|coat of arms||Germany map|
Coordinates: 53 ° 34 ' N , 7 ° 47' E
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||4 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||210.1 km 2|
|Residents:||20,313 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||97 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||26409|
|Primaries :||04462, 04464 , 04466 , 04467 , 04973|
|License plate :||WTM|
|Community key :||03 4 62 019|
|LOCODE :||DE WMD|
|City structure:||14 districts or districts|
City administration address :
|Mayor :||Rolf Claussen (independent)|
|Location of the city of Wittmund in the district of Wittmund|
Wittmund is a city in northwest Lower Saxony and the district town of the East Frisian district of the same name . In terms of area, it is the largest city in East Frisia , with 20,313 inhabitants it ranks fifth behind Emden , Aurich , Leer and Norden . The city's territory is sparsely populated. In the regional planning of the state of Lower Saxony, Wittmund is managed as a middle center .
Historically, the majority of the Wittmund urban area belongs to the Harlingerland , which finally came to the county of East Friesland only in 1600 through the Berum settlement . Wittmund has been the seat of the district of the same name since 1885.
Position and extent
Wittmund lies between Aurich and Jever in the northeast of East Frisia . It is around 15 kilometers from the city center to the coast. In terms of area, Wittmund is one of the ten largest cities in Lower Saxony with 210.13 square kilometers and is ranked 82nd in a Germany-wide comparison. Since the incorporation of several surrounding places during the local government reform in 1972, Wittmund has been the largest city in East Frisia . To the north, the Wittmund city limits with the Carolinensiel district meet directly on the North Sea coast .
With around 20,000 inhabitants spread over a good 210 square kilometers, Wittmund is only very sparsely populated. A population density of 99 per square kilometer is compared to comparative values of 488 (Emden), 460 (Leer), 241 (north) and 206 (Aurich) within East Frisia alone.
Starting from the port Harlesiel the ferry to the North Sea island of Wangerooge . Wittmund is located on the Harle , a river that both rises and flows into the Wittmund city area. The city is managed as a medium-sized center in the regional planning of the state of Lower Saxony .
The Wittmund urban area is characterized by the three forms of landscape marshland , geest and moor of the East Frisian mainland. The main part is accounted for by the march and especially the young march, especially in those areas of the city that have been wrested from the former Harle Bay piece by piece over the centuries . The Geest shares are much smaller, moor areas can only be found in a small part of the southern urban area. The superficial urban area is geologically shaped by the Pleistocene (Geest) and the Holocene (marshland and moor).
The town center of Wittmund is located on the Geest on the southwestern edge of the former Harle Bay. It is sand and gravel from meltwater deposits from the Drenthe stage of the Saale glacial period . To the south of it there are clayey, sandy and gravelly soils from the same geological stage, mainly as boulder clay and marl. In the extreme south near Leerhafe, sands and drifting sands from the Vistula glacial period can be found, the oldest layers in the Wittmund urban area. They are part of the Oldenburg-East Frisian Geetsrücken, which extends from south-east to north-west, for example from Oldenburg to the north . In the west of the urban area, basin deposits made of Lauenburg clay from the Elster Glaciation can be found. There are also fen soils near Ardorf.
On the edge of the former Harle Bay there is clayey silt from brackish water deposits, for example around the district of Funnix. The former Harle Bay itself consists of tidal flats made of fine sand, silt and clay. Those parts of the city that were gradually wrested from the Harlebucht lie exclusively on this subsoil, such as Carolinensiel and the Groden immediately to the south , which within East Frisia are exclusively known as the former Harlingerland; in the rest of East Frisia they are called polders instead.
|use||Area in ha|
|Building and open space||1,315|
|including living space||757|
|of which commercial and industrial space||97|
|of which mining areas||46|
|including green area||26th|
|of which road, path, square||794|
|Areas of other use||286|
|of it land||23|
The land use table shows the enormously high proportion of agricultural land in the total area of Wittmund. At almost 81.5 percent, Wittmund still exceeds the East Frisian average of around 75 percent, which in turn is already well above the national average of 52 percent. With around 4.5 percent forest share, Wittmund is above the East Frisian average of 2.6 percent. However, East Frisia is forested extremely below average in Germany-wide comparison. The forests in the urban area are concentrated in the west and south, the north, however, is completely free of forests, there are trees there only as a vestibule near homesteads. Wall hedges can be found in the south of Wittmund around the Leerhafe district . The water areas consist of some quarry ponds in the Ardorf / Collrunge area in the extreme southwest of the urban area as well as the Harle and numerous drainage ditches.
In the north-west, Wittmund borders on the communities Dunum , Stedesdorf , Werdum and Neuharlingersiel (all together in Esens in the district of Wittmund ), in the north-east on the community of Wangerland and in the east on the city of Jever (both districts of Friesland ), in the south on the community of Friedeburg (district Wittmund) and in the west to the city of Aurich ( district of Aurich ). This makes Wittmund the middle of the three neighboring district towns of Aurich, Wittmund and Jever.
The district town of Wittmund is divided into the following 14 localities:
In addition to these districts, there are a large number of other localities and residential areas that belong to the districts of these districts. These are often villages with only a few dozen and sometimes even fewer than a dozen houses. However, their original names are still present among the inhabitants and are used as a designation of origin.
Wittmund lies in the temperate climate zone. The urban area is mostly directly influenced by the North Sea . The climatic conditions in the city of Wittmund, which stretches for more than 20 kilometers in north-south direction and extends from the North Sea coast to fens in central East Frisia, vary with the distance from the coast. In summer the daytime temperatures are generally lower, in winter often higher than in the further inland areas. The climate is characterized by the Central European west wind zone.
According to Köppen's climate classification , Wittmund is in the classification Cfb , which means that climate zone C has a warm, moderate rainy climate , with the coldest month having a mean temperature between 18 ° C and −3 ° C and the warmest month a temperature above 10 ° C. The annual total precipitation for climate type Cf : humid moderate climate means that all months are humid and the driest month has at least 60 millimeters of precipitation. Climate subtype b (warm summer ) shows that all months are below 22 ° C, but there are at least four months that are warmer than 10 ° C.
The average annual temperature in Wittmund is 6 and 11.8 ° C. The warmest months are July and August with an average of 20 ° C and the coldest January and February with an average of –1 ° C. Most of the precipitation falls in November with an average of 86.8 millimeters, the lowest in February with an average of 44 millimeters. The total amount of precipitation over the year is 814 millimeters and thus corresponds almost exactly to the German average.
Climate table for Wittmund
Source: Precipitation values according to the German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990, Wittmund-Blersum, temperature information, hours of sunshine and rainy days according to holidaycheck.de
In front of the coast are the islands of Spiekeroog and Wangerooge . Between the coastline and the islands is the Wadden Sea , which is under nature protection as the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009 together with the Schleswig-Holstein and the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea .
The Hohehahn nature reserve is located in the Wittmund Forest directly north of the B 210 federal road and covers 8.5 hectares. It has been under nature protection since 1978. A very small part of the 1549 hectare nature reserve Benser Tief (protected area 1980) lies in the far west of the Wittmund city area, the lion's share, however, in the integrated community of Esens. A copper beech in Leerhafe and an oak northwest of the village have been under protection since 1939. They are designated as a natural monument. A field wood near Ardorf (landscape protection area) with a size of 3.1 hectares has been protected since 1941.
Prehistory and early history
The Geest around the center of Wittmund and in the south of the urban area is one of the earliest settlement areas in East Frisia. Finds of the oldest flint artefacts are dated to the Paleolithic. From the time of the Neolithic funnel cup culture , many artifacts were discovered in the area of the Leerhafe district. An important find from this period is the deeply engraved pan made of Rispel, which is assigned to the Neolithic beaker culture. Due to other small finds, a Neolithic settlement is suspected in Rispel.
In the area of the Knyphauser Wald around 7.5 kilometers south of Wittmund are the barrows near Rispel . Most of the original 100 burial mounds that date from the Bronze Age were leveled around 1900. Only three remained on the road from Rispel to Reepsholt .
The south of the urban area between the places Leerhafe and Ardorf was already in the Bronze Age the crossing point of paths between the Oldenburg area and the coast with the predecessors of the medieval Frisian Heerweg . Coming from the Friedeburg area, the route initially ran in a north-westerly direction, at Leerhafe / Rispel another branched off in a north-east direction. Another path led to the northwest and split near Ardorf into paths to today's town centers of Wittmund and Aurich with a branch towards Esens. Based on investigations in the 1950s, this network of trails was reconstructed using barrows and other finds.
Settlement remains on a terp near the district of Buttforde can possibly be assigned to the Roman Empire , but a more detailed investigation is still pending.
From the migration period, only one settlement near Burhafe was explored in the Wittmund area. It is dated to around AD 400 or earlier. In the 5th century there was a sharp decline in settlement. The reason for this could have been the rise in sea level and the resulting flooding of the marshes and the watering of the Geest. The decline in population is only noticeable in the lack of archaeological finds for the 5th and 6th centuries.
After this decline in settlement, which is explained by the Dunkirk II transgression , there was renewed settlement from the 7th or 8th century. A wooden church in the center of Wittmund is believed to have existed as early as the 9th century. However, archaeological evidence of this is still pending. In the traditiones Fuldensis of the Fulda monastery, a Witmuntheim in Friesland is mentioned as subject to interest as the abbot Hadamar (927-956). Whether it is today's Wittmund has not been proven beyond doubt, at least some authors suspected it was in West Friesland . Ardorf is one of the oldest villages in the city. Century exists.
Eggelingen was first mentioned in a document on September 27, 1124. Pope Calixt II assigned the place to the monastery in Rastede. The Asel district was first mentioned in 1150 in a document from the Fulda monastery. Around 1200 Wittmund was the central place of the Frisian rural community Wangerland. The Harlingerland split off from it and from the Gau Norditi to the west, to which Wittmund and the surrounding villages, with the exception of Ardorf, Hovels and Leerhafes, belonged since the late Middle Ages.
The first high point in church building in the Wittmund area came in the 14th century when several stone churches were built. The current districts of the city of Blersum, Buttforde, Burhafe, Berdum and Funnix were first mentioned in 1420 in the Stader Copiar.
In 1362 broke the Second Marcellus the old Seedeichlinie and formed the deep superior to the hinterland Harlebucht that reached with several foothills to the Geest sites Esens, Wittmund Burhafe and Jever. The places Eggelingen and Asel became islands for a time. The foothills of the Harle Bay silted up again in the 15th century and from 1545 the secondary bays and the main bay were systematically diked until the current coastline at Harlesiel was reached in 1895. The dike created new sluices for draining the diked areas , where sluice sites mostly formed due to the convenient location. With further embankments, these sewage sites became inland sites.
The chief family Kankena played a dominant role in Wittmund from around the middle of the 14th century . Originally the Kankenas came from the area around Reepsholt south of Wittmund. Possibly they were bailiffs on the Frisian Heerstrasse on behalf of the Counts of Oldenburg. From there they penetrated to the northwest and west and thus to today's Wittmund city area. They owned lands in Isums south of today's core city and were probably also the lords of the castle in Borgholt in the south-west of the city. From there the junction of the Frisian Heerstraße to Aurich could be checked. There is no documentary evidence of this, but: "One would like (...) to assume, given the preponderance of the Kankena in Reepsholt and their later position in Wittmund, that a Kankena was most likely to be considered as commander of this castle."
Around 1370, at the urging of the leading East Frisian chief family tom Brok , the Wittmund Church was expanded into a fortified church, which was also referred to as a castle. Due to its location on the broken-in Harle Bay, Wittmund was drawn into the clashes between East Frisian chiefs and the Hanseatic League . Individual chiefs gave the Vitalienbrothers shelter on their pirate voyages against Hanseatic ships. The Wittmund port also served as such a base. In 1400, the people of Hamburg conquered Wittmund Castle, which was handed over on May 30th.
In the 15th century, marriages led to connections between the Kankena and Attena families from Dornum . Both were involved in clashes among leading chiefs over the establishment of supremacy in the region. The Kankenas initially supported the chief Focko Ukena in his successful fight against the tom Brok, who aspired to the leading role in East Frisia. The Kankenas were involved in Ukena's victory in the Battle of the Wild Fields (1427). However, when Ukena in turn prepared to take over the supremacy of the East Frisian chiefs, he came into opposition to other chiefs under the leadership of the Cirksena family , who overpowered the last supporters of Ukena in 1433.
Sibet Attena got the rights in Esens in 1454 as the nephew and loyal follower of the first East Frisian Count Ulrich Cirksena . Also in 1454 he supported Ulrich Cirksena against Tanne Kankena in Wittmund, occupied the castle there and drove him out. Seven years later he resigned his rights in Dornum, since then Wittmund had been lost to the Kankena for good. Sibet Attena called himself chief zu Esens, Stedesdorf and Wittmund since 1455. The Harlingerland was thus concretized as a sovereign territory, but the main town was Esens.
Modern times until 1744
From 1522 until his death in 1540, Balthasar von Esens was chief of the East Frisian glories of Esens, Stedesdorf and Wittmund and thus ruler of the Harlingerland. Balthasar died without descendants, and so the Harlingerland fell to Count Johann II von Rietberg , the son of Balthasar's sister Onna von Esens. Johann II was married to Agnes Countess von Bentheim-Steinfurt . The couple had two daughters. In 1557 Johann II was sentenced to imprisonment by the Lower Rhine-Westphalian Empire for several offenses, in which he died in 1562. Therefore, in 1557, the Countess Agnes took over the government for her daughters. In 1567, as regent Agnes Countess Rietberg, she granted the town of Wittmund town charter. In the 17th century, these city rights lapsed and were only re-granted in 1929.
