North (East Frisia)

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coat of arms Germany map
Coat of arms of the north city
North (East Frisia)
Map of Germany, position of the city north highlighted

Coordinates: 53 ° 36 '  N , 7 ° 12'  E

Basic data
State : Lower Saxony
County : Aurich
Height : 7 m above sea level NHN
Area : 106.33 km 2
Residents: 24,873 (Dec. 31, 2019)
Population density : 234 inhabitants per km 2
Postal code : 26506
Primaries : 04931, 04926 , 04938Template: Infobox municipality in Germany / maintenance / area code contains text
License plate : AUR, NOR
Community key : 03 4 52 019
City structure: Core city and nine other districts

City administration address :
Am Markt 15
26506 North
Website :
Mayor : Heiko Schmelzle ( CDU )
Location of the city in the north in the district of Aurich
Baltrum Juist Landkreis Wittmund Landkreis Leer Memmert Norderney Nordsee Emden Landkreis Friesland Landkreis Leer Landkreis Wittmund Aurich Berumbur Berumbur Dornum Großefehn Großheide Hage Hagermarsch Halbemond Hinte Ihlow (Ostfriesland) Krummhörn Leezdorf Lütetsburg Marienhafe Norden (Ostfriesland) Osteel Rechtsupweg Südbrookmerland Upgant-Schott Upgant-Schott Wiesmoor Wirdummap
About this picture
Dree Süsters (“Three Sisters”) building ensemble on the North market square

Norden ( East Frisian Platt Nörden ) is a city in East Friesland in northwest Lower Saxony . It is not far from the North Sea coast and is the northwesternmost city on the German mainland. The inhabitants of the north are called Norder , Low German Nörder . The adjective is also like this, for example Norder Rathaus .

North is one of the oldest cities in East Frisia. In 2005 it celebrated the 750th anniversary of the first documentary mention. It is the capital and namesake of the historic Norderland landscape and, with 24,873 inhabitants, the fourth largest city in East Frisia . Until July 31, 1977 it was the seat of the district of the same name , which opened up in the Aurich district on August 1 of that year .

The region around the north is mainly characterized by agriculture and tourism. The city has a good 27 kilometers of dykes and a ferry port to the offshore islands of Juist and Norderney . The districts of Norddeich and Westermarsch II have had the official designation "State-approved North Sea Bath " since 1979 . On June 24, 2010, Lower Saxony's Minister of Economic Affairs, Jörg Bode, awarded the two districts the highest level of tourism recognition with the title “ North Sea Spa ”. Today, Norden-Norddeich is the largest state-approved seaside spa on the East Frisian North Sea coast. As early as the 1950s, the slogan The Green Gate to the Sea was used to advertise the north as a holiday destination. In the 2007 summer season alone, more than 900,000 overnight stays were counted in the north. The city has the status of an independent municipality . It is shown as a medium-sized center in the state planning of Lower Saxony .



The city of Norden, the most northwestern city on the German mainland , extends over 104.39 square kilometers in the northwest of East Friesland in Lower Saxony. Towards the sea, the north is bounded by 27.3 kilometers of sea ​​dikes . The largest north-south expansion is around 21 kilometers, the largest east-west expansion around 13 kilometers. The highest point in the north is 9.7  m above sea level. NHN .

In front of the coast are the islands (from east to west) Norderney , Juist and Memmert . Between the coastline and the islands is the Wadden Sea , which is under nature protection as the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park and was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in June 2009 together with the Schleswig-Holstein and the Dutch part of the Wadden Sea . The Leybucht lies southwest of the city .

Neighboring communities on the mainland are (clockwise, from east to southwest) the communities Hagermarsch , Lütetsburg and Halbemond (all together with Hage ), Leezdorf and Osteel (both together with Brookmerland ) and the community Krummhörn . A special feature of the border with the Leezdorf community is that it is only about the width of a street: North and Leezdorf meet at the Schwarzen Weg , but the northern and southern sides of the street belong to the communities Halbemond and Osteel.

Besides the district town Aurich, north is the second middle center of the district of Aurich. The catchment area is restricted by nature, as the Wadden Sea is located in the north, west and south-west. However, the north plays an important role in supplying the offshore islands of Juist (1524 inhabitants, 129,000 guests with around 984,000 overnight stays in 2014) and Norderney (6090 inhabitants, 512,000 guests (2011) with more than 3.4 million overnight stays in 2014) . The North Middle Center competes with Aurich and Emden, especially as a shopping town.


The city center from the north is located on a sand island, which is in front of the northwesternmost foothills of the East Frisian Geestrücken . The districts southeast of the city center are also located on Geestboden, while the majority of the city area is in the marshland . Around half of the urban area has been wrested from the sea and diked since 1430. The geologically youngest part of the northern district of Leybuchtpolder was not diked and made arable until 1947 to 1950 with the construction of the Störtebeker dike. Since the dike in part of the Leybucht and a significantly smaller dike near Harlesiel , there have been no more significant land reclamation measures on the North Sea coast of Lower Saxony by dike, so that these areas of land are the youngest areas of Lower Saxony reclaimed from the sea and populated by people. The area of ​​today's Neuwesteel district was also wrested from the sea in the 20th century.

