|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||2 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||106.95 km 2|
|Residents:||76,089 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||711 inhabitants per km 2|
|Primaries :||04421, 04423, 04425|
|License plate :||WHV|
|Community key :||03 4 05 000|
|LOCODE :||DE WVN|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Carsten Feist (non-party)|
|Location of the city of Wilhelmshaven in Lower Saxony|
Wilhelmshaven [ … ˈhaːfən ] ( Low German Willemshaven ) is a city in northwest Germany . It is located on the northwest coast of the Jade Bay , a large bay on the North Sea . With 76,089 inhabitants, it is the second largest medium- sized town in Lower Saxony and one of the regional centers in this state. Since 2006 Wilhelmshaven has been part of the Northwest Metropolitan Region , one of a total of eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany.
Since its inauguration as the “first German naval port on the Jade” on June 17, 1869, the city's history has been closely linked to the emergence and development of the German navy . Today the city is the largest location of the Navy , since the implementation of the new Bundeswehr stationing concept in 2011, Wilhelmshaven is by far the largest location of the Bundeswehr .
Wilhelmshaven has the deep water port with the greatest water depth in Germany and is the largest oil transshipment port in the country. 72% of the crude oil handling of all German seaports and almost 27% of the German crude oil imports are processed via Wilhelmshaven. From here, oil pipelines lead to refineries in the Rhine-Ruhr area and to Hamburg . The deep waterway of the Jade shapes the economy and is the basis for the settlement of large companies in the petrochemical industry , the chemical industry , the power generation industry , the logistics industry and other maritime industries (repair yards, ship equipment, etc.). With the JadeWeserPort , which opened in September 2012 , Wilhelmshaven received a tide- independent container terminal that can handle even the largest container ships fully loaded.
The North Sea city is the location of the Jade University as well as scientific research institutions such as the Senckenberg Institute for Marine Geology and Biology , the Lower Saxony Institute for Historical Coastal Research , the Institute for Bird Research , the German Wind Energy Institute and the Marine Research Institute Terramare .
Wilhelmshaven benefits from tourism on the North Sea coast. The city primarily attracts holidaymakers from the surrounding seaside resorts with its shops and tourist facilities.
Wilhelmshaven is located in northwest Germany on the northwest coast of the Jade Bay , a large bay on the North Sea. The urban area is located in the eastern part of the East Frisian peninsula between Dollart and Jadebusen. The tidal flats in this coastal region belong to the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park .
The city is shaped by the surrounding marshland . Marshes are generally flat stretches of land with no natural elevations. Historically, the march is one of the youngest geological formations. It is Holocene , i.e. of post-glacial origin. Due to the march, Wilhelmshaven is on average only two meters above sea level . The urban area must therefore be completely protected from storm surges by dykes . The permanent maintenance and improvement of the dikes is the task of III. Oldenburg dike tape.
The deepest point of the urban area is in the Maade depression at Kreuzelwerk at. The highest elevation is the artificial "Rüstringer Berg" at the oil port. It was created by covering a blown gun emplacement from the Second World War with sand.
Large parts of the east of the city were only wrested from the North Sea in the 20th century. Groden is the name given to the flat new land areas gained by building dykes and drainage. The following three areas have increased the urban area considerably:
- Heppenser Groden ( embankment from 1938 - area 640.5 hectares )
- Rustersieler Groden (embankment from 1963 - area 590.9 hectares)
- Voslapper Groden (embankment from 1971 - area 1312.4 hectares)
In 2012, the newly washed out port and logistics area of the JadeWeserPort was added to these areas with an area of around 344 hectares.
The geological subsoil of Wilhelmshaven has a special feature. The northwest German basin is criss- crossed with large accumulations of salt, the so-called salt domes . The Rüstringen salt dome lies under the urban area in the area of the Coldewei district . It has been used as a storage cavern for oil storage since 1968 . The Nord-West-Kavernengesellschaft (NWKG) currently operates (beginning of 2010) 35 caverns with a capacity of 6.7 billion liters of crude oil. The cylindrical caverns have a horizontal dimension of approximately 250 by 70 meters and are up to 2000 meters deep. They are used to store the petroleum reserves prescribed in the Petroleum Storage Act for times of crisis. In 2010, the NWKG received the approval to build six more caverns.
The urban area is bordered on two sides by large bodies of water . In the east, the city is completely bordered by the deep waters of the Inner Jade . In the southeast of Wilhelmshaven, the fairway runs a further two kilometers through the Jade Bay . In the south are the mudflats of the Jade Bay, which are flooded twice a day by the seawater of the North Sea. The tidal range of the Jade is 3.15 m - 4.33 m, which is about as much as at the mouth of the Weser, half a meter less than in Antwerp and a good twice as much as in Rotterdam. With every tidal cycle, almost the entire water content of the Jade Bay flows in through the narrowness of the Jade fairway at high tide and out again at low tide. This natural pendulum current washes the fairway constantly free of any disturbing sand deposits. It is much stronger here than in the mouths of the Elbe and Weser rivers. And the entry of sediments is lower. However, the strong ebb current represents a great danger for bathers and users of small, especially non-motorized watercraft.
View from the Ferris wheel over the Great Harbor with the Russian training ship MIR and the south beach in a south-east direction; in the background the Jade Bay
In the urban area there are 645 hectares of water, which is 6.2% of the total area. For the most part, these areas consist of the port basin of the inner port, i.e. the outer port, north port, equipment port, arsenal port, connecting port, large port, commercial port, coal port and canal port. The inner harbor is connected to the sea lanes of the North Sea via the largest lock in Germany, the sea lock at the 4th port entrance.
In addition, there is the area of the Banter See , a brackish lake that was part of the port area as a western and intermediate port until 1945. At the end of the war in 1945, the Allies ordered that the docks be made unusable by dams made of rubble from the bombed city. The last remaining dam, the Grodendamm, separates Lake Banter from the Great Harbor. An artificial, slightly salty lake was created, which forms one of the large local recreation areas .
The Ems-Jade Canal begins / ends in the urban area . It is an artificial waterway that connects Wilhelmshaven with Emden via Sande and Aurich . The length of the Ems-Jade Canal in the urban area is 10.5 km. It was very important for the expansion of the port facilities, as material such as sand, stones, coal, etc. was transported on it. Today the canal no longer has any economic importance, but is mainly used for tourism.
The only inland river in the city is the Maade . With the connected troughs , draft and inspection trenches, it primarily serves to drain the lower areas behind the dykes . The river flows into the Jade via a sluice near the Rustersiel district . This Maadesiel is an estuary pumping station with a sea lock, which ensures the drainage of the river even if regular water drainage is not possible due to the tidal conditions on the Jade.
Expansion of the urban area
The urban area has an area of 106.91 km². The largest extension in north-south direction is 15.5 km and in west-east direction 9.3 km. The city limits have a total length of 57.8 km, of which 27.3 km are directly on the sea and 30.5 km on the land border with other municipalities.
(as of December 31, 2011)
|Area in ha||proportion of|
|Residential and open spaces||1,662||15.5%|
|Green areas / sports||464||4.3%|
|Wooded areas / wood||1,214||11.4%|
Around 50% of the urban area of the “Green City by the Sea” consists of agricultural and forest areas as well as green spaces. The division of space is detailed in the following table:
The municipality of Sande and the town of Schortens border in the west and the municipality of Wangerland in the north . All three neighboring communities belong to the district of Friesland . The city borders the North Sea to the east and south. To the east on the other side of the Jade is the municipality of Butjadingen . It forms the northern part of the Wesermarsch district . To the south on the other side of the Jade Bay you can see the area around Dangast , the southernmost North Sea resort on the North Sea coast , when the weather is good . Dangast belongs to the city of Varel in the district of Friesland.
For statistical purposes, the urban area of Wilhelmshaven is divided into five urban areas (south, middle, west, north, east). Each urban area consists of several districts. These are again subdivided into city quarters if they are spatially and structurally coherent areas that are known by name to the public.
1 South urban area
2 City center
3 West urban area
4 North urban area
5 East urban area
The districts of Fedderwarden and Sengwarden , incorporated in 1972, are also localities within the meaning of Section 90 of the Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Act (NKomVG). These localities have their own local council with 13 members who elect a local mayor as chairman from among their number.
After the climate classification of Köppen is Central Europe and Wilhelmshaven in the classification Cfb for hot moderate Regenklimate with year-round rainfall. The proximity to the North Sea has a significant impact on the regional weather. Compared to the interior, their influence ensures milder winters and cooler summers.
The monthly average temperatures do not drop below freezing point even in winter. The average annual temperature is 8.7 ° C. The warmest months are July and August with an average of 16.3 ° C and the coldest January and February with an average of 1.2 and 1.6 ° C, respectively.
The amount of precipitation is distributed relatively evenly throughout the year, mainly in the form of rain. Snowfalls in the winter months are rare. Most precipitation falls in July and November with an average of 83 and 86 millimeters respectively, the lowest in February with an average of 43 millimeters. The annual precipitation of 831 millimeters is slightly above the German average.
The area of today's city of Wilhelmshaven was originally settled by the Frisians . Until the land was bought by the Kingdom of Prussia, the two agricultural parishes of Heppens and Neuende , which belonged to the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg , were located in what is now the core of the city .
Jade Treaty 1853 to naming 1869
With the " Jade Treaty " of July 20, 1853, Prussia , which had no North Sea port since the loss of East Frisia at the Congress of Vienna , bought a 313 hectare area on the Jade Bay from the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg to establish a base for the Prussian Navy . On November 23, 1854, the area was given the name Royal Prussian Jade Area to Prince Adalbert of Prussia , Admiral of the Prussian Navy. Since then, the history of Wilhelmshaven has been closely linked to the history of the Prussian and German navies .
The Prussian Admiralty entrusted Privy Councilor Gotthilf Heinrich Ludwig Hagen with the management of the planning for the first German naval port on the Jade . Hagen, an engineer and specialist in the field of hydraulic engineering , was on leave from his work in the Prussian Ministry of Commerce and took over the chairmanship of the port construction commission founded on July 8, 1855 in the new Prussian jade region. After the drafts of two internationally known experts did not satisfy him, he submitted his own port design to the Prussian Admiralty on May 29, 1856. This design was characterized by great foresight and expertise, because it met the initially low requirements of the Prussian Admiralty, but also provided enough space for later extensions and additions. The Hagensche port plan with fortifications and urban settlement for the naval establishment received the approval and approval of the cabinet order of King Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia on June 25, 1856 . After completing the planning, he returned to the Prussian Ministry of Commerce on August 12, 1856. The plan was implemented in the following decade with various changes, most of which resulted from the ongoing development of port and shipbuilding. The plan still determines the layout of the town center today.
The Jade Treaty of 1853 contained the condition for Prussia that only civilians who were directly involved in building the port or supplying the ships were allowed to settle in the naval establishment. The plan by Hagen from 1856 therefore only shows a small town settlement on the south side of the port facilities. The settlement was made accessible via Sander Chaussee , which followed roughly the course of today's Bismarckstrasse from the Varel – Jever road via Sande, Mariensiel and Ebkeriege . Jachmannstrasse branched off from the Chaussee and led south to a bridge over the port canal. A precisely planned settlement with streets and residential areas at right angles was built here from 1858. The first naval structures were the pilot houses on Manteuffelstrasse. From here, year after year, further streets and buildings were laid out to the west, including Roonstrasse (today's Rheinstrasse). It was intended as the main street for the construction of larger representative buildings and gave the new district its name. While the Roonstrasse district grew carefully planned in Prussian territory, the Oldenburg town of Neu-Heppens sprang up wildly north of the port facilities . Here at the border settled all those who did not receive a permit within the Prussian area due to the condition of the Jade Treaty, among them many innkeepers with their pubs who enjoyed great popularity by the dock workers.
Originally the port called Zollern am Meer during the construction period was called Hafen Heppens . The name Wilhelmshaven is mentioned for the first time in the document that was walled up on the day of the inauguration (June 17, 1869) when the foundation stone of the Elisabeth Church (today Christ and Garrison Church ) was laid. The draft for this document comes from the port construction director Heinrich Wilhelm Goeker. He had written the name with "v" according to the Low German custom (like Bremerhaven and Cuxhaven ). In Berlin this supposed spelling error was corrected and the "v" was replaced by an "f". When Goeker noticed the change on the founding day, he turned to General Albrecht von Roon and the latter to King Wilhelm I of Prussia. The king then ordered the "v" to be used again.
German Empire 1871–1918
After the establishment of the German Empire in 1871, Wilhelmshaven on the North Sea and Kiel on the Baltic Sea became imperial war ports according to the imperial constitution . In 1873 Wilhelmshaven received city rights. Wilhelmshaven belonged as an exclave to what was then the district of Wittmund in the Prussian province of Hanover since 1866 . Due to the fleet foundation plan of 1873, the port was greatly expanded in a second construction phase until 1886. The canal port was widened and received an equipment port on its north side. In addition, because the original entrance no longer met the requirements, another entrance with a larger lock was built. It is further south and therefore more favorable to the current. When the new entrance was put into operation, it was given the name “New Entrance”; the first driveway built in 1869 was now the. "Old driveway". In 1888 the completion of the Ems-Jade Canal , which was integrated into the new port facilities, was celebrated.
The population in the Jade region increased steadily as a result of the construction work for the port expansion. Since the demand for living space in Wilhelmshaven in Prussia could not be satisfied quickly enough, ever larger sections of the population settled in the surrounding communities of Heppens and Neuende, which belong to the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg . New settlements emerged which, after the victorious Franco-Prussian War of 1870/1871, were given the names of French cities or landscapes, such as Belfort , Lorraine , Alsace , Sedan or Strasbourg . On November 1, 1879, the independent Oldenburg community of Bant emerged from the ever-growing town of Belfort.
With the reign of the fleet- loving Emperor Wilhelm II and his naval and foreign policy, the boom in Wilhelmshaven increased significantly. The imperial navy now took an active part in winning colonies in Africa, Asia and Oceania. In accordance with the growing importance of the Imperial Navy, the management structure within the Navy also changed. The 1898 Head of Reichsmarineamt appointed Alfred von Tirpitz put a concept to build a German High Seas Fleet before (Tirpitzplan) and let this concept by the fleet laws of 1898 and 1900 in the long run constant over time. The laws should end the constant quarrels in the Reichstag over the strength and financing of the fleet and enable long-term planning. For Wilhelmshaven, the fleet laws passed by the Reichstag meant a further expansion of the port and the shipyard as well as a strong increase in the number of ships and staff.
The Second Naval Act of 1900 provided for the permanent stationing of a squadron of eight ships of the line for Wilhelmshaven . In addition, at the beginning of the 20th century, the development of warship construction continued. Ever larger combat ship units were built. With the capital ships of the dreadnought class, the British navy presented a type of ship that trumped the previous ships of the line in every respect. If the Imperial Navy wanted to keep up, it also had to build such capital ships. The significantly larger dimensions of the new ships also required appropriate adjustments to the infrastructure of the navy ports, particularly in the shipyards, port facilities and locks.
The naval leadership therefore decided on a radical solution for Wilhelmshaven. In the years 1900 to 1909, in what was the most extensive construction phase to date, the Imperial Shipyard was enlarged, a third entrance was built and the port facilities were extended to the south. By laying the outer dike line between the “Neue Einfahrt” and Mariensiel, a large part of the wadden area south of the city was diked. The new harbor basins and facilities of the Great Harbor, the Intermediate Harbor and the West Harbor were built in the area gained in this way. In the course of this construction phase, the Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge was built as a link between the southern part of the city and the new outer dike line. The third entrance with a 250-meter-long double-chamber lock was created in the extension of the construction harbor canal to the northeast of the oldest entrance. When the third entrance was commissioned, the names of the entrances were reassigned. It was decided to number the entrances from west to east. This explains why the first driveway built is now called the 2nd driveway. On October 15, 1909, the new 3rd entrance was inaugurated with the first passage of the two new capital ships SMS Nassau and SMS Westfalen . Both were the first capital ships built at the Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven.