In 1584 the place was named Witmondt on a map . Later he received an office constitution as part of the count's reorganization and was run as an office. It was not until 1600 that Harlingerland, including Wittmund, finally fell to East Frisia through political and family-related mergers. In the Berum comparison , a on January 28, 1600 at Berum Castle between Count Enno III. and the Rietberg house , the assignment of Harlingerland and the modalities of financial compensation were regulated.
In 1607 Wittmund received market rights from Count Enno III. The Harlingerland remained a slave to the count. Land estates , as they had developed in East Friesland and which saw their rights secured in the Osterhusischen Accord in 1611 , did not exist in Harlingerland. Instead, a princely office was set up in Esens for the administration of the area. Nevertheless, the Harlingerland belonged to the county of East Friesland.
During the Thirty Years' War , East Friesland was not the scene of fighting, but it was used by troops as a rest room . Three times (1622–1624, 1627–1631 and 1637–1651) foreign troops moved into East Friesland, which also affected the present area. The region was particularly hard hit by the occupation by the Mansfelder (1622–1624). During the war, the plague also broke out in East Frisia , but deaths for the area in question are not documented.
In the 17th century, large parts of Harle Bay were wrested back from the sea. One after the other, the Werdumer Altengroden (1617), the Enno-Ludwigs-Groden (until 1658), the Klein-Charlottengroden (until 1677), the Groß-Charlottengroden (until 1679) and finally the Sophiengroden (until 1698) were won. Parts of the diked land lay in Oldenburg territory, the land growth was managed jointly and divided between the two countries in accordance with the agreement of the golden line. Accordingly, the construction of a new sewer as a drainage passage became necessary: the old Funnixer sewer was followed in 1658 by the new Funnixer sewer. In the 16th and 17th centuries the type of gulf house was created in East Frisia . The background was land reclamation measures and improved drainage in the marshes, which made more intensive agriculture possible. This increased the space requirement for (grain) storage areas on the courtyards, which was met by the construction of the Gulf houses. In the marshes north of the city center, this type of house was mostly built in larger structures due to the rich harvests in good years. The bricks required were mostly made in the field fire.
Wittmund was severely affected by the Christmas flood of 1717 . According to a contemporary survey by the preacher Jacobus Isebrandi Harkenroth, 373 people perished in the floods in the Wittmund office, which comprised most of today's urban area. Almost 1500 head of cattle (cattle, horses, pigs and sheep) drowned. 86 houses were completely destroyed by the water masses and another 325 partially destroyed.
In 1729 the next Groden, the Carolinengroden, was diked. At its northern tip, a new sewage site Carolinensiel was created, which in the following 150 years - interrupted by fluctuations - occupied an important place among the East Frisian port towns. In order to settle the place, the sovereign even had advertisements in Dutch newspapers to attract suitable prospects. In 1730, more than 20 pieces of land were leased in the new Groden.
First Prussian rule (1744–1806)
In 1744 Ostfriesland fell to Prussia through an prospectus . This also ended the different constitutional status of the Harlingerland within East Frisia. The office in Esens was closed. In the second half of the 18th century, Wittmund developed into the center of the East Frisian horse trade for more than a century, a role that Weener had until then . Horses were sold from there to southern Germany, Belgium, France and Italy.
The French Revolutionary War from 1793 to 1795 and the subsequent Peace of Basel favored East Frisian shipping, which sailed under the neutral Prussian flag. The region's agricultural products were mainly exported to the Netherlands and England. The marshes in the north of Wittmund in particular benefited from this, but also the port and sewage area Carolinensiel as a transshipment point, which recorded an enormous upswing: "Due to the lively trade, Carolinensiel quickly outstripped its neighboring villages in economic terms." This upswing can also be seen in the number of inhabitants read: While Carolinensiel only had around 200 inhabitants in 1758, the number rose to 749 by 1793 and to 1618 (despite economic setbacks in the meantime) to 1618. An expression of the increasing importance of the place is also a sacred building. The church was consecrated on October 20, 1776. Friedrichsgroden was diked in as early as 1765. Immediately north of Carolinensiel, the new Friedrichsschleuse was built at the mouth of the Harle, which still allowed access to the port. Groden and Schleuse were named after Frederick the Great .
In the south and west of the urban area, which at the end of the 18th century was covered even more extensively by fens and especially heather, these wastelands began to be colonized. In the Leerhafe area, Rispelerhelmt emerged as a row settlement on a narrow sand ridge that protruded into the Wiesmoor from around 1796 . By 1823 the number of inhabitants rose slowly to 23 colonists who lived in four houses. In the Müggenkrug district, too, increased settlement began at the beginning of the 19th century, which increased the number of inhabitants to 70 by 1823. Upstede, Negenbargen and Jackstede in the Burhafe district were also repopulated during this period. “Most of the settlers came from neighboring villages. As a rule, they were workers and warf owners from the nearest Geest communities. "
From Holland to Hanover (1806–1866)
After the Peace of Tilsit , Wittmund fell to the Kingdom of Holland in 1806 , after which France was incorporated into the Napoleonic Empire in 1811. After Napoleon's failed campaign in Russia, there was a spontaneous uprising of peasants against the French in neighboring Oldenburg, which encroached on Wittmund's territory. On March 24th, 1813 there was a skirmish between insurgents and the French occupiers in the south of Wittmund near Rispel, which they won. Five farmers were killed.
After the Napoleonic Wars , after a brief Prussian interlude (1813–1815), Wittmund fell with all of East Frisia to the Kingdom of Hanover . An official reform followed two years later, affecting today's urban area. The village of Ardorf was spun off from the Aurich office and assigned to the Wittmund office. At the same time, the village of Leerhafe and its surroundings, including today's Hovel district, from the Friedeburg office and the integration into the Wittmund office followed. For this reason, the three current districts in the south of the urban area are not part of the historic Harlingerland, but the rest of the urban area does.
The last major storm surge on the East Frisian North Sea coast in 1825 led to extensive dike breaches . Many farms and lands were also under water in the Wittmund marshland. Economically weaker peasants were then forced to sell their farms to more financially strong peers or to townspeople who saw the farms as capital investments and passed them on in time leases.
For the year 1843, 297 houses with 1999 inhabitants are documented in the core town of Wittmund. There was a brandy distillery, four breweries, two calico printing plants and three lime distilleries, as well as several cattle shops, building materials shops, pottery shops and a wine and grain shop. When an office reform was carried out in the Kingdom of Hanover in 1859, the Friedeburg office fell to the Wittmund office.
Again to Prussia: Empire
From 1866, East Frisia was again part of Prussia . As the closest Prussian area, Wittmund was the supervisory authority for the Royal Prussian Jade Region on the Jade Bay from 1873 to 1919 . With the Jade Treaty of July 20, 1853, Prussia had bought an area of 313 hectares there to establish a base for the Prussian Navy . On June 17, 1869, the area was officially named Wilhelmshaven . In 1873 Wilhelmshaven was granted city rights and from then on belonged as an exclave to the Wittmund office and later to the Wittmund district (until 1919).
The state of Prussia initially took over the organization of offices with the existing offices in Aurich, Berum, Emden, Esens, Leer, Stickhausen, Weener and Wittmund. From 1884 the administration was transferred to the district structure. The districts of Aurich, Emden, Leer, Norden, Weener and Wittmund as well as the independent city of Emden were established in East Friesland. Wittmund, which is centrally located within the district, became the seat of the Wittmund district (formed from the offices of Esens and Wittmund) on April 1, 1885, although Esens was not only the historical center of Harlingerland, but also had city rights at that time and was the larger town (2283 inhabitants compared to 1901 in Wittmund). “Considerations made at the local level about whether Esens, Wittmund or even Wilhelmshaven should be the seat of the new district administration, decided the Oberpräsident [in Hanover] on May 22, 1884 without further ado, stating that the district administrator of the Wittmund district should have his seat in the district of the same name Places to take, I consider beyond doubt. “The district building in Wittmund was built in 1901, until then the district administration was housed in today's district court building. Also in 1901 there was the formation of an independent municipality Hovel, which had previously belonged to the municipality of Leerhafe. When it was founded, the municipality of Hovel had almost 13 square kilometers and 469 inhabitants. Until the municipal reforms around 1970, this was the last major change in the geographical-administrative area of the urban area.
In the second half of the 19th century, several forests were created in the district, including in Wittmund. The background to this was the dissolution of the Hohehahn state sheep farm (1865). Until then, large numbers of sheep had been grazing on the heather. After the cessation of the sheep farm, the areas were afforested. After the reforestation measures were completed, the Wittmund Forest was declared a state forest in 1893. The Collrunger Forst in the extreme southwest of the city area was also reforested.
The harbor town of Carolinensiel lost more and more of its importance in the second half of the 19th century. The main reason was the advent of the steamship , which replaced the sailor. The port could no longer cope with the larger ships, as the fairway had too little draft and could only have been expanded at high costs. In 1879 there were still 40 ships at home in the Sielort, the number fell to 20 in 1885 and to six in 1895.
Politically, the Liberals and primarily the National Liberals set the tone during the Empire. In accordance with the low level of industrialization in Wittmund, a social democratic workers' association was not established until 1908. However, the proximity to the port city of Wilhelmshaven and the flow of commuters there had a positive effect on the formation of a social democratic association.
The outbreak of the First World War meant that Wittmund men were drafted into the East Frisian Infantry Regiment No. 78 . During the war of Wittmunder forest which was created in 1916 on a previously a forest fire fallen victim to section Wittmundhafen Air Base . There were blimps stationed. About 600 military personnel moved into the newly created garrison.
A few days after the start of the November Revolution , which only a few kilometers from Wittmund removed on the Schillig - Roads off Wilhelmshaven, its beginning took a soldiers' originated in Wittmund on 10 November 1918th It was formed by members of the flying units stationed in Wittmundhafen. A workers' council was founded on November 14th in a restaurant in Wittmund, around 600 people took part in the establishment. Its primary purpose was to maintain public order and was dominated less than in other places by members of the USPD and the SPD; instead, a farmer, a lawyer and a civil servant were also represented, as well as workers and three master craftsmen for the production stands. "So it is not surprising that the members of the council largely coincide with the members of the local council from March 1919." A workers 'and soldiers' council had also been formed in Carolinensiel. The workers 'and soldiers' councils were on 25/26. Disbanded February 1919.
In the first elections to the Weimar National Assembly in 1919, the parties of the Weimar coalition got around 80 percent of the vote. Of this, the DDP alone won the absolute majority of the votes in the entire district, which means that it primarily voted left-wing liberal. The DDP also won the election for the Prussian state assembly a week later. It achieved outstanding results in the core town of Wittmund with 61.8 percent and in the later district of Eggelingen with 70 percent. But the left-wing liberals broke in as early as the 1920 Reichstag elections and fell from the absolute majority in the district to 17 percent, while in the core town of Wittmund they still gained 30.3 percent. This benefited above all the national liberal DVP and partly also the DNVP . The social democracy played only a subordinate role in Wittmund, the SPD got 5.5 percent of the vote in Wittmund, while it was about 10 percent in the district. Both results fell far short of the party's nationwide results. “Amazingly,” in 1920 there was also a party section of the KPD in the bourgeois-liberal Wittmund , albeit with a manageable number of visitors.
From around 1923 there was a noticeable swing to the right in the Wittmund district. In that year several local groups of the Stahlhelm were founded in the district, in the district town on January 30, 1923. This union of front soldiers found enormous popularity in the next few years, as did the youth organization Jungstahlhelm. A local group was also founded in Carolinensiel, and in the following year in Burhafe and Buttforde. The Stahlhelm was mainly active in the towns north of Wittmund, while south of the district town in the following years the NSDAP quickly became the leading force in the right-wing extremist spectrum.
In the Reichstag election in May 1924 , the Völkisch Social Block appeared for the first time in the Wittmund district , a union of the German-Völkisch Freedom Party and the NSDAP. A district association was established on April 26, 1924. In the following years the teacher Heinrich van Dieken from Carolinensiel appeared as one of the main speakers at the Völkische. The election in May brought the Völkisch a share of the vote of 46.4 percent. In addition, there were another 14.6 percent of the votes for the DNVP, so that the extreme right in the district got around 61 percent of the votes. The Völkische were particularly popular in the south of the district, in addition to the places of today's Friedeburg municipality also in the south of Wittmund: In Ardorf, 74.6 percent voted for the Völkische, in Leerhafe a total of 78.4 percent. The strongholds of the right were almost without exception in the Geest and moor areas, where petty bourgeois as well as small and medium-sized farmers "the economic security of existence began to swim away from under their feet" in the wake of the inflationary crisis. The exception was the coastal town of Carolinensiel, where the aforementioned teacher van Dieken was active. The formerly strong DDP was only able to hold its ground to some extent in the core town of Wittmund and became the second strongest force behind the Völkische with 17.5 percent, otherwise it remained irrelevant in today's urban area.