Since large parts of the urban area are only slightly above sea level, the land has to be continuously drained. The Norder Tief , formerly the fairway of the Norder Hafen, plays an important role in this. It drains into the North Sea via the Leybuchtsiel and Leysiel pumping stations .

Urban structure and land use

Bargebur Leybuchtpolder Neuwesteel Norden Norddeich Ostermarsch Süderneuland I Süderneuland II Tidofeld Westermarsch I Westermarsch II
City structure (clickable map)
Area in ha according to type of use
as of June 30, 2009
area surface
Buildings and open spaces 943.54
Operating areas 33.38
Green and sports facilities 71.34
Streets, paths and parking lots 420.76
Agricultural land 8410.04
Woods 46.64
Waters, ditches, ponds 291.11
Protection areas among others 250.10
total area 10,466.91

North consists of the core city and ten official districts. In addition to the old city center, the core city includes the former community of sand farmers with the districts of Ekel , Lintel and Westgaste. These in turn are divided into various districts and residential areas such as Neustadt, Westlintel, Ostlintel, Ekeler Gaste, In der Wirde, Forty Diemat, Martensdorf or the million- dollar quarter . What they have in common is that they have no administrative meaning, but they do have a meaning in everyday language use by the residents.

The other districts are Bargebur , Leybuchtpolder , Neuwesteel , Norddeich (which was called Lintelermarsch until 1972 ), Ostermarsch , Süderneuland I , Süderneuland II , Tidofeld , Westermarsch I and Westermarsch II .

The core city and the districts of Bargebur, Norddeich, Süderneuland I and Süderneuland II, as well as parts of Westermarsch II have mostly grown together structurally and, with the exception of Norddeich and Westermarsch II, form the extensive residential and commercial areas in the south and east of the city. About 92.5 percent of the entire urban population live in this “conurbation”. The remaining districts are still very rural and predominantly extremely sparsely populated, but they take up by far the largest part of the total urban area.

The north is characterized by water and agricultural areas. Almost 80 percent of the urban area is used for agriculture. Agriculture is practiced on the polded areas in the south of the city. Polded land made up of former silt has a high land value index . Mainly potatoes, grain and rapeseed are planted . Cattle are raised on the other agricultural areas. Dairy cows are predominant here. Sheep graze on the dikes. Not only do they keep the sward low, they also trample the dyke floor with their hooves.

In addition to the Norder Tief and its tributaries, including the Addinggaster Tief, a large number of small and large drainage ditches characterize the landscape around the north. In front of the confluence of the Norder Tief in the Leybucht, regulated by the Leybuchtsiel pumping station, there is a storage basin.

Like most of the places that are mostly located in the marshland , the north is only very sparsely forested. However, the city borders on the Tidofelder Holz of the neighboring municipality of Lütetsburg.


The north is in the temperate climate zone, mainly in the direct influence of the North Sea . In summer the daytime temperatures are lower, in winter often higher than in the further inland. The climate is generally characterized by the Central European west wind zone.

According to the effective climate classification of Köppen , north is in the classification Cfb . C stands for a warm-temperate climate, Cf for a humid-temperate climate with warm summers b .

The closest weather station on the mainland coast is in Emden (see there for further information).


Early to Middle Ages

The earliest evidence of the presence of humans in the northern urban area are archaeological finds from the Mesolithic . From the 6th century AD, Frisians migrated to East Frisia, which was previously settled by Chauken and Saxony .

In the period that followed, regional market places developed, including the north. The place was not founded centrally. It emerged as the common center of the surrounding peasant communities Ekel, Lintel and Westgaste, who in the following years grew more and more intertwined and thus formed the core of the city. The exact origin of the city north is largely unknown. There is little evidence from the early days of the city, the interpretation of which is uncertain. A place called Nordhunnwig (probably Norwich ), which was destroyed by the Vikings in 842 together with Hamwic ( Southampton ) , was mistakenly mistaken for north. In 884 the Vikings were defeated by the Frisians in the Battle of Norditi . The oldest document is Nordedi (787, but in an incorrect copy); around 860 the area is called Nordwidu (' Northern Forest'). The basis of the place name is Old Saxon norð , Old Frisian north ('north').

From the early phase of the city there are finds of a medieval settlement in Ekel, which indicate a work-sharing relationship between the Geestort and the population of the surrounding marshes. In addition, in the area around the north in the early Middle Ages, in addition to agriculture, iron production in particular seems to have played an important economic role. Little and nothing certain is known about the importance of the place in the economic structure of the Norderland.

The market town was connected to Esens via a flood-safe connection on the Geest , which was the end point of the Frisian Heerweg from Oldenburg . Due to the favorable location on the extreme north-western edge of the Oldenburg-East Frisian Geestrücke, the place had access to the sea for many centuries. Cattle , shell limestone and salt were the main commodities.

