. kirchensite.de: Searching for prayer with your feet ...: Pilgrimage and memorial sites in the diocese of Münster
  19. kirchensite.de: Data and facts: Catholic numbers in Germany and in the diocese. Muenster.
  20. kirchensite.de: data and facts: service participants. in the diocese of Münster.