There was a meeting of the NSDAP in the center of Wittmund in March 1929. In February 1930 a local group was finally founded. Local groups in Ardorf and Leerhafe followed in 1931, and in Willen the following year. After the founding of the first SA associations, the NSDAP and SA marched on Wittmund's market square in February 1931. There were several clashes between the right wing and SPD supporters in the final years of the Weimar Republic, for example in 1930 at an SPD event with Hermann Tempel, a member of the Reichstag from Leer . There were also clashes with the KPD, which was already quite insignificant in the Wittmund district, for example at a hall event in Buttforde in 1932, at which 20 communists faced around 300 right-wing extremists. There it remained with verbal skirmishes.
The right received support since the mid-1920s from the leading local newspaper Anzeiger für Harlingerland , which stood out for its one-sided reporting and commented on this in November 1932 with the following article: “(...) that we have shown respect for the National Socialist idea from the outset, yes at a time when it was understood and approved by very few. ”In addition, individual teachers and several pastors, who later joined the German Christians , were active in the interests of the Volkish and later the National Socialists. Accordingly, towards the end of the Weimar Republic in the Wittmund district, the National Socialists recorded some of their best results in the province of Hanover and partly beyond.
The year 1929 brought Wittmund the renewal of the city charter after it had already owned it around 1500, but had lost it again in the following period and was considered a patch until then. Since then, Wittmund has also been the district town of the district under local law .
On the evening of January 30, 1933, the day the “ seizure of power ”, around 150 SA members organized a torchlight procession through the center of Wittmund. Before the Reichstag election in March 1933, the local SPD and KPD representatives in the Wittmund district had tried to draw up a unified list of the two workers' parties. This was expressly forbidden to the local KPD functionaries by their district leadership in Bremen. In the Reichstag election in March, the NSDAP won 71 percent of the vote in the Wittmund district, and together with the DNVP it came to 86 percent. The NSDAP functionaries then had all town halls in the municipalities of the district occupied, which happened without resistance. Around 150 SA men moved to the Wittmund town hall on the morning of March 6 and occupied the building.
“The transition from the Republic to the National Socialist system of rule following Hitler's seizure of power on January 30, 1933 came more or less 'inevitably' for Wittmund. The NSDAP had already celebrated many triumphant successes in the local district, so that the actual seizure of power did not cause any particular excitement. "
The National Socialists also secured influence at the municipal level, even though individuals or local lists continued to make it into the municipal councils in the elections for the city council and the district council. At the first city council meeting in Wittmund on March 30, 1933, it was decided to rename several streets, including Bahnhofstrasse in Adolf-Hitler-Strasse, and to give Hitler honorary citizenship. In addition to the district administrator, the mayor also remained in office, as neither of them had previously been too unpleasant for the National Socialists.
After 1933, Jews faced increasing persecution, which led them to emigrate. The last preacher, teacher and Chasan , Abraham Straßfeld, emigrated to the United States with his family on March 27, 1935 . The synagogue was sold for demolition by the Jewish community to a merchant in June 1938, so that it no longer existed during the November pogroms in 1938 . Other Jewish houses were broken into and looted during the pogroms. 20 community members were rounded up and the next day brought to Oldenburg along with around 200 other Jewish East Frisians, from where they were deported to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp . They were only released one by one. The Jewish community quickly dissolved after the pogroms. On April 16, 1940, Wittmund was declared " Jew-free " by the district inspector .
Two residents of Hovels were forcibly sterilized during the Nazi era because of inherited walking difficulties. There is evidence of twelve forced sterilizations in the Leerhafe district.
The armament of the Wehrmacht did not pass Wittmund by either. For the second time after 1916, Wittmundhafen Air Base became the site of an air force. Fighter planes of the Luftwaffe had been stationed there since the late 1930s, and since 1944 the first aircraft to break the 1000 km / h mark, the rocket-powered Messerschmitt Me 163 interceptor .
During the Second World War there were various prisoner of war camps in the city, in which members of several nationalities were housed. In Burhafe, for example, 42 Russians and 60 French were interned, in Blersum between 18 and 28 people, 80 percent Belgians and 20 percent French. In Buttforde there was a prison camp for 60 French people. Such camps also existed in other districts. The inmates were mostly used in agriculture.
Wittmundhafen Air Base has been the target of allied bomber units on several occasions. When bombs were dropped, the surrounding villages were also affected, mostly by "stray" bombs. In contrast to neighboring Esens, the core location itself was not the target of a direct attack. In the urban area, including Asel, bombed out people from Wilhelmshaven were housed in emergency shelters. The end of the war went without a fight in what is now Wittmund's urban area. Canadian and Polish units had advanced into the Großefehn area, about 15 kilometers southwest of Wittmund, by the beginning of May 1945. After the surrender of the Wehrmacht, prisoners of war were housed in East Friesland north of the Ems-Jade Canal , i.e. also in the Wittmund city area. They were only able to return home gradually.
post war period
After the Second World War, the Wittmund district took in a large number of displaced persons and refugees from the eastern regions of the German Empire . Not only the communities in the moor and on the Geest were affected, but also the marshland areas to a large extent. Due to their high agricultural productivity, they were a target of the refugees who hoped for a stable food situation there.
As a result of increasing mechanization, more and more jobs in agriculture were lost after the war. Wittmund thus followed a general trend in Germany and other countries. Since the city, like the entire district, was hardly industrialized, there were few alternatives to taking up work on the doorstep. Many refugees who had only recently come to the district left it and went to more prosperous regions. After the war, however, the number of people commuting to Wilhelmshaven continued to increase. There was also a factory of the typewriter manufacturer Olympia-Werke in the Schortens district of Roffhausen, which moved there after the war. In 1965, workers from almost all villages in the district, especially the eastern and southern parts, including the Wittmund area, were employed in the plant. Ten percent of all Olympic employees commuted from the Wittmund district. In the city of Wittmund there were modest approaches to industrialization, including a branch of the zipper manufacturer Opti .
After a bathing and tourist association Carolinensiel had been founded in 1956, tourism in the coastal town was expanded in the following decades. Spa facilities, new campsites, hotels and pensions as well as marinas were built . A bathing beach was also washed up west of Harlesiel, where the last dike in the city had also taken place in 1956. The recovery of the Harle Bay was thus completed after several centuries. The Harlesiel received a new pumping station.
Wittmund has been a garrison town again since 1961. For the third time in the city's history, an Air Force unit was moved there, Jagdgeschwader 71, which is still stationed there. In the districts of the city area, the number of agricultural and commercial operations decreased after the war. For example, in 1950 there were 37 non-agricultural holdings with 77 employees in Buttforde, whereas in 1970 there were only 13 holdings with 26 employees. In 2005 there were only seven non-agricultural holdings in the place.
During the local government reform in 1972, 13 surrounding villages were incorporated into Wittmund. The city grew to its present size of around 210 square kilometers. After the municipal reform in Lower Saxony in 1972, a district reform also took place in 1977 with the aim of merging small districts into larger ones and creating more efficient ones. In the course of this reform, the district of Wittmund was merged with the (more populous) district of Friesland in Oldenburg to form the new district of Friesland , Wittmund became the district town instead of Jever, the district town of the previous district of Friesland. Due to political and historical differences, the reform was reversed in 1980 after a lawsuit before the Lower Saxony State Court in Bückeburg. The district of Wittmund has existed again within the boundaries of 1977, Wittmund remained the district town.
The current spelling of the town name Wittmund has been attested since 1434. Older spellings are Wiedemund or Wiedemundheim (around 1200) and Vytmunde or Witmunde (around 1400). There are a number of theories about the origin and meaning of the name. The folk etymology interprets Wittmund as a wide estuary . Another interpretation tries to derive the city name from the Frisian Wytumna (small wet meadow) . The local researcher Heinrich Heyers believed that he recognized a Latin origin . Wittmund is a place name composed of vitis ( staff of a Roman centurion ) and munitio (fortification) . It indicates a Roman military base that secured the land route between Ems and Weser . According to a further explanation, Wittmund goes back to Wittumb , a white tower that was located on the Rickersberg near Eggelingen and served as a navigation mark in the Harle Bay . The derivation of the old Frisian hwit (holy) and munnek (monk) has also been discussed in the past. The assumption that a person is behind the place name goes back to a document from the 12th century. They certified a donation made by Frisians from Wiedemundheim (Heim des Wiedemund) to the Fulda Abbey .
Wittmund and Aurich are the two East Frisian cities that expanded the most during the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972. They are therefore also the two largest municipalities in East Frisia and have only bordered one another directly since the municipal reform. While the districts of Asel and Eggelingen were incorporated into Wittmund on July 1, 1972, Ardorf, Blersum, Burhafe, Buttforde, Harlesiel, Hovel, Leerhafe, Uttel and Willen were added on August 16, 1972. The Harlesiel parish was formed in 1968 from the Berdum, Carolinensiel and Funnix parishes.
Between the beginning of the 19th and the 21st century the population of Wittmund (up to 1929 Flecken) rose very clearly from 1615 in 1816 to almost 21,000 in 2011. There were two main reasons for this: on the one hand, it was due to the influx of displaced persons after the Second World War, which roughly doubled the population; The incorporation of 13 new city districts (previously surrounding municipalities) in the course of the local government reform in 1972 made itself felt to an even greater extent, which roughly tripled the population. Wittmund has grown little since then.
The increase in the number of inhabitants between 1793 and 1845 is due on the one hand to the improvement in medical care. On the other hand, at that time, especially after 1815, the colonization of the moors was resumed, which had initially been pushed back by the Prussian administration in 1791. In the moor and Geest areas of the city area, the population increased as a result. Since the middle of the 19th century, however, this excess population has led to greater emigration and emigration, as job opportunities have not been able to keep pace with the population growth. The same applies to the marshland, where the farm workers had too few employment opportunities. During the second half of the 19th century, this led to stagnation and, in some cases, a decline in the number of inhabitants. They only increased again in the early 20th century. After the Second World War, several thousand refugees from the East were taken into the city. However, they too did not find enough job opportunities in the following decade, so that many emigrated again. The low point of the post-war numbers was reached at the beginning of the 1960s, then new industrial settlements in the area (especially in Wilhelmshaven / Schortens) brought new jobs. The number of inhabitants in the Wittmund urban area rose slightly to around 21,000 in the following four decades up to the turn of the millennium, and has remained fairly constant since then.
The Christian history of Wittmund and Harlingerland goes back to the 9th century. The Johanniterkloster Kommende Burmönken , which was founded at the turn of the 12th to the 13th century , was located in Burmönken , a village that has been part of the Wittmund city area since the Reformation . It was destroyed in 1514 and later used as a quarry. A memorial with a Johanniter cross in the center of the village of Burmönken reminds of its existence . The Sendkirche Wittmund in the diocese of Bremen was mentioned in a document as early as 1420 . The parishes of Middels, Blersum, Funnix, Berdum, Eggelingen and Asel were subordinate to the Sendkirche Wittmund. The place names Berum and Isebenysze are also named. As the regional Ecclesia Matrix ( mother church ), the Sendkirchen had the task of conveying the doctrine of the faith to rural areas.
Around 1538/1539, the Reformation took place in Harlingerland and the adjacent areas. The peculiarity in Harlingerland and the border areas was that the Harling regent Junker Balthasar von Esens supported and promoted the Lutheran doctrine, although he initially cooperated with the Catholic Duke of Geldern in order to enlarge his domain again. Persecuted preachers like the pastors Folkerts from Ardorf and Visbeck from Burhafe were taken in by Junker Balthasar. In 1538 the Harling regent brokered a religious conversation between the Lutheran pastor Visbeck and the Wittmund preacher Pflücker, once a pioneer on the Catholic side. Junker Balthasar also took part in the conversation. As a result of this dispute, Pastor Pflücker converted to the Lutheran faith and preached the new doctrine in the Wittmund Church. Since then, the old Harlingerland and the border areas have been Lutheran. Radical currents, such as the Anabaptist approaches , could hardly gain a foothold in the conservative Harlingerland. A Roman Catholic community was not formed until after the Second World War due to the influx of refugees from the former German eastern regions. There were approaches of free church founding in the Wittmund city area even before the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries; but they were unsuccessful. The New Apostolic Church Community of Wittmund was founded in Wilhelmshaven in 1949 . Jews in Wittmund were documented for the first time in 1639. Several memorials commemorate the three hundred year history of a Jewish community in Harlestadt.
Evangelical Lutheran parish
The St. Nikolai Church of the Evangelical Lutheran congregation is located in the center of the city and probably had three previous buildings. The current church dates from 1776 and was partly financed by a lottery . The parish is divided into three parishes. The central office of the parish, which also runs two kindergartens in Wittmund, is located at Kirchplatz 3.
In Asel there is an Evangelical Lutheran youth education center.
Evangelical Free Church Congregation
The Evangelical Free Church Christians in the Wittmund city area are looked after by the Evangelical Free Church Community of Jever and the Evangelical Free Church Community of Esens . In the post-war years there was an evangelical-free church emergency church in Wittmund-Isums , which was mainly visited by refugees from the former German eastern regions.
Roman Catholic parish
The Roman Catholic parish of Wittmund forms a parish community with the parishes in Aurich, Wiesmoor and Neustadtgödens. This belongs to the Dean's Office of East Frisia of the Diocese of Osnabrück .
New Apostolic Congregation
The New Apostolic church community in Wittmund was founded in 1949 and dissolved at the end of February 2018. The remaining members were assigned to the New Apostolic congregation of Jever .