The north probably belonged to the Federgau initially . After the collapse of the Leybucht , the north parish gradually lost its connections to the Federgau from the 9th century. The settlement developed into a suburb of the Gau Nordendi by 1150, which roughly comprised the area that was called Norder- , Auricher- and Harlingerland from the High Middle Ages . In the 11th and 12th centuries, the Franconian county constitution was largely eroded by the Frisians and the Großgau Nordendi broke up.

Sarcophagus of Sibet Attena

North was after the dissolution of Gaus main town in the Norder country . The central importance of the place is shown by the fact that, in addition to two churches, there were two monasteries and castles in close proximity - a concentration that was not found anywhere else in the Norderland. Relations between the north and the surrounding area are, however, controversial. In the 12th century the Marienthal monastery was built on the Zingel , later the burial place of the East Frisian aristocratic Cirksena family ; the Dominicans settled at the Fräuleinshof in 1264 . At that time there were several castles of the predominant families of the chiefs of the place, such as the Ennenburg of the Attena at the former port and the Idzingaburg of the family of the same name, from whose coat of arms the city of Norden later took the spur wheels. These were castles of the type of East Frisian chieftain's castles, which can still be recognized today on the Bunderhee stone house . The city church was dedicated to St. Andrew and was in close proximity to Ludgeri Church , in contrast to the St. Andrew's Church was the Norder environs the church.

In 1255, Norden was first mentioned in a contract, which is often confused with the granting of town charter. This error explains why the north has been called the “oldest city in East Friesland” until recently. However, Emden was first mentioned in a document in 1224, i.e. 31 years earlier.

During the time of the East Frisian chiefs from 1350 to 1464, Norden and its surrounding area belonged to the rulership of various chief families and finally fell to the tom Brok from Brookmerland , after their end to the counts and later princes of East Frisia from the house of Cirksena. This meant less political importance for the place, since the power centers of East Frisia developed in Aurich (initially the seat of tom Brok, later the Cirksena) and Emden (Cirksena, until they were expelled in 1595), which is probably the reason why the place never was was fortified with a city wall or the like. In the following years, the north was mainly a trading center, which was favored in the 14th century after storm surges by an expansion of the Leybucht . The place then had direct access to the sea. A seaport was created in the southern part of the city, which was important well into the 19th century and gave the city an economic boom over a long period, even if its trade was always inferior to that of the city of Emden. The north had its own trade flag , under which Norder ships sailed the North and Baltic Seas.

North under the Cirksenas

North around 1590. Detail from a contemporary depiction
East Frisia around 1600

In 1531 an army of chief Balthasar von Esens devastated the unfortified city, including the predecessor of today's Old Town Hall , several monasteries and the St. Andrew's Church. It stood north of the Ludgerikirche on the market square. Attempts to rebuild St. Andrew's Church failed, and the building gradually collapsed in the 17th and 18th centuries. The last remains of the St. Andrew's Church disappeared in 1756. It is unknown whether there was ever a town charter in Norden . After the reconstruction of the north, Count Enno II gave the place a town ordinance with the Instituta Nordana (1535). However, Count Edzard I had already referred to Norden as a “city” (1491 and 1498).

In the 16th century, Jews first settled in the city . The Jewish cemetery is the oldest in East Friesland.

The Reformation resulted in a partly bitter dispute between Calvinist Protestants and Lutherans in the north . The Count House promoted the Reformation. The sons of Edzard the Great, Enno II and Johann I, ruled largely jointly from 1528 to 1540, with Enno adhering to Lutheran doctrine, but Johann remaining Catholic. The Cuius regio, eius religio regulation, issued a short time later, was never implemented in East Frisia in the sense that the citizens were obliged to accept the confession of the sovereign. In this situation , Lutheran-minded and Calvinists (Reformed) fought bitterly over the church order in the north. Ultimately, the Lutheran clergy prevailed. The establishment of a Reformed community in Lütetsburg / Norden initially brought about pacification of the spiritual situation. The Inn- and Knyphausen family on the Lütetsburg was Calvinistic and allowed church services on the Lütetsburg. But in 1680 the conflict broke out again when the Reformed in Bargebur, then just outside the city gates, wanted to build a Reformed church. Angry northern citizens tore down the building again, the Bargebur Church was only completed in 1684 under the supervision of military troops .

Another point of conflict was the count's tax policy. The dispute escalated in 1602 when Count Enno III. conquered the city after refusing to pay homage to him. Enno recognized all privileges from the city and only granted them again after paying homage. In the years 1597/98 and again in 1611 the plague broke out in the city . During the Thirty Years' War the unfortified site was occupied by Mansfelder (1622 to 1624), imperial (1627 to 1631) and Hessian troops (1637 to 1650).

In the 18th century, Norden owned an important sea fleet on the East Frisian coast. During the Christmas flood in 1717 , the northern part of the city, like all of East Frisia, was hit hard. The town of Itzendorf had to be abandoned, it is reminiscent of the Itzendorfplate , a shoal off the northern coast near the Westermarsch district.