The population of Wilhelmshaven and the surrounding Oldenburg communities of Heppens, Neuende and Bant continued to increase as part of these construction measures. In the Oldenburg communities that belonged to the Jever office, the housing and social conditions in the rest of the office were completely different due to the progressive urban development. Therefore, on November 1, 1902, the three communities were spun off from the Jever district association and merged into a separate office, which was named after the old Frisian Gau Rüstringen . The request to found an independent city was initially rejected because the government of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg feared that it would lose its influence on the composition of the city administration. In this way the possible formation of a social democratically run city administration with its own police administration by the predominantly social democratically oriented workers in the communities was to be prevented.
The status of rural communities in the Rüstringen office did not end for the three communities of Heppens, Neuende and Bant until May 1, 1911 when they became the town of Rüstringen . With around 48,000 inhabitants, it was the largest city in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg and therefore also larger than the royal seat of Oldenburg .
Shortly after the beginning of the First World War in the summer of 1914, the twin towns of Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen and the entire area were declared a fortress . Strong restrictions for the population were associated with the status of a fortress, including the introduction of a compulsory pass, the prohibition of unauthorized entry into the port areas and the dykes, and the prohibition of civil shipping, including fishing. This was to prevent the war opponent from gaining information about the fleet activities in the area of the Jade.
The Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven reached its highest workforce during the First World War . The main task of the shipyard was to ensure the operational readiness of the deep sea fleet. She was not only responsible for the continuation of the planned new buildings, but primarily for the repair of the ships that were damaged during the war. Another task was to convert civilian ships into military auxiliary cruisers . At the end of the First World War in 1918, around 20,000 people were working at the Imperial Shipyard, including many women who were conscripted due to the war.
Despite the previous arms race , the German Imperial Navy was outnumbered by the British Navy at the beginning of the First World War. The German ocean-going fleet, most of which was stationed in Wilhelmshaven or on Schillig Roads off Wilhelmshaven, therefore behaved rather defensively until January 1916. A more offensive naval warfare was attempted from 1916 onwards with a policy of pinpricks. Targeted provocations were intended to lure individual parts of the British fleet out of their bases in order to then destroy them with the numerically superior ocean-going fleet that was waiting in a pick-up position .
The naval port of Wilhelmshaven was often the starting point for ventures of this kind. One of them led to the Skagerrak Battle on May 31, 1916 , the largest naval battle of the First World War between the high seas of the German Imperial Navy and the Grand Fleet of the British Navy. Both sides claimed victory for themselves; but although the Imperial Navy inflicted the significantly heavier losses on the British Navy, the German deep-sea fleet could not endanger the English supremacy at sea. Ultimately, the naval battles of the First World War (including the naval battle near Heligoland , the battle on the Dogger Bank and the Skagerrak Battle) had no decisive significance for the overall course of the First World War. Many of the fallen in the naval battles of the First World War were buried in Wilhelmshaven in the 1914 new cemetery of honor in the Rüstringer Stadtpark.
With the naval order of October 24, 1918 , the German admiralty intended a decisive battle ("honorable sinking") with the British Navy in the English Channel shortly before the end of the First World War . After the order to prepare the departure of the deep sea fleet broke on 29./30. October 1918 at first isolated mutinies of some ship crews of the fleet lying in Schillig roadstead in front of Wilhelmshaven, which led to the Kiel sailors uprising from November 3, 1918 . The uprising was the starting point of the November Revolution , which led to the proclamation of the Weimar Republic .
In Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen, after a mass demonstration by over 20,000 members of the navy, shipyard workers and other civilians, a workers 'and soldiers' council was formed on November 6, 1918 , the executive body of which was the “21er” council. Bernhard Kuhnt was appointed chairman of the council . The "21er" Council took power over the fortress cities without resistance from the military station command and on November 10, 1918, in front of around 100,000 enthusiastic demonstrators in Wilhelmshaven, declared the North Sea station and all surrounding islands and parts of the navy as well as the entire Oldenburg region to be the socialist republic of Oldenburg / East Frisia and the deposition of the Grand Duke of Oldenburg . Under the impression of the demonstrations and the pressure of the large majority of the members of the state parliament in Oldenburg, Grand Duke Friedrich August abdicated on November 11, 1918 and declared his resignation from the throne. The Free State of Oldenburg was then declared on the territory of the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg . As a provisional government, a provincial directorate was formed, which also included Paul Hug and Kuhnt, MPs from Rüstringen . Kuhnt became President of the new Free State of Oldenburg.
Weimar Republic 1919–1933
The list of candidates for the elections to the constituent national assembly on January 19, 1919 led to insurmountable contradictions within the SPD in Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen . When the Rüstringen MP Hug achieved a better position on the list than Kuhnt, the "21er" Council decided to run the election for the National Assembly with its own list for the USPD , with Kuhnt at its head. Despite the many USPD supporters among the 100,000 or so marines who were still in Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen at the end of 1918, large parts of the population voted not for the radical USPD, but for the more moderate SPD. While Hug was elected to the National Assembly, Kuhnt did not get the required number of votes.
After the USPD was defeated in the elections, the communist KPD tried to seize power by means of a coup . On January 27, 1919, their supporters occupied the train station, the post office, the telephone office, the Reichsbank office and the town halls of the twin towns of Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen. The putschists stole over 7 million marks from the Reichsbank office, including the entire gold stock of the branch. On the same day regular troops of the naval garrison were able to restore constitutional order. The putschists then withdrew to the thousand-man barracks in Wilhelmshaven and holed up. Since they did not want to give up, they were forced to surrender by artillery fire. Eight dead and 46 wounded were mourned. In the course of this action, the "21er" Council had to give up military control. It subsequently became known that its members had been informed of the planning of the coup, but had still not intervened. Kuhnt was then given leave of absence from the Ministry of Defense in Berlin and removed from his position as President of the Free State of Oldenburg on January 29, 1919.
On April 1, 1919 Wilhelmshaven became an independent city , two months later Rüstringen was given the status of "First Class City".
The conditions for the disarmament and surrender of a large part of the provisional Reichsmarine, which already came into effect with the armistice agreement of November 11, 1918, and the conditions for the reduction of the navy in the Versailles Peace Treaty of June 28, 1919 hit the economy of the Jade Cities hard in the post-war years . Due to the one-sided focus on the Imperial Shipyard and the Navy, a large part of the population lost its livelihood. The Imperial Shipyard, now renamed the Reichsmarinewerft, continued to operate on a significantly reduced basis, but was initially not allowed to build new ships due to the requirements of the Versailles Treaty. It was not until early 1925 that the launch of the light cruiser Emden marked the beginning of the first new build for the new Reichsmarine .
The efforts of the two cities to convert to peace production were manifold, but for various reasons repeatedly marked by failure. The attempt to establish a deep-sea fishing fleet in Wilhelmshaven started promisingly, but failed again in 1922 when the demand for fish collapsed due to the abolition of the meat rationing that had existed until then . The need for scrapping capacities only led to a short-term boom in this area. For a few years, Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen became the largest scrap yard in Europe with eleven scrapping yards. The introduction of the Rentenmark in late autumn 1923 brought this to an abrupt end. Almost all of the newly established companies had to close. From 1925, many unemployed people could be employed at short notice through emergency work in the construction sector, i.e. job creation measures . Thanks to these measures, construction projects such as the embankment of the Rüstersieler Außengroden, the construction of the Rüstringen town hall, the expansion of the Rüstringen city park and other urban development projects could be implemented by 1928.
In the second half of the 1920s, the city tried to create another civil pillar by expanding tourism . With a lot of advertising (“the green city by the sea”), attempts were made to build Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen as a modern North Sea resort for medium- sized businesses. A beach complex was created on the south beach with five clinker beach houses used as hotels and a beach hall, which still appear today as a closed ensemble. The buildings cost around 950,000 Reichsmarks and were inaugurated on June 16, 1928. The success proved the planners right. In 1928 10,543 guests were counted, a number that could be increased to around 13,000 by 1932 and thus contributed to a temporary improvement in the city's economic situation.
National Socialism 1933–1945
After seizing power in January 1933 which began Nazis systematically with the upgrade of Reichswehr and the Navy . The German-British naval agreement of 1935 allowed the armament, renamed the Kriegsmarine , to significantly expand its fleet. The Jade Cities then experienced a renewed economic upturn, because the introduced fleet policy required the further expansion of the port and shipyard facilities in Wilhelmshaven. The planning to expand the port to the north with a fourth entrance, which dates back to 1917, was resumed; Construction of the new driveway began as early as 1936. Like the third entrance, this had two lock chambers, which, however, were built at a greater distance from each other. The aim was to reduce the risk of simultaneous shutdown due to damage to the center wall during air raids. The dimensions of the new lock chambers (390 meters long, 60 meters wide) far exceeded the dimensions of the capital ships of the Bismarck class . The 4th entrance was put into operation on November 7th, 1942 with the sluice of the light cruiser Emden through the eastern chamber and baptized with the name Raeder lock. Due to the war, the entrance was only partially completed; until the end of the war only the eastern chamber could be used.
Through the Greater Hamburg Law of 1937, Wilhelmshaven , located in the Prussian province of Hanover , and Rüstringen in Oldenburg were combined to form the new city of Wilhelmshaven on April 1, 1937, and this was assigned to the Free State of Oldenburg . At the same time, the neighboring village of Rüstersiel was incorporated . Another regional reform on June 1, 1938 expanded the city area to include parts of the neighboring municipality of Kniphausen , which was formed in 1933 . Plans arose on the drawing board that provided for an expansion of the city to up to 500,000 inhabitants. Decentralized settlements on the outskirts of the city were built for the steadily growing population. In the course of this construction work, Altengroden , Neuengroden , Fedderwardergroden and Voslapp were built . In 1940 the population reached its historic high of 133,041.
During the Second World War, the building structure of the city was extensively destroyed by more than 100 air raids , 16 of which were major attacks.
On February 28, 1941, two trains collided near Wilhelmshaven. 21 people died and another 28 were injured.
The first air raid on Wilhelmshaven took place on September 4, 1939, the last on March 30, 1945. On January 27, 1943, the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) launched their first day raid on a target in the German Reich against Wilhelmshaven. Of the 55 four-engine bombers, 8 were shot down. Probably the most severe air raid destroyed the old Wilhelmshaven on October 15, 1944. At the end of the war, 60% of the living space was in ruins. The comparatively low number of aerial warfare fatalities (435) was due to the many air raid shelters that u. a. were established by the Führer Emergency Program . Most of the aerial warfare deaths were buried in row graves at the municipal cemetery in Aldenburg . A memorial there has been commemorating the civilian bomb victims in the city since 1978.
In the era of National Socialism took place in Wilhelmshaven persecution, coercion and oppression. The Neuengamme concentration camp had maintained a satellite camp on Alter Banter Weg since September 1944 . The inmates, mostly French, had to do forced labor and were used, for example, in the navy shipyard and in the bomb clearance in the city. 1,125 men were crammed into four barracks under adverse conditions; at least 234 of them did not survive the inhuman circumstances of internment. Today part of the camp site is a concentration camp memorial. In April 1945 the SS dissolved the Wilhelmshaven concentration camp. The prisoners were to be brought to the main camp in Hamburg-Neuengamme by train. 256 men were killed at a stopover in Lüneburg train station when the train was hit in an Allied air raid. The head of the transport, the then 36-year-old Danish SS man Gustav Alfred Jepsen, was sentenced to death in 1947 for the crimes he committed in the Wilhelmshaven concentration camp and executed in Hameln prison.
Around 1000 Dutch were interned in the Schwarzer Weg camp in 1945.
On May 6, 1945, the city was occupied by the 1st Polish Armored Division set up in Scotland under the command of Stanisław Maczek . With the German surrender on May 8, 1945, began Wilhelmshaven occupation in the British occupation zone . The most extensive elimination of Wilhelmshaven as a naval port city, which was initially announced, was averted. It remained with the dismantling and shipping of the entire inventory of the Kriegsmarinewerft as well as the destruction of all military facilities. In the course of the "Bailiff" operation, all shipyards and quays, docks and locks including the new 4th entrance were blown up by the spring of 1950. Only the second oldest and smallest entrance, the 1st entrance, was spared the destruction.
In the course of Operation Oasis , around 1,550 European Jews were housed in the Sengwarden naval camp from November 1947 to August 1948 on the instructions of the British military government . These people had tried to illegally enter Palestine (then a British League of Nations mandate ) on the ship Exodus ; the British mandate administration brought them back to Europe.
Federal Republic 1949–1999
As a result of the dismantling and destruction of almost all shipyards, unemployment initially rose dramatically. In June 1952, the unemployment rate in the Wilhelmshaven employment office district was 24.3% (for comparison: Federal Government 7.6%; State of Lower Saxony 12.3%). Deprived of its port infrastructure, the city had to reorient itself and look for other economic foundations. This succeeded with the relocation of some medium-sized companies, such as the crane manufacturer Krupp-Ardelt, the worsted yarn spinning and weaving mill KSW and the commercial vehicle manufacturer Nordwestdeutscher Fahrzeugbau . These companies used the vacant real estate of the former navy and the skilled labor supply, which mainly consisted of the workers of the former navy shipyard. The Olympia-Werke , which settled in Roffhausen, which is now part of the current city of Schortens, in the district of Friesland, also contributed to an economic upswing thanks to the employees there.
Efforts to locate universities and scientific institutes such as the University for Work, Politics and Economy in Rustersiel , the Pedagogical University for trade teachers, the Pedagogical University for agricultural teachers, the Max Planck Institute for Cell Biology and the Lower Saxony State Institute for were also successful Marsh and Wurtenforschung, today the Lower Saxony Institute for Historical Coastal Research and the Institute for Bird Research - Helgoland Ornithological Center. From the early 1960s, Wilhelmshaven lost most of these facilities again. Only the two state institutes, the Institute for Bird Research and the Institute for Historical Coastal Research, could be held in Wilhelmshaven. Another new school facility in Wilhelmshaven was the “ Prince Rupert School”. The English boarding school founded in 1947 for the children of British crew members was housed on the site of the former submarine barracks directly on Lake Banter. It existed until 1972 and at times had more than 700 students at their wedding. The English boarding school children with their typical British school uniforms shaped the Wilhelmshaven cityscape for many years.
With the German rearmament and the establishment of the Federal Navy , Wilhelmshaven became a naval port again in 1956. On January 2, 1956, the first volunteers of the new German Navy began their service in Wilhelmshaven, and on June 6, 1956 the first ships, mine clearance boats returned by the USA of the former German Navy, came in. The new defense concept also provided for the construction of a naval arsenal for the maintenance and repair of the new ship units. In 1957, planning began on the site of the former navy shipyard. Within 15 years one of the largest employers in Wilhelmshaven was built on the rubble site. At the same time as the construction of the naval arsenal, planning for the reconstruction of the blown up 4th entrance began. The new construction of a tide-independent outer port with a naval base was included in the reconstruction. The first preparatory work began in 1956. On October 4, 1964, the new 4th entrance opened. The Heppenser Groden naval base in the outer harbor was inaugurated on August 9, 1968.