A Jewish community existed in Wittmund for a period of around 300 years. Its beginnings go back to the 17th century. The first concrete reference to the presence of Jews in Wittmund comes from the year 1639. After 1933, marginalized and persecuted, many Jews emigrated. The synagogue of the Jewish community, built in the 18th century, was sold for demolition by the Jewish community to a merchant in June 1938 after the community became smaller and smaller. It did not fall victim to the November pogroms , but was torn down beforehand. Nevertheless, Jewish citizens' houses in Wittmund were broken into, their shops and private property plundered and 20 community members rounded up. Of the Jews who lived in Wittmund from 1933 to 1940, 14 were murdered during the Holocaust. On September 3, 2000, a memorial for the murdered Jewish citizens of Wittmund was inaugurated at the Jewish cemetery. There the names of 48 - with the added names of Max and Josef Julius Neumark meanwhile 50 - murdered persons are mentioned who came from Wittmund.
The Jewish community is also commemorated with a plaque on the site of the former synagogue.
Within East Friesland, which is a traditional stronghold of the SPD in elections, the eastern edge of the region with Harlingerland (and thus also the city of Wittmund) has a special role in that the CDU is strongly represented there and is often ahead of the SPD in elections. The SPD was only able to achieve early successes in the march communities, which used to have a high proportion of agricultural workers.
In the empire, Wittmund was, like the entire district, a stronghold of the liberals and above all the national liberals. This continued in the first years of the Weimar Republic, before the National Socialists had one of their strongholds there in the province of Hanover since the mid-1920s. After the Second World War, the FDP initially gained the leading role: "It seemed as if a large part of the voters had simply returned to pre-Nazi attitudes and behavior." In the 1949 federal election, the SPD won in Kernort, Asel and in the four marching parishes of Funnix , Berdum, Buttforde and Carolinensiel the majority, in all other districts the FDP got the most votes.
The CDU, which organizationally appeared late in the whole of East Frisia, took over the leading role from the FDP in the early 1950s, which nonetheless still gained significant votes until the 1960s. In the 1961 federal election, the Liberals won no less than ten percent of the votes in any district, and between 30 and 40 percent in three districts.
The CDU won a relative majority in most of the districts in the 1953 federal elections, only in Uttel it had to give way to the FDP and in Funnix, Berdum, Carolinensiel and Asel to the SPD. Since then, the Christian Democrats in Wittmund and the district have had their strongest support among the East Frisian districts. In the 1969 federal election, the CDU won an absolute majority in six districts and a relative majority in three others. The SPD secured a relative majority in five districts.
Since the federal election in 1972, the SPD has clearly caught up in Wittmund, although since then it has mostly lagged behind the CDU. The "Willy Brandt election" in 1972 brought the social democracy, which never achieved results in national elections in the German Empire, in the Weimar Republic and in the early years of the Federal Republic as in western East Frisia, for the first time an absolute majority in six districts and a relative majority in two further, including the core city. Only the south of the urban area with Ardorf, Hovel and Leerhafe remained firmly in the hands of the CDU even with this election.
The council of the city of Wittmund consists of 34 council women and councilors. This is the specified number for a city with a population between 20,001 and 25,000. The 34 council members are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
The full-time mayor is also entitled to vote in the city council.
The last local election on September 11, 2016 resulted in the following:
|Political party||Share of votes||Number of seats||Change voices||Change seats|
|CDU||43.60%||15th||- 8.45%||- 3|
|SPD||38.61%||13||+ 3.96%||+ 1|
|BFB||8.20%||3||+ 4.12%||+ 2|
|Green||6.16%||2||+ 0.37%||± 0|
|FDP||3.40%||1||+ 1.64%||± 0|
The turnout in the 2016 local elections was 57.39%, above the Lower Saxony average of 55.5%. For comparison - in the previous municipal election on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 54.87%.
Rolf Claußen, who has a degree in banking, has been the full-time mayor of Wittmund since November 1, 2006 . The election took place together with the local elections on September 10, 2006. Claussen won the election with 55.37% of the vote against the non-party Siebolds. The turnout was 53.18%. In the last mayoral election on May 25, 2014, he was re-elected as incumbent with 85.0% of the vote. The turnout was 43.8%. Claussen began his further term on November 1, 2014. He left the CDU in November 2015 and has held office since then.
Representatives in the Land and Bundestag
Wittmund belongs to the state electoral district 87 Wittmund / Insel , which includes the entire district of Wittmund as well as the cities of Norderney and Wiesmoor , the municipality of Dornum and the island communities of Juist and Baltrum in the Aurich district . 15 parties ran for the state elections in Lower Saxony in 2017 . Six of these parties have put up direct candidates. The directly elected MP is Jochen Beekhuis from the SPD .
Wittmund belongs to the parliamentary constituency of Friesland - Wilhelmshaven - Wittmund . It includes the city of Wilhelmshaven and the districts of Friesland and Wittmund . The directly elected MP is Siemtje Möller (SPD). No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.
The city of Wittmund will probably be able to balance its budget in 2011. Expenses of 25.279 million euros were offset by income of 25.296 million in the budget. According to the plan, the net new debt in the 2011 investment budget is 88,000 euros, while the city's total debt (including past burdens) is around 18.7 million euros.
City coat of arms and flag
The blazon reads: In green, two diagonally crossed golden whips, covered with a split golden central shield, over which a golden crown of leaves hovers; In the front half a black armored red eagle at the gap, behind one another two black armored red bear paws.
The coat of arms of the city of Wittmund was awarded by the Prussian State Ministry in 1930. A new coat of arms has existed since 1973 and is based on the image in the first stain seal from around 1500. The eagle in the coat of arms reminds of the chief family of Tom Brok , who were local rulers until 1420. The paws are a reduction of the bear coat of arms of the Attena chief family , who ruled Wittmund from 1457 and later the Harlingerland. The whips or flagellations and the crown used the Attena as symbols for Wittmund; Before the coat of arms was awarded, they only formed the content of the older patch coats of arms.
Description of the flag: The colors red, green and red in three horizontal stripes of equal width, in the middle of the green stripe and in the two red stripes, each half overlapping, the city coat of arms.
Since October 3, 1997, the city of Wittmund has been twinning with the community of Barleben in Saxony-Anhalt . Contacts between Barleben and Wittmund have existed since 1990. Before the partnership agreement was signed, tests were carried out over a number of years to determine whether a partnership between the two municipalities would make sense. The partnership provides for a regular cultural and sports exchange as well as economic contacts. The cooperation has been intensified since 2007. In 2010 the partnership between the two municipalities was established by the Deutsche Gesellschaft e. V., Association for the Promotion of Political, Cultural and Social Relationships in Europe, presented as one of five exemplary German-German partnerships as part of a study.
Culture and sights
Wittmund is a permanent venue for the Lower Saxony North State Theater, founded in 1952, with its headquarters in Wilhelmshaven, which shows up to ten productions annually in the auditorium of the Brandenburger Strasse school center. The auditorium offers 271 seats. There is no permanent theater building in Wittmund.
Art and exhibitions
The art mile of the city of Wittmund shows a total of eleven works of art of different art forms in the city area, which cover a spectrum from lifelike bronze sculptures to abstract sculptures . The art mile was initiated by Kulturring Wittmund e. V . The works of art were created between 1990 and 2004 with the help of citizens, businesses, training institutions and many sponsors.
In the district of Funnix directly opposite the 800 year old brick church is the approximately one hectare large sculpture garden by the Wittmund steel sculptor Leonard Wübbena . Since 2007, the permanent exhibition from May to September has shown steel sculptures by Wübbena as well as other works by international artists that change every year.
The Ostfriesischer Kunstkreis e. V. has been maintaining new exhibition rooms in Wittmund at Esenser Straße 14, in Peldemühle , since May 7, 2017 . The 90-member art association organizes 10 to 12 exhibitions a year, mostly in Wittmund, and also offers readings and presentations.
The German Sielhafenmuseum is located in the Wittmund district of Carolinensiel . The museum includes the historical exhibition houses Groot Hus , Kapitänshaus , Alte Pastorei around the museum harbor in Carolinensiel and the historical rescue station at the Friedrichsschleuse. The Groot Hus was built in 1840 as a granary at the old port and shows on its storage floors an exhibition about land and sea, the history of sluices and ports, the construction of dykes, as well as fishing and sailing. The captain's house tells of life on land , in which the living room of a captain's family is shown. The exhibition also includes the harbor pharmacy, a former grocery store and a seaman's bar. In Marie-Ulfers room weddings can be made. The old pastorei houses a permanent exhibition on the maritime craft trades ship carpenter, blacksmith, rope maker and sail maker. There is also a collection of true-to-original models of historic sailing ships and the painting gallery Man and Sea . The Sielhafenmuseum recorded almost 40,000 visitors in 2010.
The Carolinensiel museum trail is a historical circular route through the Carolinensiel district, which belongs to Wittmund. It begins at the museum harbor and leads through the historic town center along the Harle over the Friedrichsschleuse to the beach in Harlesiel . The way back runs along the so-called Golden Line to Carolinensiel. Display boards with texts and illustrations provide information about the sights. The Museumsweg was created in 2005 through an initiative of the German Sielhafenmuseum on the occasion of the 275th anniversary of the Sielort.
The Phenomania scientific adventure museum has been located in the historic Carolinensiel train station since 2008. It offers around 80 interactive experiments on 1000 square meters. The former station building was built in 1909 and was used until 1987. It is one of the few listed railway stations in East Friesland.
Since June 2015 there is the Robert von Zeppelin and Aviation Museum in Wittmund , which has found its place in the city center of Wittmund after a long lead time. It not only reminds of the former Zeppelin airport , there is also a small exhibition of bicycles with auxiliary engines and some exhibits that refer to the Richthofen fighter squadron.
In Wittmund there are numerous houses from several centuries, including some important churches.
The preferred brick is clinker brick, as in all of East Friesland . In many older houses in Wittmund, it is noticeable that the clinker brick has a darker red, almost brown color (similar to that in the neighboring district of Friesland or in nearby Wilhelmshaven), while in the more western East Friesland, a much lighter brick is usually preferred. More than 100 churches, mills, Gulfhöfe and other historical buildings in the city area are under monument protection.
Churches in the core town
- The Evangelical Church of St. Nicolai from 1775/1776 had three previous buildings, the last of which was built in 1541. It is a late baroque hall church made of brick with an attached west tower. The southern entrance portal is framed in a central risalit by sandstone decor. The furnishings include a baroque pulpit from 1667, a wooden baptismal stand from 1777 and the organ created by Hinrich Just Müller in 1776 , of which only the prospectus has survived . To the right of the main portal of the church there is a historically significant height fixed point . It was determined as part of the Royal Prussian Land Survey in the years 1868 to 1894 and was an important starting point for height measurements in East Frisia. The upper edge of the height mark has a height of 8.312 meters above sea level .
- The Catholic St. Boniface Church was built in 1954 as a single-nave building with a flat gable roof and underwent extensive renovation in 2007. On the front of the house there is a large rose window made of round windows. The interior is dominated by a large altar cross. To the left of the entrance portal is a squat bell tower, which is connected to the church by a covered passage.
Churches in the other districts
In the districts outside the city center there are churches that are among the oldest in East Frisia. It is noticeable that the forms of the Romanesque were held onto longer than in the responsible archbishopric in Bremen .
The early Romanesque church buildings were built from granite blocks , as the art of burning weather-resistant bricks from the clayey earth was not widespread until the 13th century by monastic orders in the region.
- The St. Dionysius Church in Asel is accordingly built around 1200 entirely from colorful granite blocks. The free-standing bell tower was re-erected in 1661 and houses the praying bell , which was cast by Ghert Klinghe in 1454 . Claes Röttger created the pulpit (1608), David Benjamin Opitz the baptismal angel (1752/53) and Gerd Sieben Janssen the small organ (1855/56), which has largely been preserved.
- The St. Marien Church in Buttforde, built around 1230, is also made of granite ashlars and looks very similar to the church in Asel. In contrast to this, its retracted semicircular apse and an art-historically significant interior have been preserved. The interior is dominated by a late Gothic stone rood screen, which was erected in 1450 and whose three large arched openings allow a view into the choir . There is a carved altar from the 16th century. The church stalls from the Renaissance are among the most beautiful in East Frisia. The St. Marien organ from 1681 is the only surviving work by Joachim Richborn .
Three churches from the 13th and 14th centuries were built as mixed buildings on bases made of granite blocks.
- The Ardorfer Church from the 13th century has granite blocks in the lower and bricks in the upper wall area. The oldest piece of furniture is the baptismal font made of bricks in the 13th century. The pulpit from 1588 is a gift from the Norder Ludgeri Church . Between 1844 and 1847, Arnold Rohlfs from Esens built the organ, which has largely been preserved.
- The Blersumer Church is a hall church with a semicircular retracted apse, which was built around 1250 to 1270 from brick on a foundation of granite blocks. The font made of Bentheim sandstone with a frieze of tendrils and foliage dates from the 13th century. The altar retable on a medieval cafeteria was made by Master Jacob Cröpelin in 1649.
- The St. George Church in Eggelingen is a late Romanesque hall church, the walls of which are over 13 meters high, making it one of the highest church walls in East Frisia. In 1836 the building suffered severe damage from a hurricane, which led to renovations. The altarpiece is by Jacob Cröpelin (1659) and the organ by Gerd Sieben Janssen (1846).