Under Prussian and Hanoverian rule

In 1744, East Frisia, and with it the north, fell to the Kingdom of Prussia through an prospectus . The Prussian state promoted in the following decades, the colonization of East Friesland - particularly by Moorkolonisierung , but also by embankments. In what is now the northern part of the city, three polders were diked: the Leysander Polder in 1769, the Hagenpolder in 1770 and the Schulenburg Polder in 1781. All are located south of the city center and were extracted from the Leybucht.

Map of the Kingdom of Holland with East Frisia (in the northeast)
North around 1845

In 1769 Justus Friedrich Steinbömer and Johann Heinrich Lubinus founded the smoking tobacco factory Steinbömer and Lubinius.

In 1794, seven Norder merchants and citizens from Hage founded the Fehnsiedlung Norderfehn , which was later renamed Berumerfehn . They mined peat there. To do this, they dug today's Berumerfehn Canal, which connected the northern harbor with the new fen colony. It is about 14 kilometers long. The peat was cut on an area of ​​around 1,500 hectares and - for the first time in 1797 - transported north on the canal by small ships. The city was thus independent of the previously necessary imports of fuel, which was mainly obtained from the Groningerland and the Saterland .

After the Napoleonic occupation from 1806 to 1813, when Norden first belonged to the Kingdom of Holland (until 1810) and finally as part of the Département Ems-Oriental France, the city fell to the Kingdom of Hanover after the Congress of Vienna in 1815 .

In the 1840s, several roads connecting the cities were built in East Frisia. This included the road from the north to Emden, completed in 1844, which also secured a connection to Aurich from Georgsheil . From 1844 to 1846, the Ernst-August-Polder (named after the Hanoverian king ) was diked in the south of what is now the urban area . The road to Hage was added in 1856, nine years later extended to Arle (forerunner of today's Landesstraße 6).

The revolutionary year of 1848 also left its mark in the north. "Political life awoke." A citizens' association was founded whose political activity was unsustainable. In addition, a vigilante group was set up to maintain public order. The first newspaper, the Norder Stadtblatt , appeared that year. Other publishers also made use of the newly won freedom of the press, but they all only had a short economic life. The Ostfriesischer Kurier was not founded until 1867 and remains the local newspaper of the Norderland to this day.

East Frisia came back to Prussia in 1866 with the end of the Hanoverian Kingdom . The city's access to the sea was severely restricted by dikes and was only maintained through the Norder Tief . The importance of the north as a trading center decreased as a result, but was compensated for by the beginning of industrialization . In the north, the Norder Eisenhütte , a chocolate and a sugar factory, tobacco, chicory , vinegar and mustard factories were built . The market continued to have supra-regional importance in the trade in cattle, wood and grain. For the most companies on town soon the 1806 from which developed Groningen originating Mennonites th January Doornkaat Koolman founded distillery Doornkaat .

North in the Empire

Osterstrasse in the north around 1920
"Jerusalem" inn in Osterstrasse around 1920

A significant event was the connection to the national rail network in 1883; the route was continued in 1892 to the Norddeich ferry pier, called Norddeich Mole . As a result, the city gained in importance for the through traffic of tourists to Norderney and other East Frisian Islands .

In the course of the Prussian territorial reform of 1885, the (larger) districts replaced the previous offices in East Frisia. The north became the seat of the district of the same name , which consisted of the former offices of Norden and Berum.

In 1889 the construction of the first pier began in Norddeich, where in 1905 the coast radio station Norddeich Radio was built. In 1914 the city was connected to the electricity supply. During the First World War , prisoners of war were used on the farms in the north and the surrounding area. The coastal radio station in particular was of great importance for the Imperial Navy over the next four years and was protected accordingly.

Social democracy took hold late in the small town in rural surroundings. There were first attempts to organize as early as 1875. It was not until 1902, however, that the organization of a local association could be discussed. A strike broke out in 1906 when the workers at the ironworks went on strike. The owners of the hut then had the names of the strikers printed in full-page newspaper advertisements.

After the end of the First World War, a workers 'and soldiers' council took power in the north for a short time, but quickly disbanded. As in the rest of East Frisia, the workers 'and soldiers' councils remained a short episode, not least due to the rural-conservative attitude in large parts of East Frisia. For the first time armed soldiers with a red flag appeared in the city on November 7, 1919; they came from the nearby airship port in Hage. Firearms were not used. The tea trade entrepreneur Onno Behrends assembled members of the bourgeois-conservative camp in a "citizens' committee" who sought cooperation with the workers' and soldiers' council, which was also successful. The workers 'and soldiers' councils dissolved in the summer of 1919.

Weimar Republic and National Socialism

In 1919 the surrounding community of sand farmers, which almost completely enclosed the north, was incorporated into the city. The population increased by around 50 percent to around 10,200.