In November 1956 the Nord-West-Oelleitung GmbH (NWO) was founded in Wilhelmshaven. The aim of the company is to build and operate the first mineral oil pipeline in Europe in order to ensure the supply of raw materials to several mineral oil refineries in the Emsland and the Rhine-Ruhr area. The operating facilities of the NWO were built on the Heppenser Groden, which included a tanker extinguishing bridge on the deep Jade fairway, an intermediate tank farm on the Heppenser Groden and a 28-inch mineral oil pipeline with all the necessary technical equipment. The new company started operations in November 1958. On November 29, 1958, the first crude oil tankers called Wilhelmshaven and discharged their cargo. Since then, the newly built Wilhelmshaven oil port has developed into the largest mineral oil import port in the Federal Republic of Germany.
On July 1, 1972, the municipality of Sengwarden with its associated districts or residential areas, including Fedderwarden , was incorporated into Wilhelmshaven. With this, the urban area of Wilhelmshaven reached its present size.
In the years 1970 to 1981, further large-scale industrial companies were set up on the newly gained areas on the deep Jade fairway. After the Nord-West-Oelleitung GmbH in Heppenser Groden , a plant for chlor-alkali electrolysis (Alusuisse Atlantik GmbH) and a power plant (Nordwestdeutsche Kraftwerke AG) in Rustersieler Groden as well as a crude oil refinery of Mobil Oil AG and a chemical plant of Imperial Chemical Industries were built for the production of VCM and PVC in Voslapper Groden. The economic development that had been positive for Wilhelmshaven until then ended with the oil crisis of 1979 . The economic recession that followed the oil crisis and the associated decline in the consumption of mineral oil products ultimately led to the refinery being shut down on April 1, 1985. The refinery was only put back into operation in 1991 after it was sold to Beta Raffinerie Wilhelmshaven GmbH .
From the mid-1980s, the bad economic news from AEG Olympia AG , the largest industrial employer in the Wilhelmshaven / Friesland region, increased. After years of losses at the office machine manufacturer, the corporate headquarters of the parent companies AEG and Daimler-Benz decided in October 1991 to withdraw from office communication and to close the location with its workforce of around 3,600. Under the motto “Olympia - the heart of the region must live on”, a labor dispute of the Olympic employees, which was noticed nationwide, followed over the next few months to keep their jobs. Actions in Wilhelmshaven, Frankfurt and Stuttgart reminded of the responsibility of the Daimler-Benz group and increased public pressure to create replacement jobs in the Wilhelmshaven / Friesland region. Nevertheless, the closure of the location in Roffhausen at the end of 1992 could not be prevented. As a positive result of the labor dispute, a concept for a TCN (Technologie Centrum Nordwest) was developed, which provided for the outsourcing and continuation of operating parts of the Olympia as independent companies as well as the settlement of new companies on the TCN site. The concept received support from the state government of Lower Saxony, the parent company Daimler-Benz, the district of Friesland , the city of Schortens and the employee representatives. At the beginning of 1993 the TCN had 14 companies with around 750 employees. This positive development continued, so that by the end of 2015, with more than 3,000 employees in a total of 60 companies, the number of employees of the Olympia-Werke who previously worked on the site was almost reached again.
In December 1994, construction work on the North Sea Passage began. The 34,000 m² largest shopping center in Wilhelmshaven was built on the site of the old Wilhelmshaven train station and forecourt. The 150 million DM construction project, initially known as the "Bahnhofszentrum", not only provides space for retail, but also houses the new Wilhelmshaven train station and the Wilhelmshaven bus station, as well as two parking garages. After around three years of construction, the North Sea Passage was inaugurated on September 4, 1997.
Federal Republic 2000 until today
From June 1, 2000 to October 31, 2000, the "Expo am Meer" took place in Wilhelmshaven as one of the official Expo 2000 projects for the world exhibition in Hanover . The Sparkasse Wilhelmshaven brought the highly regarded German contribution to the world exhibition Expo 98 in Lisbon to Wilhelmshaven. Its content has been revised and found a new home as the virtual underwater research station OCEANIS directly at the “Great Harbor”. In the research station, the world of the deep sea was shown from a depth of 100 meters. By the end of 2007, over a million visitors had visited the research station. At the end of 2009 the OCEANIS was closed and reopened in 2010 as "North Sea Worlds 5D in Oceanis". In addition to parts of the old Oceanis exhibition, the focus was now on 3D cinema films with additional effects. In July 2011, however, the company had to file for bankruptcy and close.
After 16 years of planning and four and a half years of construction, the JadeWeserPort was officially opened on September 21, 2012 . The container port in the north of Wilhelmshaven was one of the largest infrastructure projects in northern Germany in recent decades. The two federal states of Lower Saxony and Bremen and the container port operator Eurogate have invested around one billion euros .
The Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge was renovated from September 2010 to September 2013 . It was repaired in terms of steel construction and received u. a. a new coating and new coverings for the roadways and sidewalks. The railing was restored according to the historical model. In addition, the bridge was equipped with a new lighting concept that is intended to highlight it as a symbol of the city. The bridge houses in the vicinity of the bridge were completely renovated and a new staircase was built to access the north wing.
From December 2012, at the suggestion of the Lord Mayor of Wilhelmshaven Andreas Wagner and the District Administrator of the Friesland District Sven Ambrosy, a controversial debate about more intensive cooperation between the two municipalities developed. Background was u. a. the future program of the state of Lower Saxony , which assumes 75% of the short-term debts of the municipalities involved in the merger in the case of regional reforms. In the case of Wilhelmshaven-Friesland, the debt relief aid would have been 35 million euros for Wilhelmshaven and 9 million euros for Friesland. In order to clarify the potential for savings, an expert opinion was commissioned from the independent communal joint agency for administrative management (KGSt) , which was intended to examine the financial effects of a possible merger between the city of Wilhelmshaven and the district of Friesland. The report was published in November 2013 and recommended that the city of Wilhelmshaven be encircled in the district of Friesland. Wilhelmshaven should therefore have given up its freedom of the district . However, the political leaders could not decide on this solution. In December 2013, both municipalities refused to be encircled in their respective bodies.
In accordance with a city council resolution from October 2014, the previous, Catholic-run St. Willehad Hospital was taken over by the city on November 7, 2014 and incorporated into the city's Reinhard Nieter Hospital with the new common name Klinikum Wilhelmshaven . A new building is to be added over the next few years.
In April 2015, on a private initiative, Bismarckplatz received a new Bismarck monument . The donation was highly controversial among the public. However, the city council approved the project with a narrow majority.
The Lower Saxony Day took place in Wilhelmshaven from June 14 to 16, 2019 . The ceremony for the 150th anniversary of the city of Wilhelmshaven was embedded in the presentations and events of the Lower Saxony Day.
|Tabular representation of the development of Wilhelmshaven|
|Heppens||New end 1||-||Sengwarden|
becomes a city
|1911||Merger to form the city of Rüstringen|
|1937||Association for the new city of Wilhelmshaven|
|1938||Parts of the municipality of Kniphausen zu Wilhelmshaven|
|1972||Sengwarden to Wilhelmshaven|
1 community of Neuende with the village of Rüstersiel
In 1853 only 335 people lived in the Royal Prussian Jade Region. With the expansion of the port, the population grew to over 10,000 by 1875. By 1895, that number had doubled to 20,000. With the incorporation of Rüstringen (48,562 inhabitants 1933) on April 1, 1937, the population rose to 91,000. In 1938 the population of the city of Wilhelmshaven exceeded the limit of 100,000, making it a major city . In 1940 the population reached its historic high of 133,041. As a result of the destruction in World War II, this fell by a third to 89,000 in December 1945.
In the 1970s the population was still over 100,000. It then fell sharply as a result of several company closings, in particular the decline of the Olympia typewriter factory , and the downsizing of the Bundeswehr location. On June 30, 2006, the “ official population ” for Wilhelmshaven was 83,238 according to an update by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics (only main residences and after comparison with the other state offices). Wilhelmshaven was the most rapidly shrinking city in Lower Saxony and was particularly hard hit by the consequences of demographic change. According to a population forecast by the Lower Saxony development bank NBank from May 2015, the upper center Wilhelmshaven should lose around 20% of its inhabitants by 2035 and could slip below 63,000 inhabitants. In addition to Wilhelmshaven, the cities of Göttingen, Hildesheim and Salzgitter, the Leine and Weserbergland as well as the western Harz, Lüchow-Dannenberg and the area around the Jade Bay are hardest hit.
On May 31, 2013, the State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony published the results of the 2011 census for Lower Saxony. According to this, Wilhelmshaven had 76,926 inhabitants as of December 31, 2011. This is a decrease of 5.1% compared to the previous official population of 81,020 as of December 31, 2011, which is based on an extrapolation of the 1987 census. After Osnabrück (−6.4%), Wilhelmshaven was the city in Lower Saxony most affected by the recalculation.
The high number of people moving from crisis areas since the beginning of the so-called refugee crisis in 2015 presented the city of Wilhelmshaven with major challenges in terms of the social and economic integration of refugees . For the first time since 2013, the number of residents rose from 78,237 in 2014 to 79,218 in 2018. In November 2017, the state of Lower Saxony issued an immigration ban for recognized refugees in Wilhelmshaven . The so-called location - adjusted residence requirement is a “temporary immigration restriction” and is intended to support communities that have an exceptionally high influx of recognized refugees relative to their resident population. The immigration ban is intended to reduce problems with integration.
Locals and outsiders alike often refer to Wilhelmshaven as Schlicktau or Schlicktown . The name Schlicktau comes from the imperial navy , which combined an allusion to the silt of the Wilhelmshaven Watts and the end of the word for the capital Tsingtau of the former lease area of Kiautschou in China. During the colonial times , mainly Wilhelmshaven marines were stationed in Tsingtau . The well-known naval writer Gorch Fock , who was in Wilhelmshaven with the ship SMS Wiesbaden in April 1916 , used the name Schlicktau in his diary. The term Schlicktown, which is used quite often today , only emerged in the years after the Second World War, when English became the predominant language among the alliance countries in the Navy as a result of the Bundeswehr's membership in NATO . Because of these connections with the second name, the city of Wilhelmshaven made contact with the port city of Tsingtau, today's Qingdao , in the 1990s . There has been an official port partnership between the two cities since 1992.
Religions and humanistic communities
According to the 2011 census , 44.8% of the population were Protestant , 11.5% Roman Catholic and 43.7% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information. The number of Catholics, and especially Protestants, has fallen since then; At 51%, people who do not belong to any religious community under public law make up the majority of the population. Currently (as of December 31, 2019) less than half of the population belong to one of the two large Christian churches, namely 38.0% of the Protestant and 10.5% of the Catholic Church. More than half of the people of Wilhelmshaven (51.4% and 1% more than in the previous year) belonged to another or no denomination.
The area of today's city of Wilhelmshaven initially belonged to the area of the Archdiocese of Bremen or to the Archdeaconate of Rüstringen. Under Maria von Jever could Reformation finding their way. The first Protestant sermon was held in Neuende in 1525 and in Heppens in 1532. After that, the area was almost exclusively Protestant for many centuries. The Lutheran creed was predominant . With the transition to the Duchy or Grand Duchy of Oldenburg , today's Wilhelmshaven city area became part of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg .
After the city of Wilhelmshaven was founded in 1873, nine years later in 1882 a separate Protestant parish was founded. This congregation was able to hold its first “civil” service in the garrison church, today's Christ and Garrison Church, on July 19, 1883 , after this church had initially only been built for the naval members of the garrison. In the same year, the community received its own church council, and on January 1, 1886, it was affiliated to the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Hanover , since the city of Wilhelmshaven was part of the Prussian province of Hanover at the time. The Protestants in the neighboring communities, which at the time did not yet belong to Wilhelmshaven, continued to belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg.
It was not until 1901 that the young Evangelical Lutheran civil parish in Wilhelmshaven received its own church on the corner plot of Peterstrasse / Adalbertstrasse, the Christ Church. This was destroyed in 1941 and not rebuilt. In September 1942, the Elisabeth or Garrison Church was badly damaged by bombs, but that same year at Christmas, services could be held again in the poorly repaired church. The Evangelical Lutheran parish of Wilhelmshaven acquired the church from the federal government in 1959 and renamed it the Christ and Garrison Church in Wilhelmshaven .
The double name is intended to keep alive the tradition of the "old" Christ Church, which was destroyed in the war. After the city of Wilhelmshaven was assigned to the State of Oldenburg in 1937, the Evangelical Lutheran Church Community of Wilhelmshaven - like all other parishes in the city - also belonged to the Oldenburg regional church. Wilhelmshaven became the seat of a parish to which today all Protestant parishes in the city (with the exception of the free churches) and some neighboring parishes (e.g. Jever, Schortens) belong.
Since Catholic navy members also came to Wilhelmshaven from the beginning , the first Holy Mass was held for them in the garrison church from 1886. In 1878/1879 the parish church of St. Marien was built for the Catholics of the entire Jade Room on Ansgaristraße, which was destroyed in World War II and replaced by a new building elsewhere in 1954–1956 . Another older Catholic church is St. Willehad , which was built in 1911. The Catholics of the city of Wilhelmshaven initially belonged to the Oldenburg deanery, which at the time was responsible for the entire northern part of the state of Oldenburg including the then still Prussian city of Wilhelmshaven.
The dean's office in Oldenburg belonged to the Episcopal Muenster official office in Oldenburg, based in Vechta . This officialate as part of the diocese of Münster was founded in 1831 after the failure of the formation of a separate Catholic diocese for the state of Oldenburg in Vechta. The arrival of more Catholics, especially after the Second World War, made it necessary to reorganize the deaneries of the Münster diocese. In 1954, Wilhelmshaven became the seat of its own deanery , which today includes all the parishes in the city. This dean's office - like the formerly responsible dean's office in Oldenburg - also belongs to the Oldenburg official office of the diocese of Münster.
The Old Catholic Congregation , which was founded by a small group in 2013, has had the status of an independent congregation since January 1st, 2014.
The New Apostolic Church and Jehovah's Witnesses are also represented. The Catholic Apostolic Church also has a place of worship in Wilhelmshaven. One of two Coptic Orthodox communities in Lower Saxony is located in the Wilhelmshaven district of Voslapp .
Jewish life in Wilhelmshaven and Rüstringen can be traced back to the beginning of the 19th century. At first, however, the information is sparse. In his book Die Oldenburger Judenschaft , the former regional rabbi Leo Trepp wrote : “In 1817 Moses Arons from Rustersiel had Cerf Isaac from Verden as a private teacher and slaughterer. The teacher asked for further work permits, his employer issued him a certificate, but could only sign it with two crosses. "
Around 1870, the Jews began to use the facilities of the Jewish community in Neustadtgödens in what is now the city area . An official contract between the "Wilhelmshavener Group" and the community of Neustadtgödens was signed on January 13, 1876. As early as 1895, the Wilhelmshaven Jews came together to form the "Wilhelmshaven Israelite Association" and in 1899 they left the community of Neustadtgödens as a whole. In 1915 its own synagogue was consecrated in Wilhelmshaven. The representative building of the community, which was still small at the time, was located at the intersection of Börsenstrasse and Parkstrasse and cost 130,000 gold marks . Based on the synagogue in Essen, it combined elements of Art Nouveau and Neo-Baroque and also served as a place of worship for the Jewish marines. Among other things, it contained a traditional immersion bath ( mikveh ). The windows of the building were decorated with figural scenes, which is rare in synagogues.
In 1933, 191 Jewish persons were registered in the now unified Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringen community. By 1938, due to the increasing disenfranchisement under National Socialism, around 100 Jews had left the city. In the early morning of November 10, 1938 , the synagogue was set on fire, presumably by a large amount of poured gasoline. The fire brigade was only present to secure the surrounding buildings, but did not fight the fire in the synagogue. Since the fire did not initially have the expected effect, it was started again on the morning of November 10th. He completely destroyed the roof structure and the rest of the building. Several dozen Jews from Wilhelmshaven perished in concentration camps by the end of the Second World War . Synagogenplatz was prepared as a memorial in the 1970s .