In the High Middle Ages, there was a move to pure brick construction:
- St. Florian in Funnix is a brick church from the early 14th with a free-standing bell tower from the 13th century. The granite baptismal font and holy water font from the 12th century were taken over from the previous church. The most valuable piece of equipment is the late Gothic carved altar from the late 15th century. When Johann Friedrich Constabel died in 1760 while the organ was being rebuilt, Hinrich Just Müller completed the instrument in the Rococo style two years later , which has largely been preserved.
- The Cäcilien- und Margarethenkirche in Leerhafe, a late Gothic hall church with a polygonal east choir, was built around 1500. The trapezoidal grave slab with club cross dates from the 12th century, the altarpiece from the 17th century, the simple pulpit from 1655 and the organ by Arnold Rohlfs from 1863.
- The magnificent baroque Carolinensieler Church from 1776 is the only dike church in the world. The white-framed interior has been completely preserved and, with the red box stalls, forms a color contrast to the blue wooden ceiling.
Two churches can be assigned to the period of classicism :
- Maria Magdalena in Berdum was built in 1801/02. The baptismal font from the 13th century was already in the previous church, as were the two evangelist figures under the gallery, which Jacob Cröpelin probably carved for a pulpit around 1650. The pulpit, box stalls, priechen , gallery and altarpiece were created when the church was rebuilt. In 1878 Gerd Sieben Janssen created the organ.
- The St. Florian Church in Burhafe dates from 1821. The belfry is made of wood and was built in the 15th century. Various pieces of equipment were taken over from the previous church.
Profane buildings in the core
- The Wittmund market square is located in the center of the district town. The most conspicuous building there is the historic Wittmund district house built between 1899 and 1901 under the direction of the Oldenburg architect Ludwig Klingenberg . The building, built in the form of historicism , still has the original furnishings in the meeting room. Next to the district house is the Wittmund district court , which was built in 1827 in the classicistic style. The three central axes are summarized by a flat triangular gable. Next to the district court is the Hotel Residenz , whose historical part, which is called the Yellow House because of its yellow paint , served as the residence of the Wittmund district administrators from 1885 to 1945 . On the south side of the market square is the Wittmunder Stadthalle building, which also houses the Wittmunder tourist information office. The bronze sculptures Drivers with Dog and Sheep by Albert Bocklage from Vechta have been standing directly on Wittmund's market square since 1999 . The from Kulturring Wittmund e. V. initiated group reminds of the earlier trade in sheep on the Wittmund market. The bronze sculptures are part of the Wittmund art mile .
In the town center, several older brick residential buildings have been preserved , especially in the Mühlenstraße area .
- The two-story house number 14 , also known as Groot Hus or Brants House , was built in 1733 and has a curved bell gable. The top of the gable is crowned by a wrought-iron weather vane .
- No. 17 was built in 1735 as a single-storey residential building.
- No. 9 , a plastered brick building, is dated 1748.
- Brückstraße 1 is characterized by a curved gable. The building was built in 1777.
- The striking corner house on Finkenburgstrasse (Haus Finkenburg) has a two-storey turret facing the street corner.
- The classicistic rectory on Drostenstrasse is plastered.
- The Peldemühle in Wittmund was built in 1741 by Popke Embken as a private mill. Until then, mills in East Frisia were only operated by manorial mills. The mills belonged to the Prince of East Friesland and were given long leases. The Peldemühle is the oldest, still largely functional gallery Dutch in Germany and a building of national importance. The mill was formerly used for peeling (Low German: pelden) barley, in the 1930s the peldegang was removed and a grinding aisle for rye and wheat was installed. Today the Peldemühle belongs to the Johann und Helene You Foundation, which was founded in 2006. The mill is operated by the Peldemühle Wittmund Association, founded in 2015, which makes it accessible to the public. The exhibition rooms of the Ostfriesischer Kunstkreis have also been located in an extension since May 2017.
- Another mill is the Siuts mill on Auricher Straße. The two-story gallery Dutchman was built in 1884 and used as a mill until 1979. In the mill, which has been used as a restaurant since 1982, there is still a shot gallery.
While there are no urban-type houses in most of the village districts of Wittmund, Carolinensiel has a number of important port buildings due to its past as an export and import port, including the warehouse of the grain merchant Mammen that was built in 1840 . One side of the two-storey building faces the harbor and the land side faces the street, which was due to the handling of goods. The facade on the street side is emphatically classical, as the packing house was also the home of the merchant. The port side, on the other hand, contains several loading hatches. Hatches in the floors of the storeys and a freight elevator were used to handle goods. A comparable building has not been preserved in the other sewer ports in East Frisia and Germany. Today's Sielhafenmuseum is housed in the packing house.
Both in the marshes in the north of the urban area and in the Geest and moor areas in the south, Gulf farms from several centuries can be found in large numbers. Due to the significantly higher harvest yields in the marshes in earlier times, the larger and mostly more representative farms of the so-called polder princes can be found there: large farmers who displayed their wealth and who could and did afford a bourgeois lifestyle.
The memorial of a Germania standing on the church square in front of St. Nicolai commemorates the dead in Wittmund in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870/71. The Wittmund parish had seven dead / missing. The statue was created in 1873 by the classicist sculptor Johannes Janda , an important student of Daniel Rauch . The Germania was the late 19th century as a symbol of the Germans and is shown in Wittmund in significantly warlike pose on a pedestal. In the 1970s the memorial lost its sword and shield, which were not found again until much later in the attic of the cemetery chapel. In 2008 the entire statue was restored on the initiative of the Wittmund Heimatverein .
The Jan Schüpp fountain in the center of Wittmund is dedicated to the Wittmund city original Jan Schüpp . The approximately one meter high bronze figure on the fountain in Brückstrasse shows an East Frisian in working clothes with a shovel , locally known as a shovel , who actively grasped the shovel with both hands on the handle and handle, although he himself is still on the blade of the shovel. The fountain figure should stand for the East Frisian way of life, not everything too heavy and also to take a break for yourself from time to time.
In the garrison town Wittmund has Tactical Air Force Squadron 71 "Richthofen" the Air Force its location. The city shows its solidarity with the Bundeswehr through an F-4F Phantom fighter jet that has been set up in Wittmund at the intersection of Südring B 210 and Isumser Strasse since October 15, 2006 .
The Hands of Fame promenade, modeled on the Walk of Fame in Hollywood , has been located in Wittmund's pedestrian zone since spring 2005 . Instead of stars, however, handprints of celebrities and their autographs burned in clay are embedded in the pavement of the pedestrian zone. On June 6, 2010, as part of Hands of Fame, the Bundespräsidentsplatz was inaugurated in the pedestrian zone Kirchstrasse and the corner of Drostenstrasse. There, the handprints of all of Germany's federal presidents who are still alive are embedded in the ground. A display board contains further information about all previous federal presidents.
Castle park / ramparts
Wittmund Castle Park is located in the southeast of the city, not far from the market square. It is reminiscent of the former Wittmund Castle , which was built there in 1461 under the reign of Chief Sibet Attena and razed by Friedrich II of Prussia in 1764 . Only the almost complete ramparts and part of the former castle moat have been preserved. Display boards in the park provide information about the history of the castle-like Wittmund Castle. A stage in the park is used for various events.
The entire district of Wittmund is at the top of the districts and cities within Lower Saxony with a share of athletes organized in clubs in the total population of 51.75 percent. In terms of sports, the Boßler and Klootschießer are clearly ahead of the soccer players (10,161 versus 5,249). The city of Wittmund is home to the largest and third largest sports club in the district, the MTV Wittmund with 1142 and the BSC Burhafe with 890 members.
The MTV Wittmund of 1865 the eight divisions offers handball, martial arts, athletics, cycling, surfing, gymnastics, volleyball and sports badge. Training and acceptance for the German sports badge are offered at MTV. The club's annual running event, the Wittmunder Klinkerlauf , which is now well-known nationwide , has been organized by the athletics department since 1999.
SV Wittmund , founded in 1948, specializes in football, table tennis, badminton and chess. In 2002 the club was able to move into the new Isums sports facility on Isumer Strasse. The club also plays in the Wittmunder Stadium on Breslauer Straße, the main stand of which has around 400 covered seats.
The regional Frisian sports Boßeln and Klootschießen are also played in Wittmund . The district association Wittmund in the state Klootschießer-Verband Ostfriesland was founded in 1911 and represents eleven associations with around 2500 members.
The sports infrastructure of the city includes sports fields and school halls as well as tennis courts and the municipal leisure pool on Isumser Straße between Wittmund and Leerhafe, built in 1996. It is mainly used by Wittmund residents and only to a small extent by tourists. There are also three smaller outdoor pools in Ardorf, Leerhafe and Harlesiel. The brine bath in Carolinensiel, built for tourists in 1980 and renovated in 2013, offers a lifting floor and a countercurrent system in the 16.66 m long brine basin.
The regular events in Wittmund go back partly to old East Frisian traditions, partly to local characteristics. There are also some festivals that have only recently been launched.
In almost all villages, Easter fires are lit on Holy Saturday to drive away the winter. The erection of a maypole in the night from April 30th to May 1st is considered a sign of spring in all places.
Another event is the Maimarkt in Leerhafe with a traditional cattle and equipment auction that goes back to older traditions. The Johannimarkt is celebrated in Wittmund in June . Shooting festivals take place in August in Kernort and in July in Carolinensiel and Leerhafe. The Wittmund public market and the street festival have been celebrated in Carolinensiel for more than 40 years. Both events were launched in 1970 and are primarily intended for entertainment. Since 1978 the East Frisian high school diploma has been offered as a tourist attraction during the holiday season . During the summer months, the Wittmund Wirteverein organizes the music event series Live im Park im Schlosspark, which presents free live bands around ten times a year. In addition, at least one of the classical concerts of the Musical Summer in East Friesland usually takes place in one of the Wittmund churches.
For several years now, the harbor festival has been celebrated in Carolinensiel in August. The regatta Watten-Sail is part of the program . In addition, dozens of traditional ships such as Tjalk and Ewer moor up and take part in a parade. The coastal town of Carolinensiel has been the destination of the international motorcycle meeting 1000 Wikinger & Meer since 2005 . Every year several hundred bikers then ride in a parade through East Frisia.
The inhabitants of Leerhafe-Rispel have been celebrating the Heidefest in September since 1950. An organ barrel festival is connected to the Wittmund last market in October. Thanksgiving festivals with church services take place in all of Wittmund's villages, especially in the rural districts.
On November 10th, the evening martinis singing will take place, with which the reformer Martin Luther will be remembered. On St. Nicholas' Day , goblets are organized in restaurants , where traditional meat packages can be won.
In Wittmund, East Frisian Platt is spoken in addition to High German , in the eastern part, to which Wittmund also belongs, the local dialect Harlinger Platt . It differs from the rest of the East Frisian plateau not only in individual words, but also in certain grammatical peculiarities. In the Wittmunder area, as in most of northern Germany, the word “ges (ch) nackt” is used when “talking / speaking” is used, while in the western part of East Frisia the corresponding verb is “proten”, which can be traced back to the influence of its western neighbor, the Netherlands is (compare Dutch “praten”). In addition, in Harlingerland the unit plural is formed on (e) t and not on (e) n as in western East Frisia. “We speak” means “Wi s (ch) naked” in Wittmund, while closer to the Ems it means “Wi proten”.
The city and district encourage the use of the Low German language, which is also supported in schools.
Economy and Infrastructure
Apart from the polymer processing plant Rehau , which has several hundred employees , the city is only slightly industrialized. Agriculture plays a major role because of the overwhelming share of land (around 81.5 percent). Wittmund is also the official town and garrison for the Jagdgeschwader 71 with the honorary name Richthofen , one of the four traditional squadrons of the Luftwaffe . However, many Wittmunds are out-commuters, with the nearby town of Wilhelmshaven playing an important role.
Wittmund's economy is characterized by public and private services, with tourism in particular standing out. Among the public service providers, along with the district administration, the Bundeswehr is the largest employer. Agriculture plays a very important role in land use. The city is hardly industrialized. The city's only major industrial company, the polymer processor Rehau, which according to its own information has around 600 employees, as well as other manufacturing companies, craft and trading companies, are concentrated in a commercial and industrial area on the eastern outskirts of the city on federal road 210.
Wittmund is one of the three (out of ten) East Frisian cities with a negative commuter balance (next to Weener and Wiesmoor). Above all, the proximity to Wilhelmshaven and its immediate vicinity contributes to this. Due to its location on the eastern edge of East Friesland, many employees commute there from Wittmund, but also from the neighboring municipality of Friedeburg to the south. In Wittmund there were (as of 2007) 5561 employees subject to social insurance, but only 5221 jobs subject to social insurance. 2492 inbound commuters were compared to 2832 outbound commuters. Together with the municipality of Friedeburg, the city of Wilhelmshaven and seven municipalities in the district of Friesland, the city participates in the inter-municipal industrial park JadeWeserPark . This is to be built at the intersection of the A 29 and the B 210 (Wilhelmshavener Kreuz) and provide space for companies that are involved in the operation of the JadeWeserPort deep-water port .
Separate labor market data for Wittmund are not collected. The city belongs to the Wittmund division within the district of the Federal Employment Agency Emden-Leer. In December 2015 the unemployment rate in the Wittmund division was 7.8 percent after 8.3 percent in the previous year. The rate was 1.9 percentage points above the Lower Saxony average. For those under 25, the unemployment rate was 6.0%, for those under 20 it was only 2.8%, while workers over 50 were affected above average at 9.4%. Foreigners were also hit harder than the average by unemployment (9.1%).