In 1929, the embankment of the Leypolders, combined with the construction of the Leybuchtsiel , largely restricted the city's access to the sea. As a result, the port of Norddeich became increasingly important in today's urban area. The old customs and packing house as well as the former harbor master's office were preserved as monuments.

In the local elections of March 12, 1933, the National Socialists , who had had their own local group since 1923, were able to unite the majority of the votes in the city. A few days later, waves of arrests against communists and social democrats began. A few weeks after the seizure of power by the Nazis there were attacks on political opponents: 27 Social Democrats and Communists were in the restaurant to exchange abused by Nazis brutally. On March 28, the SA closed all Jewish shops in the city and called for their boycott . This measure ended on April 5th. In July 1935, shortly before the introduction of the race laws , Jews who had contact with “Aryan” northern women were led through the main streets of the town with a sign around their necks that read I am a racial defender .

In the course of 1938 there was increased anti-Jewish agitation in the northern press. For many centuries, Norden had a Jewish community with synagogues in Norden and on Norderney . The Norder synagogue was destroyed during the National Socialist pogroms on the night of November 9th to 10th, 1938. The school house and the rabbi's house are still standing. The synagogue in Norderney was spared the actions in connection with the November pogroms, as it had previously been sold to an ironmonger who wanted to set up a storage room there. The Jews living in the north were rounded up and brought together with the other East Frisian Jews to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp , from where they returned weeks later. After the November pogroms, the Jewish community in Norden, which in 1925 had more than 230 members, dissolved. The last Jews were transported to concentration camps in April 1940. During the time of National Socialism , almost half of the Jews in northerners were killed.

In the Second World War, the North was hit by bombs, which led to several deaths. Overall, the city survived the war, apart from the hardships of everyday life, “relatively lightly”. Like other cities and communities in East Friesland, the north took in the bombed-out Emder after September 6, 1944, after the seaport city had been badly destroyed by Allied air raids.

During the war, the north was of no military importance. The only thing to be mentioned is the function of Norddeich as a ferry port to Juist and Norderney. Like the other East Frisian Islands, they were equipped with bunkers and flak positions as part of the Atlantic Wall construction program. After the angry citizens of North had vigorously spoken to party leaders and responsible members of the Wehrmacht, the city was handed over to the Allies on May 4, 1945 without a fight.

North since 1945

Gnadenkirche Tidofeld, built in 1961 as the successor to a barrack church; Today it houses an exhibition on the history of the displaced
One of the oldest houses in the North (1600), the House Vienna , from the community foundation as a community center called, was redeveloped in the 1990s

The population of the north increased considerably as a result of the flow of refugees in the post-war period . One of the largest barracks in the northwest was located in Tidofeld. Up to 1200 people lived there alone. Displaced persons were also settled in today's Leybuchtpolder district. At the end of 1946, around 17,000 displaced persons were counted in the entire northern district. In addition, 9,000 people came from bombed-out cities. At that time, these approximately 26,000 people made up around a third of the total population in the district. A new district, Norden-Neustadt, was created in the 1950s, primarily for the displaced.

From 1947 to 1950 the Leybuchtpolder was diked, on which the current district was later built. The last dike on the Leybucht so far was done by creating the 4.75 kilometer long Störtebeker dike. The dike workers were paid with part of the diked land - partly as an agricultural livelihood and partly as a sideline. "I consider it a matter of course that when distributing the settlement land in the Leybucht first and foremost the workers should be taken into account, from whose work this land was created in the first place," said Mimke Berghaus, the district president in Aurich, the head of the Norder Domain and building authorities notified before the start of the first construction project. In addition, 53 larger holdings of 10 to 16 hectares were created.

Due to the structural change in agriculture, in which better yields were achieved with modern machines, the immigration of displaced persons and the lack of alternative employment opportunities beyond agriculture, the 1950s were a decade characterized by high unemployment. From this decade, the infrastructure in the city was expanded, starting with the sewer system in the city center. In addition, new schools were built. The first calls for a bypass for the city center were loud, which was increasingly burdened by tourist traffic.

Ubbo Emmius Clinic

In the 1960s and 1970s, the old town in the north was extensively renovated, which fell victim to part of the historical basic structure of the city . The housing association Neue Heimat built apartment buildings and three high-rise apartment blocks on the now vacant site. As a further measure, several streets around the market square were widened, and the planted avenues on Bahnhofstrasse and Norddeicher Strasse had to give way. A new district hospital was opened in 1966 to provide medical care for residents of the north and the surrounding area.

Through the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972, the city gained a number of surrounding communities as new districts and grew considerably in area. During the district reform in 1977, however, the city of Norden lost the seat of the district of the same name and has since been part of the district of Aurich with the district town of Aurich as a central center .

Between 1969 and 1979 investments were made in the infrastructure in the Norddeich district. The seal rearing station, the seawater swimming pool, new promenades and a sandy beach were created. As a result, Norddeich has been officially known as the “state-approved North Sea resort ” since 1979 . Norden-Norddeich is thus the largest state-recognized North Sea resort on the East Frisian North Sea coast.