The Turkish Islamic Community in Wilhelmshaven has around 200 members, mostly of Turkish origin. The community is a member of DITIB , the Turkish-Islamic Union of the Institute for Religion, and maintains the Fatih Camii in the southern part of the city . The prayer room and the community rooms of the mosque are located on a former commercial site on Admiral-Klatt-Straße. In recent years, the community has taken part in the Open Mosque Day to break down prejudices against the Islamic religion and the Muslims living in Wilhelmshaven .
The Freemason Lodge "Wilhelm zum silbernen Anker" is at home in Wilhelmshaven . The lodge was founded on March 9, 1879 as a member of the Great Lodge of Prussia, called "Royal York for Friendship" . The lodge is named after Kaiser Wilhelm I , the Grand Master of the Royal York Grand Lodge at the time , who is also the namesake of the city of Wilhelmshaven. After its foundation, the lodge experienced a brisk influx of members, so that in 1890 a lodge house was built next to the Elizabeth Church , today's Christ and Garrison Church , and inaugurated on September 14, 1890. During the National Socialist era , the lodge was banned in 1934 and the expropriated lodge house was initially used as a naval and colonial museum, and later as the naval officials' home. In 1947 the lodge was reorganized in the humanitarian grand lodge "Old Free and Accepted Masons of Germany". V. and received the lodge house back in 1950. The lodge house on Rheinstrasse, which is now a listed building, is also available to other lodges, associations and connections.
The Friends of the Logenhaus Wilhelmshaven also promotes young musicians under the name "Musikforum im Logenhaus" by organizing free events in the Logenhaus for these young musicians, thus enabling them to take their first steps in front of an audience.
The city council of Wilhelmshaven consists of 38 council members for the 2016–2021 election period. The stipulated number for a city with a population between 75,001 and 100,000 is usually 44 councilors. By resolution of the city council, this number was reduced by six council members for the 2016–2021 term. The city council is elected for a five-year term. The current electoral term began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The full-time Lord Mayor is also entitled to vote in the City Council. Since November 1, 2019, this has been Carsten Feist (non-party).
The city of Wilhelmshaven was always a stronghold of the SPD until the local elections in 2001. In the local elections in 2006, the SPD continued to emerge as the strongest parliamentary group despite high losses , but for the first time in 20 years it had neither an absolute majority nor was it represented in a majority group in the city council. In the 2011 local elections, the SPD again suffered a sharp drop in votes of −5.8% and reached a new low with 32.1%, while the CDU made slight gains with +1.1% and formed the strongest parliamentary group. In the 2011–2016 election period, the two parties then formed a majority group.
In the local elections in 2016, this majority group consisting of CDU and SPD was punished by the voters. The SPD reached another historic low with 26.0%, but remained the strongest force in the council. The CDU only received 20.2% of the votes and thus lost almost a third of its previous votes. The AfD , which appeared for the first time, became the third strongest party with 11.2% of the vote. A total of eleven parties are represented in the new city council. After initial discussions, the CDU and the WBV first formed a group (11 seats) that has one vote more than the SPD parliamentary group (10 seats). The third strongest force was the group “green-independent-social”, an alliance of the Greens, UWG, BASU and the party (8 seats).
In the constituent council meeting on November 2, 2016, WBV councilor Stefan Becker was elected as the new council chairman. Christina Heide from the SPD became his deputy. Ursula Glaser (CDU) and Uwe Reese (SPD) were elected as honorary mayors.
In March 2017, the AfD's faction split in the city council after an AfD member was reprimanded by the city council's council of elders for making xenophobic statements on a private Facebook page he managed. The subsequent dispute within the AfD parliamentary group led to two members leaving the AfD parliamentary group. They founded an independent parliamentary group called Alternative für Wilhelmshaven (AfW) .
On June 18, 2019, Florian Wiese switched from the Left Party to the SPD, which means that the Left has no longer been represented on the city council.
On August 28, 2019, the FDP and Free Voters merged to form the FDP / FW council group.
On September 9, 2019, Councilor Sebastian Seidel resigned from the SPD parliamentary group, which again holds 10 members. Since then he has been a member of the Council as a non-attached MP.
On September 18, 2019, the AfDW parliamentary group and the AfD parliamentary group merged to form the AfD parliamentary group, which means that it is represented again with 4 members.
The last local election on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following result (with the change compared to the local election on September 11, 2011):
|Political party||Proportional votes||change||Number of seats||change|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||10.6%||−3.6%||4th||−2|
|Wilhelmshavener Citizens' Association (WBV)||8.5%||+ 3.6%||3||+2|
|The left||3.2%||+ 0.3%||1||0|
|BASU - Alliance for Education, Labor, Social Affairs and Environment||2.7%||−0.5%||1||−1|
|Free voters Wilhelmshaven (FW)||2.6%||−1.8%||1||+1|
|Individual applicants||0.5%||+ 0.5%||0||0|
The turnout in the 2016 local elections was 48.78%. For comparison: in the previous local elections on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 50.7%.
The civil administration of the young settlement near the naval port of Heppens was initially the responsibility of the Prussian Admiralty. In accordance with the statute of August 4, 1873, Wilhelmshaven was declared a city and thereby also received its own mayor . With the district freedom in 1919, this received the title of Lord Mayor . In addition to the mayor, there was a council elected by the people.
In 1946 the British military government introduced a local constitution based on the British model. Then there was an elected council, which elected an honorary mayor from among its members as chairman and representative of the city. In addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also elected by the council, as head of the city administration.
In 2002, the dual leadership in the city administration in Wilhelmshaven was given up after the term of office of senior city director Arno Schreiber had ended. Since then, there has only been one full-time Lord Mayor. He is also head of the city administration and representative of the city and is directly elected by the people. There is also a chairman of the council, who is elected from among its members at the constituent meeting of the council.
On May 26, 2019, the individual applicant Carsten Feist was elected as the new Lord Mayor of the city in a runoff election. Feist received 53.59% of the vote, his opponent Niels Weller (SPD) 46.41% of the vote. The turnout was 47.34%. The term of office of the new Lord Mayor is seven years. He took office on November 1, 2019. Feist replaced the previous mayor Andreas Wagner (CDU), who was no longer running.
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
In the elections to the Lower Saxony state parliament , Wilhelmshaven belongs to the state electoral district 069 Wilhelmshaven , which includes the entire city. The direct mandate was won at the beginning of 2013 by Holger Ansmann from the SPD, who replaced the lawyer Uwe Biester , who was no longer in office, from the CDU. In the last state election in Lower Saxony on October 15, 2017 , he was able to maintain the direct mandate with 45.8% of the votes against the CDU applicant Stephan Hellwig. The electoral term ends in 2022.
Wilhelmshaven belongs to the parliamentary constituency of Friesland - Wilhelmshaven , which also includes the districts of Friesland and Wittmund . The directly elected MP is Siemtje Möller (SPD). No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.
coat of arms
The city's eventful history is also reflected in its coat of arms. Wilhelmshaven did not receive its first coat of arms until July 28, 1892, almost two decades after it was granted city rights on December 10, 1873. On this day, Kaiser Wilhelm II signed the “Highest Order” for the city's coat of arms. Blazon : “In blue a golden anchor with two crossed, overturned golden swords, covered with a silver heart shield, inside the Prussian eagle with insignia. A three-tower wall crown on the shield ”. The city colors were black, white and blue and symbolized the Prussian colors over the sea.
With the unification of the communities of Heppens, Neuende and Bant on May 1, 1911 to form the town of Rüstringen, separate national emblems were required. On July 3, 1911, the "Rüstringer Friese" became the symbol of the town of Rüstringen based on a design by Georg Sello . He derived his design of the Frisian with spear and shield from the medieval seal image of the Rüstringer country. When the cities of Wilhelmshaven and Rüstringen were united to form the city of Wilhelmshaven on April 1, 1937, the coat of arms of the city of Rüstringen was abandoned.
For the time being it stayed with the Prussian coat of arms of the city; but considerations had to be made for a new coat of arms. A removal of the heart shield with the Prussian eagle was not appropriate due to the similarity with the coat of arms of the city of Solingen . Only on March 7, 1939, before Adolf Hitler's visit to the launch of the battleship Tirpitz on April 1, 1939 and the presentation of the certificates of honorary citizenship granted on June 29, 1937 by the united city of Wilhelmshaven, was a new coat of arms introduced on a heraldic design by the graduate engineer Heinz Baumann is based. Blazon: "Split by blue and silver, a silver sword in front, four blue wavy bars behind."
On January 15, 1946, this coat of arms had to be abandoned by order of the British military government. Curiously, it was included in the badge of the "Prince Rupert School", an English boarding school for the children of British crew members.
In the autumn of 1947, the city council decided to look for new emblems in an "unlimited competition for coats of arms, flags and seals". The drafts of the painter Dettmar Coldewey achieved the places 1 to 3. However, none of these drafts was accepted. The city council finally decided in favor of the old shield figure of the "Rüstringer Friesen" and commissioned the councilor and painter teacher Georg Emil Baumann to redesign the herald figure based on a design of a nail picture , the frieze by Prof. Bernhard Winter from the First World War. Due to the warlike configuration of the Frisian with a shield and a raised spear, one was initially not sure whether the draft would meet with the approval of the British military government. But on November 18, 1948, this coat of arms was approved by the Lower Saxony Ministry of the Interior and accepted by the city.
Blazon : “In gold, a running red-haired warrior in natural colors, with hair, round shield, lance end and feet touching the edge of the shield, in a red lap doublet, trousers and shoes, with a red sword belted and pared with gold in a red scabbard, a small one in the outstretched left red round shield, inside a golden circle crossed by four golden crosses, in the slightly downward right hand a red Frisian lance raised on the upper edge of the round shield. "
In various representations, including on the city flag, the Frieze has blond hair; but the approved design, which was deposited in the State Archives in Hanover, shows him with red hair. In fact, in a preliminary draft, the Frieze had "blonde" hair and gold fittings on the spear, sword and shield. However, since golden elements on a golden background would not have been correct for reasons of tinging , color changes had to be made.
Wilhelmshaven maintains city partnerships with the following cities:
- Vichy ( France ), since 1965
- Norfolk ( USA , Virginia ), since 1976
- Dunfermline ( United Kingdom , Scotland ), since 1979
- Bydgoszcz ( Poland ), since 2006
We have friendly relationships with the following cities:
- Bad Harzburg ( Germany , Lower Saxony ), friendship between cities since 1988
- Qingdao ( China ), port partnership since 1992
- Logroño ( Spain ), friendship between cities
The districts of Sengwarden and Fedderwarden maintain a partnership with
Culture and sights
Museums and exhibitions
Wilhelmshaven has several museums and exhibitions. With 100,000 visitors annually, the German Naval Museum , which opened in 1998 on the south beach, has the greatest public interest. It collects and preserves exhibits on the history of all German navies since 1848. The museum is located in the building of the former “Scheibenhofwerkstatt”, a listed remnant of the torpedo yard of the Imperial Shipyard, which was built around 1888 . Attached to this is an approximately 3000 m² outdoor area with berths directly at the connecting port. Among other things, the minehunter of the Lindau class Weilheim , the guided missile destroyer Mölders and the submarine of the class 205 U-10 can be seen there.
Opposite the Naval Museum is the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden Sea Visitor Center for the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park . His exhibition deals with the Wadden Sea Habitat . To support the protection goals of the national park and to promote nature and environmental awareness, the different topics of birds, mud flats, salt marshes, fishing, dangers in the mudflats and storms are prepared and conveyed in a playful way. The panoramic terrace of the building offers a panoramic view of the inner port areas of Wilhelmshaven and the Jade Bay . From December 2010 to July 2011 the Wadden Sea House was converted into a Wadden Sea Visitor Center . So the building got a direct connection to the south beach promenade. The 14-meter-long skeleton and the plastinated organs of a real sperm whale have been on display in the Wadden Sea Visitor Center since August 2011 as part of the “Wal.Welten” exhibition in the coastal museum in Wilhelmshaven . The sperm whale, stranded off the island of Baltrum in 1994, weighed 39 tons. The organ parts shown are correspondingly large.
The coastal museum Wilhelmshaven on Weserstraße conveys a wide variety of topics on the past, present and future of the coastal area as well as the city history of Wilhelmshaven.
Since 2012, the Wilhelmshaven prison museum has been located in the former air raid shelter on the grounds of the penal institution at Ölhafendamm 2 , a small museum that illustrates the development of penal systems over the past 100 years with over 200 exhibits.
Theater and cabaret
The city's theatrical life began to unfold during the construction of the first port. From 1864 on, performances by various private theater companies, some under primitive conditions, are documented. In 1874 the “Kaisersaal” of the “Berliner Hof” restaurant in Manteuffelstraße was opened and used regularly. Often there and in other locations there were also guest performances by other theaters, including from Bremen, Hamburg, Marburg, Kassel and Berlin, on the program. Towards the end of the century, the "Burg Hohenzollern" hotel (where the Karstadt department store, later Hertie, was built between 1921 and 1924) began to overtake the "Berliner Hof". Operas and operettas were played here by constantly changing guest ensembles.
Attempts were made again and again to set up a municipal theater of their own with a permanent staff, but the various undertakings initially had no duration. In 1925, the large hall of the seaman's house on Bismarckstrasse was expanded into a theater room with 575 seats. The stage was known as the “New Playhouse of the Jade Cities”. Robert Hellwig, a former Austrian reserve officer, took over the house in autumn 1926 and knew how to bring order to the theater in Wilhelmshaven. He oriented himself strongly to the taste of the audience and relied on a mixed repertoire of classical plays, swans and operettas. He also succeeded in receiving increasing grants from the Jade Cities from year to year. In 1938 Hellwig went to Innsbruck , and the city took over the stage as the “city theater”. On March 22, 1943, the seaman's house with the theater in it was completely destroyed in an air raid.
Immediately after the Second World War, a “theater construction association” was founded with the aim of promoting the construction of a new theater. The old naval directorate, a building from 1904, was converted into a theater according to plans by the Rasch city building council. The open inner courtyard of the house was converted into a theater room by roofing. Initially, however , the Stadttheater Wilhelmshaven did not have its own ensemble. It only received this when the former East Frisian state theater moved from Leer to Wilhelmshaven in 1952 and was henceforth called Landesbühne Niedersachsen Nord . The city theater opened on October 19, 1952 with a performance of Shakespeare's Hamlet . In addition to the performances of the Landesbühne, which has specialized in spoken theater from the very beginning, musical productions by the Oldenburg State Theater can also be seen in the house on Virchowstrasse. The Low German Stage , founded in 1932 , has been based in its new Theater am Meer in the former trade union building on Kieler Strasse since May 8, 2010, after it had previously shared the city theater .
One of the directors of the state theater is Rudolf Stromberg, who worked at the Jade from 1958 to 1973. With his skill, the theater was placed on a secure financial basis in the long term. In addition, the father of the future director of the Deutsches Schauspielhaus in Hamburg, Tom Stromberg , surprised the Wilhelmshaven audience with daring classic productions (Schiller, Shaw, Ibsen, Brecht) and a strong predilection for contemporary theater.
In 1989 the Junge Theater was founded as a department of the Lower Saxony North State Theater . The theater has its own staff and today describes itself as the oldest and largest children's and youth theater in Lower Saxony. The performances of the Young Theater take place in the venue "TheOs" (Theater im Oceanis) on Bontekai, but the annual Christmas fairy tale takes place in the large house of the city theater.
Since 1995 there has been the " Festival of Cabaret " in Wilhelmshaven. The festival is a series of events for cabaret and cabaret lovers that takes place in November and December. The venue for around a dozen events every year is the Pumpwerk cultural center . The highlight and end of the festival is the awarding of the Wilhelmshavener Knurrhahn Cabaret Prize to the previous year's winner.