Agriculture, forestry, fishing
With an 85 percent share, agriculture plays a key role in land use. In the more northerly, younger marshland areas of the city, agriculture is preferred, as the soils there have a high land value index. Typically, grain is grown. On the heavier marshland and in the Geest areas in the south of the urban area, however, preference is given to grassland farming, i.e. dairy farming. Forage plants for the animals are also grown there. In the meantime, better fertilization options have somewhat reduced the difference in soil yields.
In livestock farming, cows are clearly predominant. Almost without exception, it is dairy farming, less fattening for the production of meat. Pig farming is also practiced in Wittmund, while the keeping of sheep, which was important in earlier centuries until the late 19th century, is no longer relevant. On the moor and heather areas in the west and south of the urban area there were still larger herds until the 1860s, but after the cultivation of the moor and heather areas and due to falling wool prices, their number steadily decreased. Only shortly after the Second World War, in times of economic hardship, the sheep gained importance for a short time as “the little man's cow”. Even the horse no longer plays a role in Wittmund's economic life. Until the 19th century the city was the most important horse trading center in East Friesland, but since the motorization in agriculture, horses have only been kept for leisure purposes.
In the second half of the 19th century, several former heather areas were afforested. Thus, among other things, the Wittmund and Collrunger forest emerged on the land of the disbanded Hohehahn sheep farm. Most of the forest areas are owned by the Lower Saxony State Forests. It is mainly a mixed forest with a high proportion of oak, spruce and pine.
In Carolinensiel / Harlesiel there are still a few cutters that are used to catch crabs near the coast . Deep-sea fishing, for example for haddock in the past, no longer takes place. Accordingly, the place only has license plates for coastal fishing vessels.
Farmers generate additional income with the operation of wind turbines. The city of Wittmund plans to concentrate wind turbines in wind farms at three locations in the city and to replace old systems with new, more powerful ones ( repowering ). Three wind parks are planned for this in Groß Charlottengroden, Eggelingen and Abens.
Tourism and services
The city is clearly shaped by tourism, with the inland areas playing a greater role in addition to the coastal resort in recent decades.
Until the regional reform in 1972, the district town was an inland municipality. After extensive incorporations - including places that were systematically wrested from Harle Bay since the 16th century , such as the coastal town of Carolinensiel - the North Sea forms the northern border of the city.
The Carolinensiel district has been known as the state-recognized North Sea resort since 1983 . The coastal town records the majority of the number of guests and overnight stays in the Wittmund city area. In 2010, 140,500 guests were counted and the number of overnight stays was around 867,000. Compared to the previous year, this was an increase of 1.4 percent. In a historical comparison, the increase in tourism is even clearer. In 1960 Carolinensiel counted 1700 guests and 3500 overnight stays, in 1965 4200 guests and a good 31,000 overnight stays. In 1981, 46,500 guests with 528,000 overnight stays were counted in Wittmund / Carolinensiel. Four years later there were 72,800 guests with 656,000 overnight stays, in 1990 83,000 guests with 756,000 overnight stays. This comparison makes it clear that the number of overnight stays has not increased as significantly as the number of guests over the past 30 years, which reflects the trend towards shorter stays.
One of the tourist attractions is the coastal location on the Wadden Sea with the Carolinensiel / Harlesiel harbor. This is where the Warrings shipping company is based, which handles the ferry traffic to Wangerooge as well as the excursion traffic. In Carolinensiel, one of the national park houses on the East Frisian coast is housed in a historic building at the harbor. On the other hand, the forests and hedgerows in the interior are of touristic importance. Cultural tourism has increased in recent years, with historic buildings, especially churches, playing a role. On and on the Harle, water tourism is important, for anglers as well as for boaters and canoeists.
Wittmund has three campsites and two motorhome parking spaces . The Isums campsite is located on a 60,000 square meter recreational lake on Isumser Strasse and is only around two kilometers south of the district town of Wittmund on the road to Friedeburg. The campsite, which is open all year round, has 70 year-round sites and 30 seasonal sites. There are 12 parking spaces for mobile homes. The Wittmund – Isums sports and adventure pool is located next to the campsite. Camping Harlesiel is located directly on the North Sea beach of Harlesiel in the Wittmund district of Carolinensiel-Harlesiel. It has 375 permanent spaces, 380 seasonal spaces and 55 rental caravans. Another campsite is also located in Carolinensiel at the Friedrichsschleuse and has 108 parking spaces. Both campsites are open from mid-April to mid-September, depending on the season. The motorhome parking space Am Meer has 60 parking spaces and is located directly at the foot of the dike between the beach and the harbor entrance of Harlesiel. It is also open depending on the season.
In addition to hotels and pensions, as well as holiday homes and apartments in the city center and in Carolinensiel, there are also overnight accommodations in the other districts. Among other things, "Farm Holidays" are possible with farmers .
The shopping area Wittmund (core city) essentially supplies the surrounding city area. As a shopping town, Wittmund is in competition with the surrounding towns of Jever, Esens and especially Aurich, which has the second highest retail centrality among the East Frisian towns.
The public service plays a prominent role in the economic life of the city of Wittmund. Not only all district administration authorities are based in the district town. As a service center for the surrounding district, Wittmund also houses authorities such as the tax office and the land registry . The district court is also responsible for the area of the Wittmund district. The superordinate regional court is that in Aurich, where the public prosecutor's office responsible for the Wittmund area is also based. The only hospital on the mainland of the district is also in Wittmund (see section Health Care below). Since January 1, 2005, Wittmund has also been home to the Wittmund Center for Job Placement and Basic Security (the so-called Hartz IV authority). Since January 1, 2012, the district has been responsible for this authority, which is now also called Jobcenter Wittmund . The Wittmund branch of the Emden District of the Employment Agency is also located in Wittmund .
In addition to the district-wide operating institutions, the Wittmund city administration plays a further role as an employer. Subordinate to the city administration are the building yard and other businesses. In addition, the Tourismus-GmbH is a municipal company.
The Bundeswehr is one of the major public employers in the city. As early as 1916, Wittmundhafen became the location of an air force as an approach point for zeppelins . The Jagdgeschwader 71 "Richthofen" has been stationed in Wittmundhafen since 1961 . Furthermore, the 4th Squadron of the Air Force Object Protection Regiment is stationed there. The squadron's barracks are located immediately south of the city center and north of the main road. The air base itself is about six kilometers west of the city center, north of the Ardorf district. Part of the air base is already in the Aurich city area, as is the Brockzetel training area .
The Willen-Hohehahn district nature reserve is located in the Wittmund Forest . The facility was established in 1994 as a regional environment and nature center and is run by the community college of the Wittmund district. As an extracurricular learning location , it is mainly aimed at schools, kindergartens and other youth groups. On the grounds of the nature reserve there are exhibition areas, a forest teaching garden, orchards , wetlands and a campground for school and youth groups. The most conspicuous object since May 2000 has been the so-called tree region tower , a 23-meter-high observation tower made of larch wood, from which one can look over the treetops of the Wittmund Forest.
Wittmund is on the federal road 210 , which leads from Emden via Aurich to Wittmund and then on to Jever and Wilhelmshaven . After the A 28, it is the second most important east-west connection on the East Frisian peninsula . In the Wittmund area, the B 210 is led past the city via a southern bypass. The federal highway 461 branches off east of the city in the direction of Carolinensiel . It is one of the shortest federal highways and one of the few that begins and ends in the same city; it is about twelve kilometers long and leads from Wittmund town center to the Carolinensiel district. The closest motorway junction is the Wilhelmshavener Kreuz on the A 29 , about 22 kilometers from Wittmund city center. The Schortenser bypass on the B 210 will shorten the route.
In addition to the federal roads, the state roads also play a role in regional traffic. Carolinensiel L 6, about Esen, Westerholt and starts Hage to the north leads. Since the end of 2010, the town center has been relieved of a two and a half kilometer bypass road, the construction of which cost around nine million euros. The L 10 connects the Wittmund core city with the districts of Blersum and Burhafe and continues to Esens. In the southern part of the city, the L 11 runs from the city center via the Leerhafe district and the Friedeburg district of Reepsholt to Friedeburg. From this street, the L 12 branches off at the Wittmund town of Rispel, which leads via Wiesmoor to Remels . The other districts are accessed via district roads and municipal roads. There are separate cycle paths along many of the main roads. However, there are also gaps, including at Landesstraße 12.
The city lies on the East Frisian coastal railway from Wilhelmshaven to Esens (KBS 393), which until May 1983 continued via Dornum ( from here museum operations ) to the north station and is to be reactivated. There is a train station building here. The station is determined by the features of the in 60-minute intervals Veolia Verkehr belonging NordWestBahn served. Since the end of 2005 there has also been a stop in the Burhafe district . By December 1, 1951, a branch of the Aurich circular railway ended in Wittmund , which connected the above-mentioned cities via Esens on meter gauge and was primarily used for goods traffic, but also for passenger transport. Cycle paths and the Ostfrieslandwanderweg run along parts of the old, long-dismantled railway line .
In addition to the railways, bus transport bears the main burden of local public transport . There are bus connections with the Deutsche Bahn subsidiary Weser-Ems-Bus to Friedeburg, Aurich and Jever. Within the urban area there is a connection from the city center to Carolinensiel / Harlesiel. A bus runs between the Harlesiel ferry terminal and the train station in the north, connecting all of the coast's ferry and port locations.
In Harlesieler harbor is still home to a small cutter fleet. It is also used for sports boats. The ferry terminal to Wangerooge is on the eastern bank of the Harle which flows there and is already on the Wangerland municipality, as is the Harle airport , which is used for island traffic . The nearest regional airport is JadeWeserAirport in Sande, immediately south of the Wilhelmshaven city limits. The closest international airport is Bremen Airport, around 120 kilometers away .
In the city of Wittmund there is a school offer up to university entrance qualification as well as a special school. The four primary schools are located in Wittmund ( Finkenburgschule ), Burhafe ( Piet Mondrian primary school ), Carolinensiel ( Carolinensiel primary school ) and in Leerhafe with a branch in Ardorf ( Leerhafe primary school / Ardorf ). The school on Lessingstrasse is a special needs school whose catchment area also includes the municipality of Friedeburg. In the Friedeburg villages of Horsten and Wiesede , the school on Lessingstrasse has so-called support classes. Secondary level I and II degrees can be obtained at the " Alexander von Humboldt School ", a cooperative comprehensive school . Since August 2007 it has been working as an all-day school . The Wittmund school offer also includes vocational schools with a branch in Esens. The institution is responsible for the Wittmund district. The district community college and the district music school , which are housed in a building near the city center, are also sponsored by the district . There are seven day-care centers in the city for early childhood education. The city sponsors the kindergartens in the core town on Robert-Koch-Strasse, in Ardorf, Blersum / Burhafe and Carolinensiel; the Evangelical Lutheran Church sponsors two kindergartens in the core town (Goethestrasse and St. Nicolai) and one in Leerhafe . The closest universities of applied sciences are in Wilhelmshaven and Emden , the closest university is the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg .
The Anzeiger für Harlingerland appears in Wittmund . The daily newspaper is the market leader in the Wittmund district. In addition, there is a regional edition of the only daily newspaper Ostfriesland- wide, Ostfriesen-Zeitung . The monthly Wir , published free of charge, provides Wittmund impressions for locals and tourists. The citizen broadcaster Radio Ostfriesland also reports from the city, while the radio station Radio Jade , based in Wilhelmshaven, can also be received.
The non-profit hospital Wittmund gGmbH on Dohuser Weg in the west of the city center is an acute hospital and with around 340 employees one of the largest employers in the city. The Wittmund district built the hospital between 1965 and 1968 for around 11.5 million DM. It has 142 beds in two specialist departments and three occupancy departments. Every year around 7,500 inpatients and around 9,900 outpatients are treated. Around 450 babies are delivered each year in the gynecology and obstetrics department. The Wittmund district is the sole shareholder of the Wittmund hospital gGmbH. The Friends of the Wittmund Hospital e. V. supports the Wittmund Hospital ideally, materially and financially. The hospital cooperates with other East Frisian clinics to reduce duplicate offers and cut costs. The medical center, which together with the hospital forms the medical care center (MVZ), is located at the hospital. On September 1, 2012, the large extension to the medical center was opened; The entire range of services offered by the health center was presented to the population during an open day on September 9, 2012.
One of six rescue stations in the district is based in Wittmund. In the East Frisian district assemblies and in the Emden city council there have been discussions for several years about setting up an ambulance control center in Wittmund for the entire East Frisian area. This cooperative control center will be responsible on the rescue / fire service side for the Aurich, Leer, Wittmund districts and on the police side also for Emden. The real operation of the control center on Dohuser Weg in Wittmund started on April 1, 2014.
sons and daughters of the town
- Jabbo Oltmanns (1783-1833) - The astronomer and mathematician was a colleague of Alexander von Humboldt .
- Ludwig Franzius (1832–1903) - The hydraulic engineer had worked as senior construction director in the Hanseatic city since 1875. After nine years of research into the current conditions, he carried out the Weser correction from 1887 and, at the same time, the expansion of the port in the city of Bremen. In doing so, he made a significant contribution to the development of the port of Bremen in the second half of the 19th century.
- Ludwig Klingenberg (1840–1924) - The architect built a number of striking houses in northwest Germany, including the district house in his native town.