Economically, the north was extremely badly off in the 1980s. The closure of a branch of the office machine manufacturer Olympia and the slow decline of the Doornkaat distillery and other companies drove up unemployment. The record level was reported in early 1986: 29 percent.

In the 1990s, sometimes before, companies increasingly settled in a large industrial park in the south of the city (Leegemoor) , which gradually lowered unemployment, even if it is still the highest in East Frisia (see section Economy). The history of the coastal radio station Norddeich Radio ended in 1998. As early as the 1980s, and even more so in the 1990s, the city started to make the marketplace more attractive, to give historical details back to the buildings and to emphasize historical features later. The heavy traffic load in the city center was also lessened: after decades of discussion and efforts to get it included in the federal traffic route plan, Norden received its bypass in 2009.

The district is responsible for the Ubbo Emmius Clinic , which was created in 2004 from the merger of the two clinics in Aurich and Norden. In October 2013 it became known that the district and Emden are considering a joint hospital in Georgsheil and want to check the feasibility . If a joint clinic was built there, the two locations of the Ubbo Emmius Clinic and the Hans Susemihl Hospital would be closed. In June 2017, a referendum took place on the question of whether a central clinic should be built in Georgsheil . While the citizens of the Aurich district voted in favor, the residents of the city of Emden refused. In a second referendum in Emden on the same issue in May 2019, 54.75% of those eligible to vote voted for a building.


Already in 1919 the community of sand farmers was accepted. In 1952 the area of ​​today's Tidofeld was taken over from the municipality of Lütetsburg to the city center from the north. In 1996 Tidofeld became an independent district, making it the youngest in the city. On July 1, 1972, the previously independent communities Leybuchtpolder, Lintelermarsch (today Norddeich), Neuwesteel, Ostermarsch, Süderneuland I, Süderneuland II, Westermarsch I and Westermarsch II as well as Bargebur , until then a district of the community of Lütetsburg, were incorporated.

Population development

The city of Norden has around 25,000 inhabitants today, but around 1900 it was still a manageable city with around 7,000 inhabitants. With the incorporation of the community of Sandbauerschaft, which ran almost in a ring around the city center, the north grew significantly in 1919. A significant boost in population development came after the end of the Second World War, when many refugees from the former eastern regions of the German Reich were taken in (see also Tidofeld displaced persons camp ). In 1954, 4041 of the city's 17,785 inhabitants were refugees, i.e. around 22.7 percent. Due to an acute job shortage, however, some displaced people left the city and settled elsewhere. A further boost resulted from the incorporation of many small surrounding communities in the course of the Lower Saxony municipal reform in 1972.

year Residents
1804 3,532
1826 5,757
1861 6,199
1867 5,975
1871 6,070
1885 6,879
year Residents
1895 6,794
1905 6,717
1910 6,885
1925 11,025
1933 12,150
1939 12.306
year Residents
1950 18,012
1954 17,785
1961 16,144
1970 16,986
1977 24,334
1980 24,300
year Residents
1990 23,700
2008 25,222
2011 25,019
2016 25.195
2017 25,056

Development of the place name

It is believed that north is an indicative place name. It is interpreted as "lying to the north". Since the place was originally in the Federgau and not in the Gau Nordendi, a derivation from the Gau name is excluded. It remains unclear whether the 884 mentioned places Norditi and Nordhunwig are identical with Norden.


Post-war election campaign in the north: Here is an action by the RSF

On June 8, 1945, the British military government appointed Albert Schöneberg as the first post-war mayor of the city of Norden. At the beginning of 1946 the first post-war city council was constituted on the instructions of the occupation authorities. The main task of the appointed city council, which consisted of politically unaffected members, was the implementation of the new German municipal code developed by the military government based on the British model , the associated redemocratisation of municipal structures and the preparation of the first local elections. The most important goal of the new local order was the abolition of the National Socialist leader principle and its replacement by the "principle of community responsibility".

In March 1946, Schöneberg was deposed as mayor by the military government. Johann Fischer took his place as the second post-war mayor.

Georg Schubach , the city ​​director appointed by the occupying power alongside the mayor, had to resign as early as October 1947 because he had applied for this post with false information. In June 1950 the Aurich criminal chamber sentenced him to imprisonment for fraud. Schubach was succeeded by Walter Klein.

The first free local elections after 1932 took place in East Friesland on September 15, 1946. The North election result brought nine seats for the SPD , the CDU six, the FDP five seats and the KPD one seat in the North City Hall. At the beginning of October, the constituent council meeting took place in the presence of the British military governor, at which Johann Fischer (SPD) was unanimously elected mayor. In the autumn of 1948 a second local election was held in the newly founded Lower Saxony . Although the SPD remained after these elections strongest faction in Norder Town Hall, with the votes of the CDU, FDP and the newly represented at City Hall was asked by her Mayor Fischer freely economically oriented social radical Freedom Party (RSF) deselected. The free democrat Albert Schöneberg took his place. RSF councilor Anton Nordwall became the deputy mayor. In 1956 Johann Fischer was reappointed to the mayor's office. His successor in 1959 was SPD councilor Hinrich Donner.