Wilhelmshaven's most important place for fine arts has been the art gallery since 1913 , which was founded as the Kaiser-Friedrich-Kunsthalle. It was founded on the initiative of the then head of the North Sea Naval Station , Count Baudissin, and was intended to make visual arts accessible to the city's residents with changing exhibitions. It has been doing this for over 90 years. In 1968 the art gallery moved from Viktoriastraße to a new building on Adalbertplatz. The old house had fallen victim to the bombing war. The Wilhelmshaven architects Harms and Sommerfeld realized a sober, sober building based on Bauhaus models, in which a large variety of exhibitions have been on view since then. The first director after the war was Siegfried Pagel, the current director is Petra Stegmann. In 2006/07, the existence of the Kunsthalle was threatened by political austerity requests from the city administration, which could be averted.
The artists' association Sezession Nordwest eV offers a “showcase for current regional art” . V. all those interested in art in Wilhelmshaven and the surrounding area. In the Virchowstraße, in the cultural environment of the city theater, art gallery, adult education center, city library and ballet school, the small shop with the large shop windows has been located since 2002, in which contemporary art by local and foreign artists is shown every three to four weeks .
There are many sculptures and sculptures set up outdoors throughout the city.
The venues for music concerts in Wilhelmshaven today include the town hall in the Jade Center, the Pumpwerk cultural center on Banter Deich and the KlingKlang music club in Börsenstrasse. The city hall is the largest event hall in Wilhelmshaven and offers space for events of up to around 1600 spectators. The pumping station cultural center got its name from its earlier use as a pumping station for the Wilhelmshaven city drainage system. The historic industrial building was built in 1903, decommissioned in the early 1970s and converted into a cultural center in 1975/1976. The cultural program includes music from the fields of rock , pop , jazz and folklore .
One of the regular series of events is the open-air live concert series on Wednesdays at the Pumpwerk , which has reached around 23,000 spectators every year since 2004. The free event on the forecourt of the Pumpwerk cultural center presents a live band of various styles every Wednesday evening from mid-May to mid-September. In addition, the Pumpwerk has been holding an a cappella festival every year since 1998 , at which a wide variety of a cappella groups have presented themselves to the Wilhelmshaven audience.
The Wilhelmshaven spa concerts are also held from mid-May to mid-September . The events take place every Sunday morning in the music pavilion, popularly known as the music shell, of the spa park. The start of the spa concert on Mother's Day is traditionally played by the North Sea Marine Music Corps, the subsequent concerts are carried out by changing music groups from the region.
The Landesbühne Niedersachsen Nord presents a series of symphony concerts in each of its seasons . Symphony orchestras from Germany and abroad play on the roughly monthly dates. The venue for the symphony concerts is the town hall.
The churches of the city of Wilhelmshaven maintain other regular series of musical events. The Early Music Sengwarden concert series of St. George's Church in the Wilhelmshaven district of Sengwarden has been held for over 20 years . This series honors artists who shape the church with their songs and texts to this day. The events take place in St. George's Church. The choir of the parish of Bant presents its music series in the Bant church every year . Within this series, different soloists, orchestras and choirs appear in the Banter Church at irregular intervals. Other parishes round off the offer with individual events on various occasions.
In Wilhelmshaven there is also a lot of singing themselves. More than 20 choirs of various types, such as shanty choirs or a cappella choirs, are at home in Wilhelmshaven. About half of these choirs are organized in the Wilhelmshaven Singing Circle.
The Jade-Jazz- Jam , which has been taking place since 1999 and organized by the Jazzclub Wilhelmshaven / Friesland e. V. organized jazz event. Every year on Pentecost Sunday, a selection of jazz groups gives an overview of the diversity of the different jazz styles. The venue is the Pumpwerk cultural center ; if the weather is good, the event will take place in the local beer garden. Another project by the jazz club is the Wilhelmshavener Big Band, a classic big band with five saxophones , four trumpets , four trombones and a rhythm section . The WBB (pronounced "Dabbel Ju Bi Bi"), which has existed since 1995, is the only jazz big band in the region and consists of around 20 active musicians from the region. The musical program of the Jazz Big Band consists of both classic swing and newer numbers from soul jazz, rock jazz and the more modern big band sound. At the jade jazz jam , the big band is always a fixed figure.
Sights and buildings
Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge
A well-known landmark of the city is the Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge . This largest bridge in Wilhelmshaven was built from 1905 to 1907 according to plans by Ernst Troschel (1868–1915) by the Augsburg-Nuremberg machine factory for 1.6 million marks . With a main span of 159 meters and a height of nine meters, it was considered the largest swing bridge in Europe when it was built ; to this day it is the largest structure of its kind in Germany. The bridge is named after Kaiser Wilhelm I and was officially inaugurated on August 29, 1907 by his grandson Wilhelm II . Next to the Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge was the south center , a historic power station building that was demolished in 2015. It was built in 1909 according to plans by the naval builder Fritz Riekert and was used to generate electricity for the port facilities and shipyard workshops.
The town hall of Wilhelmshaven, sometimes also called "the castle by the sea", is one of the other landmarks of the town. The striking clinker brick building was built by Fritz Höger in 1927–1929 as the town hall of Rüstringen. With the unification of the Prussian city of Wilhelmshaven and the Oldenburg town of Rüstringen to form the new Oldenburg town of Wilhelmshaven, the relatively young administrative building was designated as the town hall of the new town. In the upper part of the 50 m high tower there is a steel water tank, which was an important part of Wilhelmshaven's drinking water supply until 2013.
Kaiser Wilhelm Monument
The Kaiser Wilhelm monument on Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz, opposite the Christ and Garrison Church, is a private foundation of the entrepreneur Wilhelm Oechelhäuser , who had the monopoly in Wilhelmshaven to supply the city with gas for public lighting. The monument was ceremoniously unveiled on March 22, 1896. In 1942 the statue , which was created based on a model by Robert Baerwald , was donated to metal and melted down. On June 17, 1969 (the city celebrated the 100th anniversary of the naming), Lord Mayor Johann Janßen unveiled a bas-relief with the portrait of the emperor on the base. In 1994, a new statue created according to old templates was set up on the plinth, donated by the Wilhelmshaven merchants. The bronze casting was carried out by Raimund Kittl's Düsseldorf art foundry .
The museum ship Norderney was built in 1907 as a lightship Weser . Initially deployed off Norderney , it was later relocated to the mouth of the Weser and was in use there until 1981. Next to the lightship Weser lies the former buoy laying ship, Captain Meyer . Both museum ships are berthed on Bontekai below the Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge and can be viewed free of charge.
In the area of the city there are the remains of two historical castles. The chief castle Burg Kniphausen, built in 1438, is located on the western outskirts of Wilhelmshaven. The Sibetsburg in the Siebethsburg district of the same name is a direct reminder of the time of the vitality brothers . The remains (castle mound, moats) of the castle, which was originally close to the Maade Bay, are now kilometers from the sea.
There are two historic mills. Both are fully functional again after restoration work.
- The Kopperhörner mill from 1839 is a one-story gallery Dutchman with a compass rose . It has been a station on the Frisian Mühlenstrasse since 1996 .
- The Sengwarder Mühle in the rural district of Sengwarden is a one-story thatched gallery Dutchman with a codend from 1863.
Old churches There are several historical churches in the city area, which are much older than the city. These are the churches of the formerly independent communities Neuende, Heppens, Fedderwarden and Sengwarden. They were originally Catholic and have been Evangelical Lutheran since the Reformation.
- The oldest parts of St. George's Church in Sengwarden date from the first half of the 13th century.
- The St. Stephen's Church in Fedderwarden also dates from the 13th century.
- The St. Jakobi Church ( Neuender Church) is the oldest church in the core city area. It was built on the church row in the 14th century.
- The Heppens Church from the 15th century was first mentioned in connection with the year 1495.
Church buildings since the city was founded
- The Evangelical Lutheran Christ and Garrison Church was built as the first church in the city of Wilhelmshaven. The foundation stone of the church was laid on June 17, 1869, the day the city was named, in the presence of King Wilhelm I of Prussia. The building was designed by Friedrich Adler and inaugurated at Pentecost 1872 under the name Elisabethkirche (after Queen Elisabeth , widow of the late King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. ). The first bell was in March 1871 for peace after the Franco-German War . What is remarkable about the exterior of the neo-Gothic brick building is the tower (55 m) above the crossing (intersection of aisles and transepts). The western part of the nave could - according to the original option - have been extended to the west by one or two bays without great effort .
- The Evangelical Lutheran Banter Church was built between 1899 and 1900 according to plans by the Oldenburg construction officer Ludwig Freese . The foundation stone was laid on June 7, 1899, and the inauguration took place on December 20, 1900.
- The Catholic St. Willehad Church was built between 1910 and 1911 in reform architecture with alienated neo-Gothic elements.
Parks and green spaces
Wilhelmshaven advertised for a long time with the nickname "Green City by the Sea". This advertising statement from the past is still valid today because of the parks and green spaces in the city area.
- The Rüstringer Stadtpark is the largest contiguous green space in the middle of the city, called Stadtpark for short by the Wilhelmshaven residents. The 57 hectare park was created 1914-1924 according to the plans of the Hamburg garden architect Leberecht Migge . The central part is the 1.5 km long Stadtparkkanal with the large ponds at both ends. The "boathouse" with restaurants and an open-air veranda has been located on the eastern pond complex since 1958.
- The cemetery of honor is located in the northern part of the park . It was laid out as the burial place of the imperial naval garrison from 1912 to 1914. Memorials and memorials commemorate the fallen marines in the naval battles of the First World War ( Skagerrakschlacht ) and the Second World War.
- In the immediate vicinity of the city park is the Rosarium , a three hectare themed garden with exotic trees, bushes and around 3000 roses from over 500 varieties.
- The second largest green area is the 17-hectare spa park . It was the city's first public green space and was donated by King Wilhelm I on the occasion of the inauguration ceremony in 1869. Officially named this way since 1925, it has two large ponds with water fountains. In the music pavilion built in 1968, popularly known as the “music shell”, spa concerts with changing music groups are performed every Sunday morning from May to September. Traditionally, the North Sea Marine Music Corps plays at the beginning of the spa concert. The Friesenbrunnen has been located in the northwestern part of the Kurpark since 1929/1930, an artesian well that pumps the water from a depth of 231 meters without technical support. At the pond in the north-eastern part of the spa park are two stone figures with the name "Hein and Grete" created by the Wilhelmshaven sculptor Kurt Rieger.
- Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz is now a 5.5 hectare park next to the NordseePassage , a shopping center that opened in 1997. The area between Marktstrasse and Ebertstrasse was originally laid out as a marketplace in the early 1870s and named after King Friedrich-Wilhelm IV of Prussia . Later the square was converted into a green area. In the south, across from the Christ and Garrison Church , is the Kaiser Wilhelm monument, restored in 1994 for the 125th anniversary . In the middle of the north side is Adalbertstraße, the city's former spa promenade, with the Prince Adalbert Monument. Church, monuments and spa promenade formed the emperor axis.
- The Störtebeker Park is a family-friendly play, learning and leisure park. The approximately two-hectare facility has committed itself to environmental protection and provides a holistic and playful experience of nature and the environment. The idea of environmental protection is demonstrated with the help of reed sewage treatment plants , solar systems for generating hot water and electricity, rainwater reservoirs, grass roofs and other things.
- The city's botanical garden is the smallest botanical garden in Germany. The garden was reopened in June 2017 at the new location on Neuengrodener Weg in the immediate vicinity of the Rosarium.
- The Wilhelmshavener Südstrand is one of the few south-facing beaches on the German North Sea coast. It is not a sand beach, but a grass beach with a paved embankment, as it also serves as a dike for coastal protection. During the “LichterMeer” festival of lights, light installations are set up on the lawn.
- Allotment garden colonies in the urban area reinforce the image of the “green city by the sea”.
There are three nature reserves in the area of the city of Wilhelmshaven . The 34 hectare Bordumer Busch nature reserve is located in the southwest of the city. The two other, even larger, nature reserves Voslapper Groden-Nord and Voslapper Groden-Süd are in the northeast of the urban area. Furthermore, the lower nature conservation authority has designated nine natural monuments in the city area.
- List of nature reserves in Wilhelmshaven
- List of landscape protection areas in Wilhelmshaven
- List of natural monuments in Wilhelmshaven
- List of protected landscape components in Wilhelmshaven
From the Wilhelmshaven event calendar, the following regular events with great regional or national awareness are worth mentioning:
- March: “Long Night of Museums” - joint event in Wilhelmshaven museums, exhibitions and other cultural institutions
- April: NORDWESTKUNST - Exhibition of contemporary art from the greater region of Northwest Germany and the Netherlands (every two years in the Kunsthalle)
- April: International North Sea Fighter Open - participants from all over Germany and neighboring countries meet for sporting competitions (since 1986)
- May: Gorch Fock Marathon - sporting event with a marathon, half marathon and a 10 km run (since 2006)
- June: Rustersiel Harbor Festival - district festival in Rustersiel
- June: South Beach Weekend - "Maritime Funsport Festival & South Beach Festival"
- July: Weekend on the Jade - the city's biggest festival around the "Great Harbor" (since 1975; always on the first weekend in July)
- July: "Biggest Labskausessen in the world" - The world record of 10,612 servings of Labskaus sold dates back to 2005 and received an entry in the Guinness Book of Records (since 2001)
- July: Wilhelmshaven lighthouse swimming - swimming competition on the route from Arngaster lighthouse to south beach (since 2008)
- August: Voslapper Siedlerfest - district festival in Voslapp with annual float parade
- August: International StreetArt Festival - street painters from all over the world come to the city center for the 1st weekend in August and paint the pedestrian zone and Valoisplatz.
- August: NordseeMan & NordseeWoman-Triathlon - Triathlon event over the national and middle distance (since 2006)
- September: F'groden is fun - district festival in Fedderwardergroden (again after a break since 2010)
- September: International Disabled Sports Festival (since 1980)
- September: Siebethsburger Volkslauf - running event over various distances through the listed district of Siebethsburg (since 2003)
- September: Kulturkarussell - joint festival of cultural institutions and associations around the city theater
- September: "The Rain Festival " - summer festival of the Botanical Garden (since 2002)
- September: Open Monument Day - Wilhelmshaven grants the public access to monuments that are not always accessible on the second Sunday of the month
- September: "Sea of Lights" festival of lights on the south beach (Friday to Sunday)
- October: JadeWeserPort-Cup - sailing regatta on the Jade for traditional and tall ships between the Ölhafen and the JadeWeserPort (since 2002; around October 3rd)
The range of sports clubs in Wilhelmshaven is diverse. It ranges from popular sports such as gymnastics , football , shooting sports , tennis , equestrian sports and handball to the many local water sports clubs and the popular sports of Boßeln and Klootschießen .
The Wilhelmshaven sports clubs are organizationally integrated into the Stadtsportbund (SSB) Wilhelmshaven. The state sports association of Lower Saxony, as the umbrella organization , regularly publishes figures on the sports associations in Lower Saxony. If one compares the nine independent cities that are organized in city sports federations, the SSB Wilhelmshaven ranks fourth on the state list with 22,942 memberships in a sports club (= 27.71%). Only Emden (35.97%), Wolfsburg (34.34%) and Osnabrück (29.52%) have higher figures, Göttingen (27.28%), Oldenburg (25.44%), Delmenhorst (24.97 %), Braunschweig (23.27%) and Hanover (18.80%) show lower membership figures. In relation to the number of inhabitants, there is a membership density of 277.1 per 1000 inhabitants in Wilhelmshaven. In this case, memberships are not to be equated with members, since one and the same person can be a member of two or more sports clubs. 79 sports clubs belong to SSB Wilhelmshaven. The largest club is the Wilhelmshavener swimming and sports club e. V. (WSSV) with 3943 members. This puts the club in 16th place among the clubs with the most members in Lower Saxony.