- Moritz Neumark (1866–1943) - The industrialist and inventor came from a long-established Wittmund merchant family. From 1905 to 1934 he essentially determined the fate of the blast furnace plant in Lübeck .
- Jan Siefke Kunstreich (1921–1991) - art historian and cabaret artist
- Karl-Heinz Janßen (1930–2013) - The historian and journalist ( Die Zeit ) was born in Carolinensiel.
- Walter Freiwald (1954–2019) - moderator
- Hans-Wilhelm Müller-Wohlfahrt (* 1942) - The well-known sports doctor has been a sports doctor for the German national soccer team since 1995 and was sports doctor for FC Bayern Munich from 1977–2015
- Karl-Heinz Klein (* 1947) - professional boxer
- Walter Freiwald (1954–2019), moderator
- Ulla you (* 1956) - member of the Bundestag of the FDP and former State Secretary of Lower Saxony
- Gerold Rahmann (* 1962) - agricultural economist
- Matthias Rogg (* 1963) - officer and historian
- Edo Reents (* 1965) - cultural journalist and literary critic
- Lars Rudolph (* 1966) - actor and musician
- Mense Reents (born 1970) - musician
- Henny Reents (born 1974) - actress
- Holger Heymann (* 1977) - former member of the state parliament, now the district administrator
- Timo Schultz (* 1977) - The soccer player was born in Wittmund, but grew up in Esens
- Christian Alder (* 1978) - football player
- Claudia Tschöke (* 1978) - At 16 years and 99 days, the soccer player is the youngest player and goalscorer in the German women's national team
Associated with Wittmund
- Henrich Becker (* 1747 in Dornum; † 1819 in Neufunnixsiel) - The East Frisian portrait painter lived temporarily in Neufunnixsiel, where he died in 1819.
- Two organ builders lived in Wittmund, where their workshop was located, and left behind a large number of historical organs here and in other places in East Frisia:
- Johann Friedrich Constabel (* 1690; † 1762 in Wittmund)
- Hinrich Just Müller (* 1740 in Fürstenau, † 1811 in Wittmund), his successor.
- Hermann Creutzenberg (* 1923 in Hartsgast; † 1998 in Wittmund) was a member of the Lower Saxony state parliament for the CDU from 1970 to 1986.
- Wolfgang Bittner (* 1941 in Gleiwitz / Upper Silesia ) - The writer grew up in Wittmund, but now lives in Göttingen and Cologne.
A number of military personnel are associated with the traditional air force location in Wittmund:
- Klaus-Peter Stieglitz (* 1947 in Lutherstadt Eisleben) - The former air force inspector was deployed with the Richthofen Squadron between 1973 and 1981.
- Dirk Böcker (* 1945) - The former Deputy Inspector General of the Bundeswehr was also active in the Wittmund squadron. He lives in Wittmund.
- Volker Zimmer (* 1949 in Gießen) was deployed in Wittmund in the 1970s and from 2009 commander of the now disbanded 4th Air Force Division in neighboring Aurich.
A modern history of the town of Wittmund, such as that available in East Frisia for Emden or the north , has not yet appeared. The following works, which relate to the entire district of Wittmund and Harlingerland, deal with individual aspects of Wittmund's history and description of the town:
- Hendrik Gröttrup: The constitution and administration of the Harlingerland 1581 to 1744 . Publishing house Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1962
- Inge Lüpke-Müller: The Wittmund district between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X
- Robert Noah: The medieval churches in Harlingerland. Publishing house Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969
- Almuth Salomon : History of the Harlingerland up to 1600 . Publishing house Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1965
- Helmut Sanders: The population development in the Wittmund district since the end of the 18th century with special consideration of the soil types. Publishing house Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969
- Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district. Self-published by the district of Friesland, Jever 1977, without ISBN
In addition, the following works, which deal with East Friesland in general, are also significant for the history and description of the Wittmund city insofar as they illuminate individual aspects:
- Hans Homeier: The shape change of the East Frisian coast over the centuries . Self-published, Pewsum 1969 ( Ostfriesland im Schutz des Deiches , Vol. 2), without ISBN
- Gottfried Kiesow: Architecture Guide East Friesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3
- Inge Lüpke-Müller: A region in political upheaval. The democratization process in East Friesland after World War II , Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-11-8 .
- Heinrich Schmidt: Political history of East Frisia . Rautenberg, Leer 1975 ( Ostfriesland in the protection of the dike , vol. 5), without ISBN
- Wolfgang Schwarz: The prehistory in East Frisia. Leer 1995, ISBN 3-7963-0323-4
- Menno Smid: East Frisian Church History. Self-published, Pewsum 1974 ( Ostfriesland im Schutz des Deiches , Vol. 6), without ISBN
- Harm Wiemann, Johannes Engelmann: Old ways and streets in East Frisia. Self-published, Pewsum 1974 ( East Frisia in the protection of the dyke , vol. 8), without ISBN
- ↑ State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- ^ Ordinance on the regional spatial planning program at www.nds-voris.de.
- ↑ A detailed map can be found on the website of the Lower Saxony State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology , accessed on October 8, 2011.
- ↑ a b Source: State Office for Statistics and Communication Technology Lower Saxony , accessed on October 9, 2011.
- ^ Eberhard Rack: Small regional studies of Ostfriesland . Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-89598-534-1 , p. 115.
- ↑ wittmund.de: Overview of the mayor , viewed on December 28, 2012.
- ↑ Examples of this can be found in (sports) club life, for example at the Rispelerhelmt Dart Club (Leerhafe district), the Müggenkrug Boßelverein (Leerhafe district) or the Altfunnixsiel Boßelverein (Funnix district).
- ^ Eberhard Rack: Kleine Landeskunde Ostfriesland , Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, p. 30.
- ↑ Precipitation values according to the German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990, Wittmund-Blersum, 53 ° 35 ′ 07 ° 44 ′.
- ↑ Climate and weather for Wittmund , viewed on January 1, 2012.
- ↑ National Park Nds. Wadden Sea on nationalpark-wattenmeer.de .
- ↑ Hohehahn Nature Reserve , accessed on July 31, 2011.
- ↑ The information can be found on an interactive map at www.meine-umweltkarte-niedersachsen.de ( Memento of the original from January 16, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. be considered.
- ^ Rolf Bärenfänger : Guide to archaeological monuments in Germany , Vol. 35 Ostfriesland, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-8062-1415-8 , p. 151.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape ): Leerhafe , p. 1 (PDF; 77 kB), accessed on October 19, 2011.
- ↑ Wolfgang Schwarz: Grave mound in Rispel, district Leerhafe . In: Ostfriesland. Guide to archaeological monuments in Germany 35, Stuttgart 1999, pp. 150–152.
- ^ Harm Wiemann, Johannes Engelmann: Old ways and roads in East Frisia. Self-published by Deichacht Krummhörn, Pewsum 1974 ( Ostfriesland im Schutz des Deiches , Vol. 8), without ISBN, p. 96 ff.
- ↑ Manfred Wittor, Paul Weßels (Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft): Buttforde (PDF; 986 kB), p. 1, accessed on December 18, 2011.
- ^ Archaeological Service of the East Frisian Landscape: Find near Burhafe , accessed on December 18, 2011.
- ^ Wolfgang Schwarz: Pre- and early history , in: Karl-Ernst Behre, Hajo van Lengen: Ostfriesland. History and shape of a cultural landscape , Aurich 1995, ISBN 3-925365-85-0 , p. 72.
- ↑ Johann Onnen: Wittmund in the course of the centuries , Mettcker and Sons publishing house, Jever 1969, without ISBN, p. 201.
- ↑ Almuth Salomon : Geschichte des Harlingerlandes bis 1600 (treatises and lectures on the history of East Frisia, Volume 41), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1965, without ISBN, p. 19 ff.
- ^ Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft: Ardorf, Stadt Wittmund, Landkreis Wittmund (PDF; 1 MB), p. 1, accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Wilfried Janßen (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Asel (PDF; 726 kB), p. 1, accessed on December 18, 2011.
- ↑ Harle Bay and Golden Line , accessed August 15, 2011.
- ↑ Almuth Salomon: Die Kankena , in: Emder Jahrbuch für Historische Landeskunde Ostfriesland , No. 88/89 (2008/2009), pp. 7–22, here: p. 13.
- ^ Franz Petri, Wilfried Ehbrecht, Heinz Schilling: The Netherlands and Northwest Germany. Studies on the regional and urban history of north-western continental Europe in the Middle Ages and in modern times. Franz Petri on his 80th birthday. Cologne 1983, ISBN 3-412-01683-7 , p. 91.
- ^ Karl-Ernst Behre, Hajo van Lengen: Ostfriesland. History and shape of a cultural landscape. Aurich 1995, ISBN 3-925365-85-0 , p. 131 f.
- ^ Karl Ernst Hermann Krause : Sibo . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 34, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1892, p. 138 f.
- ↑ Walter Deeters: Sibet Attena . In: Biographisches Lexikon für Ostfriesland , accessed on September 3, 2012.
- ↑ Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . German Foundation for Monument Protection, 2009 (there, however, the regent is called Richtberg).
- ^ Günther Möhlmann: Cirksena. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 3, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1957, ISBN 3-428-00184-2 , pp. 255 f. ( Digitized version ).
- ^ Walter Deeters: Ostfriesland in the Thirty Years War , in: Emder Yearbook for Historical Regional Studies Ostfrieslands , Vol. 78 (1998), pp. 32–44, here: p. 38.
- ↑ Johann Aeils / Jan Smidt / Martin Stromann: Stone witnesses in March and Geest: Gulfhöfe and workers' houses in East Friesland . 3rd, revised edition, Verlag SKN, Norden 2007, ISBN 978-3-928327-16-9 , p. 30 ff.
- ↑ Quoted in: Ernst Siebert: Development of the dyke system from the Middle Ages to the present (East Friesland in the protection of the dyke, Volume 2), Deichacht Krummhörn (ed.), Self-published, Pewsum 1969, without ISBN, p. 334 f.
- ^ Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft: Carolinensiel, Stadt und Landkreis Wittmund (PDF; 1.1 MB), p. 1, accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district , self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 217, there also the following information on the population figures.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall (Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft): Leerhafe , PDF, p. 4, accessed on October 15, 2011.
- ^ Helmut Sanders: The population development in the Wittmund district since the end of the 18th century with special consideration of the soil types , Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969, without ISBN, p. 52.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district , self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 60.
- ↑ Werner Brune (Ed.): Wilhelmshavener Heimatlexikon , Volume 1–3. Brune, Wilhelmshaven 1986–1987. Volume 3, p. 510.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district , self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 61.
- ↑ Martin Wein: City against its will. Municipal development in Wilhelmshaven / Rüstringen 1853–1937 . Tectum, Marburg 2006, p. 32.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district , self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 70.
- ↑ Helmut Sanders: The population development in the Wittmund district since the end of the 18th century with special consideration of the soil types. Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969, without ISBN, p. 24.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district. Self-published by the district of Friesland, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 226.
- ↑ Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 13.
- ↑ Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 17/18.
- ↑ Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 21.
- ^ Heinrich Schmidt: Political history of East Frisia . Rautenberg, Leer 1975 ( Ostfriesland in the protection of the dike , vol. 5), without ISBN, p. 473.
- ↑ Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 29/30.
- ↑ Anzeiger für Harlingerland dated Nov. 23, 1932, quoted in: Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Hrsg.): East Frisia between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 21.
- ↑ Lüpke-Müller said about Liebenow: “Despite his advocacy of the republic, Liebenow must have been friendly to the National Socialists. There is no other explanation for the fact that he remained in office after the seizure of power. ”(Inge Lüpke-Müller: The district of Wittmund between monarchy and dictatorship. In: Herbert Reyer (Ed.): Ostfriesland between republic and dictatorship. Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- and Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-10-X , p. 54.) Eimers' verdict on Mayor Schröder: “In the small country towns of Wittmund and Esens, the local NSDAP saw the conquest of the town hall with the takeover of the board of directors and Senatorial posts because the mayors Driesen and Schröder had already shown in their previous administration that they did not put any obstacles in the way of the NSDAP. ”(Enno Eimers: The conquest of power in the town halls of East Friesland by the National Socialists: The mayors between party- and municipal interests. In: Herbert Reyer: Ostfriesland in the Third Reich. The beginnings of the National Socialist tyranny in the administrative district Aurich 1933-1938 . Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1992, ISBN 3-932206-14-2 , p. 18).
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall (Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft): Hovel , PDF, p. 2, accessed on October 16, 2011.
- ^ Karl-Heinz de Wall (Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft): Leerhafe , PDF, p. 2, accessed on October 16, 2011.
- ^ Engbert Grote: Aurich in the air war. In: Herbert Reyer (Ed.): Aurich in National Socialism. Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1993, ISBN 3-925365-49-4 , pp. 447-469, here p. 464.
- ↑ Ortschronisten der Ostfriesische Landschaft: Blersum , S. 2 (PDF; 33 kB), viewed January 9, 2012.
- ↑ a b Manfred Wittor, Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Buttforde, Samtgemeinde Wittmund (PDF; 986 kB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Wilfried Janßen (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Asel , PDF, p. 2, accessed on October 16, 2011.
- ^ Helmut Sanders: The population development in the district of Wittmund since the end of the 18th century with special consideration of the soil types , Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969, without ISBN, p. 60/61.
- ↑ Manfred Wittor, Paul Weßels (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Buttforde (PDF; 986 kB), p. 2/3, accessed on December 18, 2011.