From 1964 to 1998, i.e. more than three decades, the north was a stronghold of the SPD. The Social Democrats mostly received an absolute majority of the votes in local elections; in the 1972 local elections it was 60 percent of the vote. The Social Democrats also provided the mayor. Several North SPD politicians represented the Aurich / Emden constituency in the Bundestag and the north constituency in the Lower Saxony state parliament (see section Personalities).

The New North City Hall . The city administration has had its seat there since 1884.

At the municipal level, the SPD is still the strongest force, but it had already lost its absolute majority in the 1998 election and no longer provided the mayor. An alliance of CDU , FDP and the free voter community ZoB replaced the SPD as the dominant force in the city council. This was repeated in the local elections in 2001, 2006 and 2011. The background was "turbulence" after the regular local elections in 1996. Three SPD candidates were accused of having achieved higher results through manipulation. The administrative court in Oldenburg tried to come to the conclusion that the election had to be repeated. This happened on November 8, 1998; the SPD lost its absolute majority.

The voter community ZoB (Future Oriented Citizens), founded in 1995, is now the second largest parliamentary group in the North Council. Its members are not just citizens who were previously non-party, but also several former SPD politicians who turned their backs on their party out of dissatisfaction.

In the state and federal elections, the constituencies in which the city is located in the north were also long considered strongholds of the SPD . In the 2005 Bundestag election in the Aurich / Emden constituency, with 55.9 percent of the second vote, she achieved the best result for this party in Germany. In the 2009 Bundestag election, however, the Social Democrats suffered significant losses and slipped below the 40 percent mark for the first time in decades.

In the election to the Lower Saxony state parliament in 2008, the SPD achieved the best result of all Lower Saxony electoral districts with 41.8 percent of the second vote, but it also lagged behind the results of previous state elections, which were often more than 50 percent of the valid votes cast. In the state elections in Lower Saxony in 2013 , the SPD was able to improve to 46.4 percent.

City council

The city council consists of 34 elected councilors and the directly elected mayor. The 34 council members are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.

Since the last local election on September 11, 2016 , the city council has been made up of four parties and a community of voters:

Political party Voting share change Seats
SPD 37.33% −1.37% 13
CDU 29.90% + 12.07% 10
Future-oriented Citizens (ZoB) 12.41% −8.83% 4th
FDP 11.34% + 8.25% 4th
GREEN 8.99% −6.17% 3

Despite slight losses, the SPD received the most votes. The election winners were CDU and FDP, while ZoB and Greens lost accordingly. The grouping ZoB (Future Oriented Citizens) formed a coalition with the CDU and FDP in the 2006–2011 and 2011–2016 election periods . Since 2016 the CDU has formed a group with the ZoB (future-oriented citizens) group.

The turnout in the 2016 local elections was 58.22%, above the Lower Saxony average of 55.5%. For comparison - in the previous municipal election on September 11, 2011, the turnout was 48.76%.


Heiko Schmelzle (CDU) has been the full-time mayor of the city of Norden since November 1, 2016 . He replaced Barbara Schlag , who had been honorary mayor since the local elections in 1998 and full-time mayor since 2001 and was the first woman in the history of the city to hold this office.

In the mayoral elections for full-time mayor on June 16, 2014, Barbara Schlag (future-oriented citizens) was re-elected. In the runoff election Schlag received 50.53% of the vote, her opponent Olaf Wiltfang (SPD) 49.46%. The turnout was 45.68%. Barbara Schlag began her further term of office on November 1, 2014. This ended on October 31, 2016. In the mayoral election on September 11, 2016, none of the candidates obtained an absolute majority; Barbara Schlag did not run again. On September 25, 2016, the runoff election took place between the CDU candidate Heiko Schmelzle (43.6% in the first ballot) and the SPD candidate Julia Feldmann (35.8% in the first ballot), Heiko Schmelzle with 60.17% decided for herself (Julia Feldmann 39.82%).

Previous incumbent

The mayors since 1945 were / are:

  • 1945–1946: Albert Schöneberg
  • 1946–1948: Johann Fischer (SPD)
  • 1948–1956: Albert Schöneberg
  • 1956–1959: Johann Fischer (SPD)
  • 1959–1961: Hinrich Donner
  • 1961–1964: Georg Rowehl-Rulffes (FDP)
  • 1964–1968: Georg Peters (SPD)
  • 1971–1988: Gerhard Campen (SPD)
  • 1988–1996: Fritz Fuchs (SPD)
  • 1998-2016: Barbara Schlag (ZoB)
  • since 2016: Heiko Schmelzle (CDU)

Representatives in the Land and Bundestag

The city belongs to the state electoral district of Emden / Norden , which consists of the city of Emden, the city of Norden and the municipalities of Krummhörn, Hinte and Hage . In the Lower Saxony state parliament ( legislature from 2017 ) two members are represented in the constituency. The directly elected MP is Matthias Arends (SPD). Hillgriet Eilers (FDP) also moved into the Lower Saxony state parliament via the state list . The SPD's second vote result of 49.4 percent was again the best of this party in the 87 electoral districts of Lower Saxony.