There are several sports stadiums in the city of Wilhelmshaven. The largest open-air stadium is the Jadestadion in the Sportforum on Friedenstrasse with a capacity of 7500 spectators. The Jade Stadium, which was only built in 1999, is a pure football stadium and was expanded for regional league stadiums prior to the 2006/2007 football season in accordance with the requirements of the DFB (German Football Association) . The football club SV Wilhelmshaven plays its home games in the Jadestadion . The sports stadium has also been the venue for games of the German national junior football teams on several occasions, most recently in May 2008 for the victorious match between the German U21 national team and the U21 national team of Ukraine.
The largest indoor sports facility in Wilhelmshaven is the Nordfrost Arena in the Sportforum. The event hall for sports in Wilhelmshaven, opened in 1982 under the name of Nordsee-Sporthalle, has a capacity of around 2500 visitors. School and club sports, popular and competitive sports take place in the hall. The hall, renamed the Nordfrost-Arena in 2005, is also the home ground for the handball club Wilhelmshavener HV , which played in the top German league, the 1st handball league, between the 2002/03 and 2007/08 season . In the 2007/08 season, he was relegated to the 2nd division north. Since the 2011/12 season, the Wilhelmshaven HV played because of the establishment of the single-track 2nd Bundesliga in the 3rd League West , but was able to win the championship unbeaten in the 2014/15 season and rose again to the 2nd handball Bundesliga .
The Freiligrathstrasse sports facility is another large sports facility in Wilhelmshaven. The former Marine sports complex is the central urban sports facility for the latitude and competitive sports as well as for schools and clubs. The facility has an athletics stadium with a 400 m plastic circular track and other athletic ancillary facilities. There are also four soccer fields and a beach volleyball facility attached. The facility is the home or home venue of some clubs. The athletics competitions of the International Disabled Sports Festival in Wilhelmshaven take place here regularly in September . This multi-day event, which has been taking place since 1980, is the largest disabled sports festival in Europe.
Wilhelmshaven has two swimming facilities. On September 21, 2007, after a two-year construction period, the new indoor and leisure pool "Nautimo" was opened. The new hall, which cost 17 million euros and has around 1,000 m² of water, was built on the site of the former outdoor pool at the Sportforum. The pool has a 25 m sports pool, a diving pool with a lifting floor and a 3 m diving platform, as well as a large, modern adventure area with a 100 m long tire slide, geysers , flow channel, children's pool and sauna area. The new pool replaces the City-Hallenbad built in 1963 on Kieler Strasse, which was demolished after the opening of the “Nautimo”. The "Nautimo" is now the only year-round swimming area for club and school swimming. Another swimming pool is located in the north of Wilhelmshaven. The north open air pool on Möwenstrasse only opens during the bathing season and is the only pool in Wilhelmshaven with a sports pool with 50 m lanes. The existence of the open-air swimming pool North has already been questioned several times. A closure has been avoided so far, u. a. because the outdoor pool is seen as a compensation for the Genius beach in the north of the city , which had to give way in the course of the JadeWeserPort container port project.
The ice skating center at the Sportforum was the scene and venue for games by the EC Wilhelmshaven- Stickhausen ice hockey club in the 1990s . The club made it into the 2nd ice hockey Bundesliga , creating an unfamiliar winter sports backdrop in the North Sea city. EC Wilhelmshaven-Stickhausen had to stop its gaming operations at the beginning of 2001 due to economic difficulties. Then several successor clubs tried to build on the successes of EC Wilhelmshaven-Stickhausen, but had to accept setbacks due to financial problems, especially after the bankruptcy of the ice skating center's company. The ice rink was demolished in mid-2008. Since 2019, the city has again had an ice hockey club, EHC Wilhelmshaven, but its home games are held elsewhere. He plays in the Landesliga Nord.
In the "Jade Warriors", an inline skater hockey team from the Wilhelmshavener swimming and sports club, formed from former ECW ice hockey players and the Red Fox / Wild Cats hockey teams, plays . V. (WSSV). After winning the championship title in the Regionalliga Nordwest, the team has been playing in the 2nd Bundesliga North since 2007.
The golf course of the Golf Club Wilhelmshaven-Friesland e. Is considered to be the largest sports facility of a Wilhelmshaven club in terms of area. V. be. The 18-hole course, designed in 2000 by Städler Golf Courses, Münster, is located on the north-western outskirts of Wilhelmshaven. The 70 hectare golf course was integrated into the landscape and is characterized by flat, lightly modeled grassland, which is criss-crossed with many water hazards.
Due to the proximity to the water, there are also a large number of clubs in the North Sea city of Wilhelmshaven that are dedicated to water sports . The spectrum ranges from sailing , canoeing , rowing to diving . The majority of the clubs are located around the inland port, the Banter See or on the Maade between the Maadesiel and the Rüstersieler Hafen.
Economy and Infrastructure
In 2016 Wilhelmshaven generated a gross domestic product of 2.953 billion euros. In the same year, GDP per capita was € 38,804 (Lower Saxony: € 34,812 / Germany: € 38,180). Around 44,800 people were employed in the city in 2017. The unemployment rate was 10.4% in December 2018, well above the Lower Saxony average of 5.0%.
According to a study by the Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry , the city of Wilhelmshaven has the largest balance of commuters in the Oldenburg region after the city of Oldenburg . For every out- commuter in Wilhelmshaven there are 1.55 in- commuters , i.e. H. 12,701 in-commuters go to work in the city every day, and 8,178 out-commuters leave the city in the opposite direction. The proportion of out-commuters rose from 6,795 (2013) to 8,178 (2018), and that of in-commuters from 12,233 (2013) to 12,701 (2018). Most commuters come from the surrounding communities of Schortens (2,491) and Sande (1,180) in the district of Friesland .
The port industry, chemical industry and the navy as a public employer secure the economic location of Wilhelmshaven. Nationwide meaning Wilhelmshaven mainly through the oil port with its tanker unloading bridge and the NWO - pipeline until according to Wesseling near Cologne, through which a considerable part of the crude oil supply of Germany is ensured.
Nonetheless, Wilhelmshaven has suffered from the weak economic structure in northwest Germany over the past few decades. Jobs were lost with the closure of various industrial companies, unemployment is above the West German average, and the population has fallen sharply.
For several years now, a number of new economic projects have promised to strengthen Wilhelmshaven as a business location. This included the container port " JadeWeserPort " (commissioning September 2012), the upgrading of the Lower Saxony Bridge (now Bulk Terminal Wilhelmshaven ) to increase coal handling in connection with the construction of another new coal-fired power station (commissioning in 2014), and the distribution of the landed hard coal Power plants inland by rail (Bremen-Farge, Lahde near Minden and Zolling) as well as the expansion of the chemical industry and the construction of the coastal motorway.
The retail report commissioned by the city of Wilhelmshaven characterized the economic situation in 2014 as follows:
“The development of the economic framework in the city of Wilhelmshaven shows a very different picture. The continuing decline in the population and the constantly high unemployment rate continue to pose a risk to Wilhelmshaven's demand situation and should be assessed as negative. With a view to the economic key data (development of employees subject to social insurance contributions, inbound and outbound commuters), however, the city of Wilhelmshaven can record a positive development. A positive picture can be seen in the development of the tourism sector. In order to limit the negative tendencies in the upper center of Wilhelmshaven, measures should continue to be taken in the future to strengthen ties with purchasing power in the market area. The activation of the JadeWeserPort and the exploitation of the potential in the field of tourism represent significant opportunities for sustainable, positive development in Wilhelmshaven. "
Manitowoc Crane Group Germany GmbH , one of the world's leading manufacturers of hydraulic mobile cranes , has developed into the largest metal employer in Wilhelmshaven . Mobile cranes with a lifting capacity of 14 t to 499 t, aerial work platforms and construction cranes are manufactured on the company premises in the West industrial area. Crane construction has a long tradition in Wilhelmshaven. After the Second World War, the Ardelt-Werke settled on the site at Lake Banter. The plant later became part of Krupp AG and operated under the name Krupp-Ardelt , later Krupp-Kranbau . In 1995 Deutsche GROVE took over the company. Since the Manitowoc Company took over the facility in 2002, the company has expanded continuously. The number of employees at the Wilhelmshaven site rose from 740 to 1120 between the end of 2005 and the end of 2007.
ALBA Metall Nord GmbH, which is active in metal recycling, is part of the Alba Group . The company with around 100 employees is located on the south side of the commercial harbor and has a fleet of machines and vehicles equipped according to the latest technical standards on its 50,000 m² site.
Shipping and shipyard industries
The Neue Jadewerft Wilhelmshaven of the Lürssen Group is located on the Osnabrück shore of the north port . In addition to shipbuilding, the shipyard with around 100 employees specializes in ship repairs and maintenance of all kinds. The shipyard's infrastructure includes an 8,000 t floating dock, a slipway up to 1,800 t and two shipbuilding and repair halls. Other companies active in the field of shipbuilding and ship repairs are MWB Motorenwerk Wilhelmshaven at the Handelshafen, the Turbo-Technik repair yard at the Hanover quay of the north port and Navitek GmbH on the Hafeninsel.
The Jade-Dienst GmbH with location on the lock island offers all in one universal port needed to maritime services. This includes all handling activities for ships calling at Wilhelmshaven, such as mooring and untying, tug operations and pilot transfer services. The Jade-Dienst has its own port service fleet with tugs , pilot relocators , supply and disposal companies, as well as maker boats and a ship crane. As a certified diving company, it also offers services underwater. His radio station "Wilhelmshaven Port" serves as the central ship reporting point , which records all commercial ship movements on the Jade and thus creates the basis for the handling of all ships.
- The chlor-alkali electrolysis of Ineos Chlor Atlantik GmbH , aided by the salt deposits in the caverns (closed since 2013)
- The production of vinyl chloride and PVC by Vynova (former operators: EVC and INEOS) in the chemical plant Voslapp
- A HES International terminal on the site of the former Wilhelmshaven refinery
In addition to the private sector, the Bundeswehr is an important economic factor. In the naval arsenal , the naval base Heppenser Groden with the ships based there, the operational flotilla 2 , the naval support command , the logistics center of the Bundeswehr , the specialist medical center Wilhelmshaven, the MAD position 8 and a number of smaller offices and commands, it offers work and training positions. This makes it an important client for the Wilhelmshaven economy. It is expected that the number of soldiers and civilian employees of the Bundeswehr will remain roughly constant at 8,000 to 8,500 in the next few years, so that statistically every tenth inhabitant will be employed there.
Wilhelmshaven is the location of two coal-fired power plants . An E.ON power plant with an installed capacity of around 750 MW has been in operation since 1976 . From 2012 GDF Suez built another power plant with an output of around 800 MW, which officially went on-line at the end of October 2015. The Südzentrale , a former coal-fired power station of the Kaiserliche Werft Wilhelmshaven , was shut down in 1993 and demolished in 2015 despite being a listed building.
Due to its location directly on the North Sea coast, Wilhelmshaven is attractive for holidaymakers and day-trippers. Wilhelmshaven not only performs the functions of a regional center (especially as a shopping town); As a port city, a cultural center and a seaside resort, the city attracts people from near and far.
The Wilhelmshavener Südstrand is one of the few beaches on the German North Sea coast with a southern exposure. Since the redesign and reopening in 1988, it has been the main tourist attraction of the city with the south beach promenade as well as the historic beach houses and the beach hall. The Maritime Mile begins not far from the south beach . Five tourist facilities are marketed under this title, which are located along the south beach to the north side of the Great Harbor : the German Naval Museum , the Coastal Museum Wilhelmshaven , the visitor center of the UNESCO World Heritage Wadden Sea , the Wilhelmshaven aquarium and harbor tours with the MS Harle Kurier which is also used as a ferry to Eckwarderhörne ; with their help tourists can circumnavigate the Jade Bay on foot or by bike. The harbors and the south beach of Wilhelmshaven can also be viewed during organized boat tours from Hooksiel and Dangast .
The Wilhelmshaven Tourism & Leisure Ltd. (WTF) is since 1969 responsible for tourism marketing Wilhelmshaven. On behalf of the city, it coordinates the target group-specific preparation and marketing of tourist offers, many of which are sponsored by the city. The WTF operates the pumping station cultural center , the town hall, the coastal museum and the tourist information on the upper floor of the North Sea Passage.
After the city of Wilhelmshaven stopped financing the rosarium on Neuengrodener Weg in 2001, an "Initiative of private rose friends" took over the maintenance of the free-of-charge facility near the city park as part of a cooperation agreement with the city.
In addition to the predominant day tourism, Wilhelmshaven also has accommodation capacities for guests who visit the city on business or for a short vacation. According to a survey for 2013, 105,541 guests (2011: 98,017 guests) with 294,515 overnight stays (2011: 280,675 overnight stays) visited the city. With an average of 2028 beds available (2011: 1787 beds), the bed occupancy was around 40% (2011: 43%). The average length of stay was 2.8 days (2011: 2.9 days).
The Wilhelmshavener Zeitung is the only daily newspaper that appears in Wilhelmshaven . The supraregional cover pages are supplied by the Nordwest-Zeitung , which appears in Oldenburg . In the northern part of the city, the Jeversche Wochenblatt and the Friesland edition of the Nordwest-Zeitung are also distributed. The alternative bi-monthly newspaper Gegenwind sees itself as a counter -public. Radio Jade is the city's local and non-commercial citizen radio. In addition there is the monthly magazine Scout.
Since 1951, Wilhelmshaven has been the headquarters of the Federal Accident Insurance Fund, which is responsible for the statutory accident insurance for all federal employees. It is housed in the former building of the naval hospital on Weserstraße. Furthermore, the Artists' Social Fund (KSK) , founded on January 1, 1983, has its seat in Wilhelmshaven. According to the Artists' Social Insurance Act (KSVG), it offers self-employed artists and publicists social protection in pension, health and long-term care insurance. In 2001 it became a department of the Federal Accident Insurance. On January 1, 2015, the German Federal Accident Insurance and the Eisenbahn-Unfallkasse merged to form the new Federal and Railway Accident Insurance (UVB). The new agency has its headquarters in Wilhelmshaven and Frankfurt as well as nine other locations.
An important authority in Wilhelmshaven is the Waterways and Shipping Office (WSA) founded on November 1st, 1949 . Its task is the administration and supervision of the federal waterways as well as guaranteeing the safety and ease of shipping on the associated sea waterways. Its seat is the former command building of the "Naval Station of the North Sea" on Mozartstrasse. The WSA also includes the Wilhelmshaven traffic control center, which operates the “Jade” and “German Bight” traffic safety systems. It ensures a complete recording of the ship traffic to be monitored. The traffic control center, which can be seen from afar through its 114 meter high antenna tower, is located on the lock island at the former first entrance.
The Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park has been administered from Wilhelmshaven since it was established in 1986. The national park administration resides in the "Havenhaus" in Virchowstrasse. Since January 1, 2005, it has been subordinate to the Ministry of the Environment as an independent state authority. Their tasks and responsibilities are set out in the National Park Act (NLPG). The trilateral Wadden Sea Secretariat, which coordinates nature conservation in the Wadden Sea between the Netherlands, Germany and Denmark, is located in the same building .
One of the eleven district offices of the Lower Saxony Association of Statutory Health Insurance Physicians (KVN), in which doctors and psychotherapists licensed to work for statutory health insurances, are located in the church row .