- ↑ Walter Deeters ( Small history of Ostfriesland . 2nd complete edition. Verlag Schuster, Leer 1992, ISBN 3-7963-0229-7 , p. 104) put it: “(...) The districts of Aurich and Norden were united, including the Wittmund district with the Oldenburg district of Jever. Was Edzard I's dream fulfilled and the Jeverland finally East Frisian? Not at all. Unexpectedly, old prejudices broke through on both sides of the golden line ; Jeverland emphasized its independence until after two years - as in a satyr play after the tragedy - the unloved marriage was divorced by the State Court. ”Similar to Deeters in Karl-Ernst Behre / Hajo van Lengen (ed.): Ostfriesland. History and shape of a cultural landscape . Ostfriesische Landschaftliche Verlags- und Vertriebsgesellschaft, Aurich 1995, ISBN 3-925365-85-0 , p. 184. There he uses the term “age-old mutual prejudices”.
- ^ Gerhard Siebels: Guide through Ostfriesland and its seaside resorts , Leer, undated (1955?), P. 278.
- ↑ ndr.de: Names - the overview for the letter W ; accessed on February 12, 2016.
- ↑ Wilfried Janßen (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Asel, Stadt und Landkreis Wittmund (PDF; 726 kB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Hovel, Stadt Wittmund, district Wittmund (PDF; 395 kB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall (local chronicle of the East Frisian landscape): Leerhafe, Stadt Wittmund, district Wittmund (PDF; 713 kB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district, self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, p. 212 f.
- ^ Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft: Carolinensiel, Stadt und Landkreis Wittmund (PDF; 1.1 MB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 264 f .
- ↑ Werner Brune (Ed.): Wilhelmshavener Heimatlexikon , Volume 1–3. Brune, Wilhelmshaven 1986-1987, Volume 3, p. 511, numbers from 1816 to 1980.
- ^ According to the 1987 census: Scroll down completely and click on Wittmund , accessed on January 10, 2012.
- ↑ Smid: East Frisian Church History. 1974, p. 37.
- ↑ Smid: East Frisian Church History. 1974, p. 156.
- ↑ Smid: East Frisian Church History. 1974, p. 552.
- ↑ Herbert Reyer, Martin Tielke (Ed.): The end of the Jews in East Frisia. Catalog for the exhibition of the East Frisian landscape on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht. Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1988, ISBN 3-925365-41-9 , pp. 69-71.
- ↑ kirche-wittmund.de ; Accessed June 25, 2011.
- ^ Website of the Ev. Asel / Ostfriesland youth education center , accessed on April 20, 2019.
- ↑ Archive of the Evangelical Free Church of Jever, Protocol Book V (1945–1950).
- ↑ neuauwiewitt.de: structure of the Parish Community Neuauwiewitt ; Accessed June 25, 2011.
- ^ NAK North Germany: Chronicle of the district Wilhelmshaven in the overview ; Accessed June 25, 2011.
- ↑ New Apostolic Church Community Wittmund: "Last service on February 25, 2018" ; accessed on March 13, 2018
- ↑ Herbert Reyer, Martin Tielke (Ed.): The end of the Jews in East Frisia. Catalog for the exhibition of the East Frisian landscape on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of Kristallnacht. Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1988, ISBN 3-925365-41-9 , p. 69.
- ^ Herbert Obenaus (Ed.): Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen. Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-753-5 , p. 1571.
- ↑ Klaus von Beyme : The political system of the Federal Republic of Germany: An introduction , VS Verlag, Wiesbaden 2004, ISBN 3-531-33426-3 , p. 100, limited preview in the Google book search, May 22, 2011.
- ^ Heinrich Schmidt: Political history of Ostfriesland (East Friesland in the protection of the dike), Volume V, Verlag Rautenberg, Leer 1975, or ISBN, p. 498.
- ^ A b c Theodor Schmidt: Analysis of the statistics and relevant sources on the federal elections in East Frisia 1949–1972 . East Frisian Landscape, Aurich 1978, cartographic supplements.
- ↑ Ten to 20 percent in Leerhafe, Hovel and Blersum; 20 to 30 percent in Funnix, Berdum, Carolinensiel, Wittmund (Kernort), Asel, Burhafe, Buttforde and Willen; 30 to 40 percent in Ardorf, Uttel and Eggelingen; see Theodor Schmidt: Analysis of the statistics and relevant sources on the federal elections in East Frisia 1949–1972 . East Frisian Landscape, Aurich 1978, cartographic supplements.
- ^ Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law (NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of Members , accessed on November 7, 2011.
- ^ Stadt Wittmund: Council members , accessed on December 28, 2016.
- ↑ a b City of Wittmund - overall results of the city council election 2016 , accessed on December 28, 2016.
- ↑ The CDU gets the most votes nationwide. September 12, 2016, accessed December 27, 2016 .
- ^ Stadt Wittmund: Mayor , accessed on July 31, 2011.
- ^ Stadt Wittmund - 2006 - Mayoral election 2006 , accessed on July 31, 2011.
- ↑ Individual results of the direct elections on May 25, 2014 in Lower Saxony , accessed on November 9, 2014.
- ^ Wittmund: Claussen leaves the CDU . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of November 26, 2015, accessed on November 30, 2015.
- ↑ Constituency allocation by the Federal Returning Officer , accessed on April 20, 2019.
- ^ Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( Online [accessed September 29, 2017]).
- ↑ Wittmund has reduced debts . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of December 29, 2011, accessed on the same day.
- ^ Information after an inquiry to the City of Wittmund by email on July 19, 2010.
- ^ Municipality of Barleben: municipality / town partnerships , accessed on August 14, 2011.
- ^ German German partnerships. Cities, districts and municipalities as shapers of German unity, pp. 15, 47, 51 f. ( Memento of May 8, 2012 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ Landesbühne - Theater für Wittmund , accessed on July 31, 2011.
- ↑ Kunstmeile der Stadt Wittmund (PDF; 1.2 MB), accessed on August 3, 2011.
- ^ Wübbena Collection: Sculpture Garden , accessed on August 3, 2011.
- ^ "Art and Culture Center Peldemühle" , accessed on May 15, 2017.
- ↑ Houses and permanent exhibitions , accessed on August 3, 2011.
- ↑ Almost 40,000 visitors to the Sielhafenmuseum . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of January 21, 2011, accessed on October 15, 2011.
- ↑ Historical tour of Carolinensiel , accessed on August 3, 2011.
- ↑ Phenomania Carolinensiel , accessed on August 3, 201.1
- ↑ St. Bonifatius, Wittmund ; accessed on February 12, 2016.
- ^ Hermann Haiduck: The architecture of the medieval churches in the East Frisian coastal area . Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1986, ISBN 3-925365-07-9 , p. 13.
- ↑ Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 349.
- ↑ Organ on NOMINE e. V. , seen February 4, 2011.
- ^ Genealogy forum: Eggelingen ( memento of March 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), as of October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 331.
- ↑ For a detailed description and history of the altar see Herbert R. Marwede: Vorreformatorische Altäre in Ost-Friesland . Dissertation, Hamburg 2006, pp. 123–148, ( online ) (PDF; 1.2 MB), viewed June 21, 2011.
- ↑ Organ in Funnix at NOMINE e. V. , seen October 10, 2010.
- ^ Genealogy forum: Carolinensiel ( memento from February 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), viewed October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 335.
- ↑ Gottfried Kiesow: Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz, Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 345.
- ↑ wittmund.de: Wittmunder Art Mile (PDF; 1.1 MB), viewed January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Peldemühle Wittmund . Mühlenstrasse working group id Mühlenvereinigung Niedersachsen - Bremen e. V .. Retrieved March 2, 2014.
- ↑ Purposes of the foundation are the preservation and preservation of the architectural and cultural monument Peldemühle as well as the promotion of culture, preservation of monuments, homeland and customs, in particular the sports Boßeln and Klootschießen , furthermore promotion of science, art and research in these areas, especially the mill customer. Johann and Helene You Foundation (accessed on May 14, 2017)
- ↑ Förderverein Pelemühle Wittmund e. V. , accessed on May 16, 2017.
- ↑ ostfriesland.de: Peldemühle , accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Kurt Asche: The packing house as a port-specific type of house in Ostfriesland , in: Emder Yearbook for Historical Country Studies Ostfriesland, Volume 75 (1995), pp. 95-109, here pp. 100/101.
- ^ "Germania" is back in Wittmund , accessed on August 8, 2011.
- ↑ Jan Schüpp Brunnen , accessed on August 3, 2011.
- ↑ Website of the Hands of Fame eV association , accessed on April 20, 2019.
- ↑ Stadtleben in Wittmund - Schlosspark , accessed on August 1, 2011.
- ↑ More than half of the people of Wittmund do sports . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of April 1, 2010, accessed October 15, 2011.
- ↑ Klinkerlauf 2015 , accessed on February 12, 2016.
- ^ SV Wittmund from 1948 .
- ^ Ostfriesland - Associations ( Memento of April 9, 2014 in the Internet Archive ).
- ↑ Wittmund has almost halved the subsidy for the Isums leisure pool . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of February 14, 2011, accessed on October 15, 2011.
- ↑ Cliner source , accessed May 15, 2020.
- ↑ a b c Markets and festivals in Carolinensiel-Harlesiel , accessed on November 25, 2011.
- ↑ Live in the Park - Dates , accessed on August 1, 2011.
- ↑ Homepage of the meeting 1000 Wikinger & Meer , accessed on November 27, 2011.
- ↑ Low German for advanced learners . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of September 29, 2011, accessed on October 12, 2011.
- ^ Ostfriesen-Zeitung, January 13, 2007.
- ↑ Statistics of the Federal Employment Agency, Excel file, line 2324 .
- ↑ Friedeburg.de: JadeWeserPark , accessed on April 20, 2019.
- ↑ An overview of the labor market from 2016 - Wittmund , accessed on April 24, 2019.
- ↑ Karl-Heinz de Wall: Wittmund district , self-published by the Friesland district, Jever 1977, without ISBN, pp. 170-184.
- ↑ Wittmund District Nature Conservation Farm: History of the Wittmund Forest , accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ nordwestreisemagazin.de: Kreisnaturschutzhof Wittmund , accessed on February 12, 2016.
- ↑ Lower Saxony Coastal Fishing Regulations (PDF; 189 kB), accessed on January 9, 2012.
- ↑ Blersumers don't want to live in the wind farm . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of June 8, 2011, accessed October 15, 2011.
- ↑ "Previous year's figures will be reached again" . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of October 12, 2011, accessed on the same day.
- ↑ Figures for 1960 and 1965 from: Helmut Sanders: The population development in the Wittmund district since the end of the 18th century with special consideration of the soil types , Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1969, without ISBN, p. 62. Figures for 1981, 1985 and 1990 from: Eckard Krömer: Brief economic history of East Friesland and Papenburg . Verlag SKN, Norden 1991, ISBN 3-922365-93-0 , p. 138. The figures for 1960 and 1965 only refer to the summer season between April 1 and September 30 of the respective year. In those years, however, the tourist infrastructure (baths, etc.) was barely developed and cultural attractions were still rarely marketed, so that it can be assumed that they were classic "summer visitors", which the numbers - possibly with small deductions - indicate seen little change over the whole year.
- ↑ www.nationalparkhaus-wattenmeer.de: Carolinensiel , accessed on October 14, 2011.
- ↑ Campsite Isums , accessed on April 20, 2019.
- ↑ Camping Holidays in Carolinensiel , accessed on April 24, 2019.
- ↑ Motorhome parking spaces on the North Sea , accessed on April 24, 2019.
- ↑ Emder Zeitung, August 6, 2008, p. 4.
- ^ Ostfriesischer Kurier, February 13, 2008, p. 12.
- ↑ www.wittmund-tourismus.de: Imprint , accessed on October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Kreisnaturschutzhof Wills High Hahn in Wittmund , accessed on 19 August 2011th
- ↑ The information was calculated using the route planner www.map24.de.
- ↑ There is no bike path in Rispelerhelmt . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of August 26, 2010, accessed October 15, 2011.
- ↑ Reactivation of the north-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: potential assessment (PDF; 4 MB), accessed on October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Reactivation of the north-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: Needs for the north-Dornum route expansion (PDF; 3.8 MB), accessed on October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Reactivation of the Norden-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: Example of a roundabout crossing (PDF; 2.3 MB), accessed on October 9, 2011.
- ↑ Homepage of the Finkenburg School Wittmund ; accessed on August 6, 2011.
- ^ A b District parents' council Wittmund: Schools of the district of Wittmund ; accessed on February 12, 2016.
- ^ Homepage of the Carolinensiel elementary school ; accessed on August 6, 2011.
- ^ Homepage of the school on Lessingstrasse: school profile ; accessed on August 6, 2011.
- ^ Homepage of the Alexander von Humboldt School Wittmund ; accessed on August 8, 2011.
- ↑ Anzeiger für das Harlingerland (from June 25, 2004) ; accessed on August 8, 2011.
- ↑ Homepage of the vocational schools in Wittmund-Esens ; accessed on August 8, 2011.
- ↑ www.wittmund.de: Kindergartens , accessed on October 15, 2011.
- ^ Hospital Wittmund - About Us , accessed on August 7, 2011.
- ^ Association donates Wittmund Clinic Incubator . In: Ostfriesen-Zeitung of December 30, 2009, accessed on August 7, 2011.
- ↑ Wittmund Medical Center officially opened , accessed on October 11, 2012.