In 1995, Reichelt Elektronik , one of Germany's top-selling electronics mail order companies , left the Wilhelmshaven location for the neighboring municipality of Sande after 26 years of existence there , after having tried in vain for expansion space for three years. Another leading mail-order company in Germany in the field of entertainment electronics is based in Wilhelmshaven and is Mindfactory . Since 2017, both have been included in the list of the top 100 online shops in Germany regardless of their product range.
→ Main article: Wilhelmshaven ports
Originally, the port of Wilhelmshaven was designed exclusively as a naval port. Civil shipping was only provided to the extent necessary to supply the naval base and the city. After the First World War, the port was used more for civil purposes, including oil handling. After the destruction in the Second World War and, above all, the subsequent almost complete dismantling measures by the Allies, the port was only able to regain economic importance slowly. A breakthrough came with the completion of the NWO - Pipeline by North Rhine-Westphalia affiliated oil terminal in the 1958th
Today the port economy is an economic focus of Wilhelmshaven. The port facilities are divided into three areas, the urban port behind the sea lock, the port facilities of the navy and the state and industrial port facilities on the Jade fairway. With a fairway depth of up to 20 meters, the latter form the port that allows the deepest draft in Germany.
This deep fairway was decisive for the construction of the JadeWeserPort , which is designed for container ships that, due to their draft, cannot call at the ports in Hamburg and Bremerhaven regardless of the tide . Construction of the port began in spring 2008; The first parts went into operation in August 2012. The official opening took place on September 21, 2012.
Wilhelmshaven is the second largest German bulk cargo port after Hamburg . In 2017, 40.55 million tons of solid and liquid bulk goods were handled in Wilhelmshaven . In 2008 it was 39.969 million tons, of which 28.16 million tons were crude oil. 72% of the crude oil handling of all German seaports and almost 27% of the German crude oil imports were handled via Wilhelmshaven. In 2010 the total throughput in the port was only 25.66 million t, which is 23.6% less than in the crisis year 2009. The main reason is the decline in the throughput of crude oil to 20.48 million t (−18 %) and of mineral oil products to 1.69 million t (−63%). The main impact here was the closure of the ConocoPhillips refinery operations . The former Wilhelmshaven refinery has only been used as a storage facility for mineral oil products since June 2011. In 2012, the handling of sea freight was 26.6 million t, which is around 16% more than in 2011 (22.9 million t). In 2014, the cargo throughput in maritime traffic continued to decline, it was only 24.2 million t (2013: 24.5 million t); coal throughput was only 3.11 million t (−6%), container throughput at JadeWeserPort was only 67,076 TEU in the second full year of operation. In 2015, the total throughput rose by 20% to around 29 million tonnes, in 2016 it was 26.2 million tonnes, in 2017 it was 30.29 million tonnes (+16%).
In 2015, 426,751 TEU were handled in the Eurogate Container Terminal Wilhelmshaven (CTW) in JadeWeserPort, in which APM Terminals also holds a 30% stake, in 2016 it was 481,720 TEU, in 2017 554,449 TEU (+15%).
In addition to its status as a universal port (bulk goods, project cargo, containers , scrap , food ), the seaport with its transshipment bridges for crude oil and mineral oil products, a refinery, coal transshipment and two coal-fired power plants is of great importance as a transshipment point for Germany's energy supply .
In Wilhelmshaven and the surrounding area there are a number of caverns in which Germany's legally required oil reserves are stored. Pipelines connect Wilhelmshaven with Hamburg and the Rhineland refinery in Wesseling near Cologne .
A natural gas terminal should serve to make Germany more independent of natural gas imports via pipelines from Russia. The start of construction of an E.ON Ruhrgas terminal for liquefied natural gas (LNG) at Voslapper Groden, originally planned for autumn 2008, has been postponed indefinitely. The RWE Group was planning to build a terminal that would allow direct regasification of the gas on board the LNG tankers . This means that there is no need for the appropriate infrastructure on land. This terminal was to be completed in 2010/2011 and operated by the German Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Gesellschaft (DFTG). It was intended for tankers with a loading capacity of up to 215,000 t and was supposed to handle up to 7.5 million t of LNG annually, corresponding to ten percent of German natural gas consumption. The gas was to be routed via a pipeline to the Etzel cavern facility in Etzel , East Frisia , from where it could be fed into the German natural gas network. The E.ON Ruhrgas AG , however, decided to use their LNG project for the site Rotterdam because of the better location. The RWE AG has not pursued the planning at Wilhelmshaven. Alongside Brunsbüttel, Stade and Rostock, Wilhelmshaven is one of the cities that have been in talks for an LNG terminal again since 2018 due to pressure from the USA ; 50 environmental associations and citizens' groups are against it.
The JadeWeserPort increases the importance of Wilhelmshaven's rail and road transport links to the inland ( seaport hinterland traffic ).
While the Jade fairway allows even the largest ships to call at Wilhelmshaven, there is no connection to the German inland waterway network . You can on the water only by sports boat across the Ems-Jade Canal , the East Frisian cities Aurich and Emden and the rivers Hunte and Ems reach. In order to improve the connection, the construction of a waterway to the Weser was examined. One possibility is the expansion of the mudflat fairway, another the construction of a Jade-Weser Canal.
Road connections and long-distance buses
The A 29 motorway begins at Jade-Weser-Port . It leads south via Oldenburg and joins the A 1 Dortmund - Bremen at the Ahlhorner Heide triangle . The Wilhelmhavener Kreuz, located in the neighboring community of Schortens , connects the A 29 to the autobahn-like federal road 210 , which leads east into Wilhelmshaven city center and west via Jever, Wittmund and Aurich to Emden
. Many Wilhelmshaven companies also support the construction of the A 20 coastal motorway . This should begin on the A 28 at the Westerstede motorway triangle and cross the A 29 at the Jaderberg junction south of Wilhelmshaven. From there, the A 20 will lead eastwards through the existing Weser tunnel and a new Elbe tunnel to be built at Drochtersen . It then bypasses Hamburg to the north in order to finally connect to the existing part of the motorway near Bad Segeberg .
Several long-distance bus lines connect Wilhelmshaven with Hamburg, Berlin and destinations in the Rhineland.
The Wilhelmshaven train station is the northern end point of the Wilhelmshaven – Oldenburg railway line . There are three regular rail connections from Wilhelmshaven. The first ( course book route 392, RE 18) leads via Sande , Oldenburg , Cloppenburg to Osnabrück . A second connection (course book route 393, RB 59) initially runs over the aforementioned route to Sande, where it branches off at an acute angle from route 392 and leads via Jever and Wittmund to Esens . The North Western Railway since November 5, 2000 uses both connections every hour with modern diesel railcars . Since February 2003 there is again a direct connection Wilhelmshaven – Oldenburg – Bremen (course book route 392/390, RE 19), since 2015 up to four times a day; earlier, however, you had to change trains on the way to Bremen in Oldenburg Hbf. Starting with the timetable change in 2023, a two-hour connection to Hanover without changing trains is planned.
The Wilhelmshaven-Rüstringer tram , which was opened by Wilhelmshavener Straßenbahn GmbH , Frankfurt (Main), and the neighboring town of Rüstringen in 1913, was originally used for local public transport . It was destroyed in 1945 and replaced by a bus company .
During this time, the Wilhelmshaven suburban railway took over part of the traffic in the city and its surroundings. She used the track network of the shipyard of the Reichsmarine, which had grown steadily since 1870, which initially only served goods traffic, but from 1941 also initially served limited public passenger traffic. Passenger train traffic ended in 1961.
Today six inner-city bus routes run by Stadtwerke-Verkehrsgesellschaft Wilhelmshaven are responsible for local public transport . Inner-city operation takes place every 20 minutes during main business hours and every 30 minutes after 9 p.m. Other regional bus routes lead u. a. to Aurich , Jever , Varel , Schillig and Sande ( Weser-Ems Bus , Fass Reisen , Bruns-Reisen) and Wiesmoor (Fass Reisen). The tariff of the Ems-Jade transport association applies .
The JadeWeserAirport in Mariensiel , on the southern outskirts of Wilhelmshaven, connects the city to the national and international air traffic network. In 2007, the airfield was converted into a commercial airfield for take-offs and approaches according to instrument flight rules (IFR). It can be used by aircraft weighing up to 14 tons. The pilot transfer service takes place from the airfield by helicopter to the ships in the German Bight.
Long-distance hiking trails
Two long-distance hiking trails begin and end in Wilhelmshaven . The approximately 130 kilometer long Jade Trail begins at Wilhelmshaven Bontekai and leads along the Jade Bay, circles the Zwischenahner Meer , runs through Oldenburg and the Wildeshauser Geest to Wildeshausen . The route is marked by signs with a white “J” on a black background. The 75-kilometer Ems-Jade-Weg connects the cities of Wilhelmshaven, Aurich and Emden. It runs largely along the Ems-Jade Canal . Its distinguishing feature is a white anchor on a black background.
education and Science
As the regional center of the region, Wilhelmshaven has a wide range of school facilities . It ranges from general and vocational schools to special school offers such as the music school or the extracurricular learning location “Education and Technology” . In the field of adult education there is a qualified offer with the adult education center and other institutions of church, commercial and other institutions.
The city library with the adult, child, youth and music library areas offers around 88,000 borrowable media as well as newspapers and reference works for reference use. Your entire media inventory can be queried online via the Internet. Scientific literature that is not available on site can be ordered from external libraries via interlibrary loan. The city library offers public access to the Internet via several PC workstations. She is supported by the “Information für Alle e. V. “, which has set itself the goal of creating the conditions for general access to electronically stored information. In addition to the city library, the reference libraries of other public institutions, such as the Jade University and the Lower Saxony Institute for Historical Coastal Research , are available to the public.
Wilhelmshaven was the seat of the University for Work, Politics and Economics from 1949 to 1962 . In 1971, the Wilhelmshaven University of Applied Sciences was created as a merger of the State Engineering Academy Wilhelmshaven and the Academy for Business Administration, with the fields of engineering and economics. In 2000 it was merged with the Oldenburg and Ostfriesland Universities of Applied Sciences to form the new Oldenburg / Ostfriesland / Wilhelmshaven University of Applied Sciences (FHOOW), which, with around 9,500 students at the Wilhelmshaven, Emden , Elsfleth , Leer and Oldenburg, was the largest university of applied sciences in Lower Saxony. This merger was canceled on September 1, 2009 and the Wilhelmshaven / Oldenburg / Elsfleth University of Applied Sciences was founded, based in Wilhelmshaven. Shortly after it was founded, the new university was named " Jade University " because the river Jade is seen as a connecting element of the locations of the new university and the term Jade is "catchy, internationally understandable, easy to pronounce in several languages and competitive" "Have a high recognition value ".
Since the 2018/19 winter semester, it has also been possible to study the social work dual bachelor's degree at the Wilhelmshaven University of Cooperative Education . The establishment of this professional academy is a reaction to the impending shortage of skilled workers in the region's social professional field. Such a degree, with a strong practical component, should strengthen the region in the long term.
In addition, Wilhelmshaven is also the location of several other scientific research institutions :
The Senckenberg Research Institute and Nature Museum has had a branch called Senckenberg am Meer since 1928 . The station, originally founded as a research center for marine geology , was expanded to include marine palaeontology as early as 1929 . Today the scientific institution has two departments: The marine research division consists of the fields of actuopalaeontology, marine sedimentology , marine biology , marine geology and sediment petrography . The second department has been the German Center for Marine Biodiversity Research since 2001 . The institute is located in the buildings on the Fliegerdeich, which were formerly used as barracks.
Another institute in Wilhelmshaven is the institute for bird research “ Vogelwarte Helgoland ” (IfV). It was founded on April 1, 1910 as the Heligoland ornithological station within the Prussian Biological Institute on Helgoland. His main task was the research of bird migration on the island. After the island of Helgoland had been evacuated due to the war, the institute started again in Wilhelmshaven, today's headquarters. An IfV outstation is operated on the Helgoland Oberland . Another outstation is at Lake Banter , where research is being carried out on population ecology, physiology and individual development at a common tern colony . The institute mainly deals with basic research and the diverse relationships between birds and their animate and inanimate environment. Bird migration research is still the main topic of scientific work today. The IfV is also the ringing center responsible for north-west Germany.
The Lower Saxony Institute for Historical Coastal Research (NIhK) has been based in Wilhelmshaven since 1938, researching the history of landscapes and settlements in the Lower Saxony coastal area in close interdisciplinary cooperation between archaeologists, botanists, geologists and geographers. It is also the seat of the company founded in 1950 march Council to promote research in the coastal area of the North Sea, which points through regular educational field trips, seminars and similar events to current problems of Coastal Areas.
The ICBM Terramare in Wilhelmshaven emerged from the Research Center Terramare (FTM), which was founded in 1990 and is a scientific service facility financed by state funds that includes the Institute for Historical Coastal Research, the Institute for Bird Research, the Senckenberg Institute for Marine Geology and Biology and the National Park Administration of Lower Saxony Wadden Sea in Supported shallow sea, coastal and marine environmental research. With its research center, which was inaugurated in 1994, it was incorporated into the Institute for Chemistry and Biology of the Sea (ICBM) at the University of Oldenburg in 2008 .
The German Wind Energy Institute (DEWI) was founded in 1990 as a wholly-owned company of the state of Lower Saxony with its headquarters in Wilhelmshaven. The aim of DEWI is to support and promote the wind energy industry. The area of responsibility includes basic research, the development of measurement methods, support in the area of political decision-making and the diverse tasks involved in setting up wind farms . Mainly, DEWI, as a neutral institution, offers direct services on the subject of wind energy . To this end, DEWI operates a test field with various wind turbines on the northern outskirts . DEWI has been part of Underwriters Laboratories (UL) since June 2012 .
In the Wilhelmshaven district of Sengwarden there is one of around 1,800 measuring points of the radioactivity measuring network of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS). The measuring station measures the local gamma dose rate (ODL) at the measuring location and sends the data to the measuring network. The data, averaged over 24 hours, can be called up directly on the Internet.
The Jadebusen station (identification WNCC) of the Lower Saxony Air Hygiene Monitoring System (LÜN) is located on Utterser Landstrasse in the Voslapp district . The station is one of 25 measuring stations in Lower Saxony; In addition to meteorological data , it measures particulate matter , ozone and nitrogen oxides in the air. The measured values are automatically registered every hour and sent to the measuring network center in Hanover . After the data has been processed, they are available on the Internet.
The honorary citizenship is the highest appreciation of the city of Wilhelmshaven. The city has awarded the following people:
- Franz Kuhlmann (1877–1965), entrepreneur, founder of the foundation
- Johann Janßen (1895–1983), City Councilor (1946–1972), Lord Mayor (1961–1972)
- Arthur Grunewald (1902–1985), City Councilor (1945–1960), City Director (1960–1967) and Lord Mayor (1972–1976)
- Walther Schumann (1903-1986), Oberstadtdirektor (1956-1968), Associate City Council (1968-1976)
- Hans Janßen (1918–2001), city councilor and parliamentary group chairman (from 1955), member of the state parliament (since 1963), mayor (1981–1986)
- August Desenz , Councilor of the City of Wilhelmshaven (since 2001), Federal Cross of Merit (1998)
- Freuke Adrian: The Kaiser Wilhelm Bridge in Wilhelmshaven - a building of the century. Brune-Mettcker, Wilhelmshaven 2007, ISBN 3-930510-33-2 .
- Stefan Appelius : The zero hour that wasn't. Restoration and remilitarization in Wilhelmshaven. VSA-Verlag, Hamburg 1986, ISBN 3-87975-381-4 .
- Sid Auffahrt, Jens Graul , Ingo Sommer : The Bant shipyard settlement. Creation and conservation. Series of publications by the city of Wilhelmshaven, No. 8 reports on urban development. City of Wilhelmshaven, Wilhelmshaven 1982.
- Werner Brune (Ed.): Wilhelmshavener Heimatlexikon. Volume 1-3. Brune, Wilhelmshaven 1986–1987.
- Hartmut Büsing: ... endured so much ineffable suffering - on the history of the Rüstringer and Wilhelmshaven Jews. Historical working group of the DGB, Wilhelmshaven 1986.
- Mike Cramme: Wilhelmshaven - faces of a naval city on old postcards. Illustrated book, Wilhelmshaven 2007.
- Mike Cramme: Wilhelmshaven - faces of a naval city on old postcards. Volume 2. illustrated book, Wilhelmshaven 2008.
- Mike Cramme: Moments - Wilhelmshaven then and now. Illustrated book, Wilhelmshaven 2011.
- Ingrid Dunger: Wilhelmshaven 1870–1914. Cramer, Wilhelmshaven 1962.
- Alice Düwel: King Wilhelm relies on Schlick . In: Ostfreesland - Calendar for Ostfriesland 2019. Ostfriesland Verlag - SKN Druck und Verlag, Norden 2018, ISBN 978-3-944841-50-2 , p. 156 ff.
- Cord Eberspächer, Jörg Michael Henneberg, Ingo Sommer , Ruth Steinberg: Wilhelm II. And Wilhelmshaven - on the topography of a Wilhelmine city . Brune-Mettcker / Lohse-Eissing, Wilhelmshaven 2003, ISBN 3-930510-21-9 .
- Volker Eissing (Ed.): Wilhelmshaven 1853–2000: From Prussian Land Purchase to Expo by the Sea . Lohse-Eissing, Wilhelmshaven 2000, ISBN 3-920602-37-4 .
- Jens Graul : Wilhelmshaven - Captain Edward Conder RN and the new beginning in 1945 . Brune-Mettger Druck- und Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, Wilhelmshaven 2014, ISBN 978-3-941929-07-4 .
- Edgar Grundig: Chronicle of the city of Wilhelmshaven . Volumes I and II, Wilhelmshaven 1957.
- Günther Handlögten, Henning Venske : Dirty Swamp - Confidential Records and Confessions from the Province . Kabel-Verlag, Hamburg 1984, ISBN 3-921909-02-3 .
- Günther Handlögten, Henning Venske: Dirty Swamp II - Wilhelms Wahnsinnige Erben . 1996, ISBN 978-3-929017-72-4 .
- Werner Hoffmann: 150 years of Wilhelmshaven or how green was created in the city by the sea . In: Heimat am Meer , supplement to Wilhelmshavener Zeitung, No. 19/2019, from September 14, 2019, p. 73 f.
- Birger Jaspers: Wilhelmshaven - a lost cityscape . Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2002, ISBN 3-8313-1048-3 .
- Erich Keyser (Ed.): German city book. Handbook of Urban History , Volume III Northwest Germany , Part 1 Lower Saxony / Bremen - On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities, the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities, Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1952.
- Gerhard Koop, Erich Mulitze: The Navy in Wilhelmshaven - a pictorial chronicle of German naval history from 1853 to today . Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1997, ISBN 3-7637-5977-8 .
- Louise von Krohn: Forty years in a German naval port - Heppens - Wilhelmshaven. The Wilhelmshaven memories of Louise von Krohn . Lohse-Eissing, Wilhelmshaven 2001, ISBN 3-920602-38-2 .
- C. Lohse (Ed.): Wilhelmshaven - A guide for foreigners and locals . Reprint Brune-Mettcker, Wilhelmshaven 2003, ISBN 3-930510-22-7 .
- Edwin Notholt (Ed.): Wilhelmshaven - City and landscape by the sea . Lohse-Eissing, Wilhelmshaven 1958.
- Karl Veit Riedel: City Theater Wilhelmshaven, Landesbühne Lower Saxony-North, Low German Stage Wilhelmshaven. History and memories . Friesen-Verlag Willy Beutz, Wilhelmshaven 1983.
- Catharine Schwanhäuser: From the Wilhelmshaven chronicle . Reprint of the 1926 edition, Brune-Mettcker, Wilhelmshaven 2005, ISBN 3-930510-28-6 .
- Georg Sello: The territorial development of the Duchy of Oldenburg . Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1917.
- Ingo Sommer: Altengroden. A chronicle . Altengroden Citizens' Association, Wilhelmshaven 1984.
- Ingo Sommer: The city of the 500,000th Nazi urban planning and architecture in Wilhelmshaven . Vieweg, Braunschweig / Wiesbaden 1993, ISBN 3-528-08851-6 .
- Ingo Sommer: Expo by the sea. Draft of a master plan . Brune, Wilhelmshaven 1995, ISBN 3-930510-59-6 .
- Ingo Sommer: Fedderwardergroden 1940–1990 . Civic Association Fedderwardergroden, Wilhelmshaven 1990.
- Ingo Sommer: Schinkel student in Wilhelmshaven. Planning of the port and city (1853–1918) . In: Nordwestdeutsche Universitätsgesellschaft e. V .: 150 years of the Jade Treaty. Documentation of the lecture cycle 26.09. - September 28, 2003. Wilhelmshaven Days . Brune-Mettcker, Wilhelmshaven 2004, ISBN 3-930510-86-3 .
- Ingo Sommer: Tsingtau, a German naval city in China 1897–1914 . In: Hartmut Klüver (Ed.): Foreign missions of German warships in peace . Winkler, Bochum 2003, ISBN 3-89911-007-2 Kt, ISBN 3-89911-017-X Gb.
- Ingo Sommer, Jörg Brost, Ernst Turner: From the barrack hospital to the city hospital. 125 years of Wilhelmshaven hospital history . Reinhard Nieter Hospital, Wilhelmshaven 2005, ISBN 3-930510-91-X .
- Ingo Sommer: 100 years of Wilhelmshavener Spar- und Baugesellschaft eG 1893–1993 . Wilhelmshavener Spar- und Baugesellschaft eG, Wilhelmshaven 1993.
- Markus Titsch: Bunker in Wilhelmshaven . Brune-Mettcker, Wilhelmshaven 2005, ISBN 3-930510-29-4 .
- Rolf Uphoff: When day turned into night - and night into day: Wilhelmshaven in the bombing war . Holzberg, Oldenburg 1992, ISBN 3-87358-373-9 .
- Martin Wein: City against its will. Municipal development in Wilhelmshaven / Rüstringen 1853–1937 . Tectum, Marburg 2006, ISBN 978-3-8288-9201-9 .
- Martin Wein: At three at the KW bridge! Stories and anecdotes from old Wilhelmshaven . Wartberg-Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2008, ISBN 978-3-8313-1907-7 .
- Axel Wiese: The port construction workers on the Jade (1853–1871) . Isensee, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-535-X .
- Friedrich-Wilhelm Wulf, Karl-Ernst Behre et al .: Archaeological monuments in the independent city of Wilhelmshaven . Hanover 1996.
- WH Zimmermann: The settlement in the urban area of Wilhelmshaven in prehistoric and early historical times and their research . In: F.-W. Wulf: Archaeological monuments in the independent city of Wilhelmshaven. Material booklets on the prehistory and early history of Lower Saxony B 1 . Hannover 1996, pp. 9-37.
- WH Zimmermann, L. Spath (Red.): Rural and urban coastal settlements in the 1st and 2nd millennium . Wilhelmshavener Tage 2, Wilhelmshaven 1991.
- Official website of Wilhelmshaven
- Link catalog on Wilhelmshaven at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Wilhelmshaven sights from A to Z
- Photo documentation - From the Genius Beach to the JadeWeserPort container deep-water port
- Literature from and about Wilhelmshaven in the catalog of the German National Library
- Map of Wilhelmshaven with fortifications 1865 on Kulturerbe.niedersachsen.de
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Wilhelmshaven becomes the largest Bundeswehr location in Germany ( memento of the original from December 29, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed November 25, 2012.
- New stationing concept of the Bundeswehr - Lower Saxony (PDF) accessed on July 9, 2016.
- Key figures on the maritime dependence of the Federal Republic of Germany (Annual Report 2009) (PDF) accessed on July 2, 2010
- Lower Saxony Dyke Act (NDG) - Deichverband 9
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- Tide table for Wilhelmshaven, Neuer Vorhafen ( Memento of the original from July 2, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Tide table for Bremerhaven ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Tide table for Antwerp
- Tide table for Rotterdam
- changes in Wilhelmshaven (PDF; 61 kB), document 2112-U, status 2009
- City of Wilhelmshaven: "Wilhelmshaven in numbers" ( Memento from January 7, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Former advertising slogan of the city, which was coined in the 1920s by spa director Karl Rieger (1885-1949).
- Information Wilhelmshaven in figures - area / apartments, as of June 2012
- StaDtistik report 2-2011. (PDF; 8.2 MB) City of Wilhelmshaven, p. 4: City districts and districts; Retrieved December 30, 2011
- German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990
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- Hotel Delphin: History
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- Gerhard Koop, Erich Mulitze: The Navy in Wilhelmshaven - a pictorial chronicle on German naval history from 1853 to today . Bernard & Graefe Verlag, Bonn 1997, p. 56 ff.
- Martin Weltner: Railway disasters. Serious train accidents and their causes. Munich 2008, ISBN 978-3-7654-7096-7 , p. 15.
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- A brief history of Prince Rupert School, Wilhelmshaven (English) ( Memento of the original from July 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed July 2, 2010
- Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 275 .
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- tcn-nordwest.de ( Memento of the original from February 10, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)
- Exhibition - Ten Years of the North Sea Passage ( Memento from August 3, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- Facts & Figures on the North Sea Passage , accessed on July 9, 2016.
- of the “North Sea Worlds” , accessed on July 11, 2013
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- Census - Less than 77,000 inhabitants , accessed on June 8, 2013
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- Hartmut Büsing: ... endured so much 'unspeakable suffering. On the history of the Rüstringer and Wilhelmshaven Jews. Wilhelmshaven 1986, p. 35 f.
- Hartmut Büsing: ... endured so much 'unspeakable suffering. On the history of the Rüstringer and Wilhelmshaven Jews. Wilhelmshaven 1986, p. 50.
- Hartmut Büsing: ... endured so much 'unspeakable suffering. On the history of the Rüstringer and Wilhelmshaven Jews. Wilhelmshaven 1986, p. 123.
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- Internet pages of the Lodge Wilhelm zum Silber Anker
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- majority for the personnel package in the Council . In: Wilhelmshavener Zeitung , November 2, 2016, p. 1.
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- Morißes establish "alternative for Wilhelmshaven" , accessed on March 7, 2017
- Wilhelmshaven Newspapers- www.WZonline.de: WZonline.de - news, photos and videos from Wilhelmshaven and Friesland. Retrieved June 18, 2019 .
- Bente Hoeft-Heyn: New group in the Wilhelmshaven council - Radio Jade. Retrieved January 15, 2020 .
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- Bente Hoeft-Heyn: Amalgamation at the AfD - Radio Jade. Retrieved January 15, 2020 .
- Preliminary results of local elections 2016 - Council , accessed on September 13, 2016
- Results of the mayor's election on May 26, 2019 , accessed on October 27, 2019
- constituencies to the Federal ( Memento of the original from September 7, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( nwzonline.de [accessed September 29, 2017]).
- Günter Pötter in Wilhelmshaven - City and landscape by the sea . Lohse-Eissing, Wilhelmshaven 1958, p. 104 ff.
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- Riedel (1983), p. 62.
- Riedel (1983), p. 82 ff.
- Website of the Junge Theater Wilhelmshaven
- Theos - Theater at Oceanis. Retrieved July 9, 2019 .
- Jazzclub Wilhelmshaven & Friesland e. V.
- Friedhelm Müller-Düring: The ravages of time gnaw at the Wilhelmshaven town hall. In: Oldenburgische Landschaft (Ed.): Kulturland Oldenburg , Issue 167 (Issue 1/2016), pp. 2-7 ( online ).
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- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
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- Maik Michalski: Cranes need a larger hall ( memento of the original from July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . Report on the expansion of Manitowoc Crane Group Germany on NWZ-Online from January 16, 2008, accessed on July 9, 2016.
- Press release from the company ALBA: Check did not reveal any violation of fire protection regulations ( Memento from March 13, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Information on the shipyard on the Neue Jadewerft Wilhelmshaven GmbH website , accessed on July 9, 2016
- Ships of the Jade-Dienst fleet ( Memento of the original from September 24th, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Jade-Dienst: List of underwater services ( Memento of the original from April 27, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Maritime Mile ( Memento of the original from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed March 29, 2012
- Förderverein Rosarium e. V .: The development ( memento of the original from July 24, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. . 2010, accessed July 24, 2016
- Information Wilhelmshaven in figures - Economy: Tourism 2011, as of June 2012
- overnight stays in Wilhelmshaven increased again ( memento of the original from July 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed October 16, 2015
- Gegenwind - newspaper for work, peace, environmental protection
- Press release on the merger ( Memento of the original from May 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF) accessed on June 3, 2015
- Congratulations! Angelika Reichelt was honored - unfortunately not by the city of Wilhelmshaven. In: Gegenwind - Wilhelmshavener newspaper for work * peace * environmental protection. Issue 185, December 2002
- ndr.de/regional ( Memento from September 24, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- German seaports report stable handling development . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 4/2018, pp. 32–36, here p. 34.
- Balance sheet of the German seaports 2010 . In: Hansa , Issue 4/2011, Schiffahrtsverlag Hansa, Hamburg, , p. 64.
- ConocoPhillips wants to convert refinery into tank farm , accessed on May 10, 2010
- Different development of the turnover figures. Balance 2012 . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 5/2013, , pp. 16/18.
- Eckhard-Herbert Arndt: Ports want to grow sustainably . In: Daily port report of February 17, 2015, p. 3.
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- German seaports report stable handling development . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 4/2018, pp. 32–36, here p. 34.
- Thomas Wägener: Loss of importance of German ports . In: Hansa , issue 1/2016, pp. 50–52.
- Peter Kleinort: Less handling in Lower Saxony's ports . In: Daily port report of February 28, 2017, p. 1.
- Wilhelmshavener Zeitung , April 4, 2008
- Wilhelmshavener Zeitung of August 6, 2008
- RWE AG: New LNG project with Excelerate Energy and north-west oil pipeline in Wilhelmshaven , accessed on July 2, 2010
- Wilhelmshavener Zeitung , September 4, 2008
- Homepage of the German Liquid Gas Terminal Gesellschaft mbH
- Malte Daniljuk: "Weltpolitik in Norddeutschland" Telepolis from October 29, 2018
- Angela Hennersdorf: "The superfluous liquid gas port" Wirtschaftswoche from August 31, 2018
- "LNG Terminal in Stade (or Wilhelmshaven) torpedoes energy transition and climate protection obligations and generates investment ruin" Open letter dated December 6, 2018
- Study of the Jade-Weser Canal
- Route network of the NordWestBahn ( memento of the original from February 1, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF)
- Fass-Reisen - regular traffic ( Memento of the original from October 22, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed October 28, 2013
- Der Jadeweg ( Memento of the original from July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed July 9, 2016
- The Ems-Jade-Weg ( Memento of the original from July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed July 9, 2016
- STA D TISTIK report 4-2007, City of Wilhelmshaven, identification 4311-V
- Online catalog of the Wilhelmshaven City Library
- New name of FH Wilhelmshaven / Oldenburg / Elsfleth has been determined , accessed on April 10, 2010
- Wilhelmshaven Newspapers- www.WZonline.de: WZonline.de - news, photos and videos from Wilhelmshaven and Friesland. Retrieved June 3, 2019 .
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- DEWI GmbH - About us , accessed on March 17, 2014
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