In federal elections, the north belongs to constituency 24 Aurich - Emden . This includes the city of Emden and the district of Aurich. In the 2017 federal election , the social democrat Johann Saathoff was directly elected. No party candidate from the constituency entered the Bundestag via the parties' list.

Town twinning

The town twinning with Bradford-on-Avon in the United Kingdom has existed since 1969. It goes back to a visit by the rowers and canoeists of the Bradford-on-Avon Rowing Club in 1967. On the return visit of the North Sportsmen the following year, the then Mayor made Bradfords the proposal of a partnership that was sealed in 1969. In order to put the town twinning and the exchange on a solid basis, an association has been founded in Norden (town twinning Bradford on Avon - Norden eV) , which, in addition to those responsible from politics and town administration, maintains relationships.

Since 1990 there has been a town partnership with Pasewalk in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . Norden is the first city with which Pasewalk maintains a partnership. Partnership associations in Norden and Pasewalk had also established for this partnership. These have since disbanded (2004 and 2005), but contacts still exist on a private level.

City arms

Coat of arms of the north city
Blazon : "On a blue shield three golden six-pointed spur wheels in a ratio of 2 (above): 1 (below), the upper coat of arms with a crown of leaves on the shield and the cloaked figure of St. Andrew as a shield holder."
Reasons for the coat of arms: The colors of the city north are yellow-blue. The flag of the city of North is held in these colors and stripes in equal parts. It is used either with or without a coat of arms, but officially with. The coat of arms of North can essentially be traced back to the oldest city seal from 1498. It was changed only minimally in later centuries. The spur wheels come from the coat of arms of the chief family Idzinga, who dominated the north until the 15th century . The upper coat of arms shows a crown of leaves on the shield and, as a shield holder, the cloaked figure of St. Andrew , the former patron saint of the city, standing in front of an inclined cross. The first town church on the market square was consecrated to St. Andrew.


Ecumenical sign at the northern entrances
The Ludgeri Church north
St. Ludgerus Church

The districts of Aurich and Wittmund have the highest proportion of Lutherans in the total population in all of Germany with around 85 percent. In the north, too, the Lutherans are the most strongly represented denomination. In addition to them, however, there is a larger number of Protestant parishes of reformed and free church characteristics and a Roman Catholic parish. There is an intensive cooperation between these churches on various levels, which is already visible at the northern entrance to the town. Here, Lutherans, Catholics, Reformed and Free Churches invite you to their services through a common sign. In addition to the churches linked by the Working Group of Christian Churches and the Evangelical Alliance , there are other faith communities of Christian character in the north.

There were individual Moravian Christians in Norden at least since 1738. In 1757 the Moravian Municipality of North was constituted with the employment of its own preacher , which existed until 1898 and had its own church built around 1875 on the west side of the North market square. This house then served the Evangelical Reformed congregation and the regional church community as a place of worship until 1969. In 1970 the Moravian Church was torn down and replaced by a new Reformed community center.

A Jewish community has not existed since the time of National Socialism .


The vast majority of the northern population is Protestant Lutheran . There are five parishes in the city . The Ludgerigemeinde with 8,117 parishioners, the largest of the 14 churches in the Lutheran church district north. The Ludgeri parish has a parish hall in the city center, which is located on Norddeicher Straße. Another parish hall, located on Kampweg, has since been profaned and is now the seat of a funeral home. In addition to the main parish, there is the St. Andrew's parish in the former western district. Other communities are located in Norddeich (Arche), Süderneuland (Friedenskirche) and Leybuchtpolder. The church in Tidofeld was secularized and now houses a documentation center on the subject of displacement, flight and reconstruction in the post-war period.

In addition to the Lutherans, there are two Reformed churches in the north . The Lütetsburg-Norden parish has a historic church in Bargebur and a modern parish center on the market square in North. The second Reformed parish is in Leybuchtpolder. There is close cooperation between her and the local Lutheran parish. The aim is to further expand the ecumenical cooperation of the congregations.

A Roman Catholic parish no longer existed for a long period of time after the Reformation . Catholic services took place irregularly, initially underground and later regularly at the instigation of the strictly Catholic wife of Dodo zu Innhausen and Knyphausen in the chapel of Lütetsburg Castle . Catholic services in a rental chamber at Großneustraße 1 in the north are documented for 1720. On January 4, 1779, the Prussian King Frederick the Great permitted Catholics in the north and the surrounding area to practice their religion freely. As a result, a chapel consecrated to the Archangel Michael , together with a rectory and school, was set up in a building complex at Sielstrasse 55/56 . In the second half of the 19th century, the number of Catholics in the city had grown so much that in 1864 at Osterstraße 20 there was initially a rectory with a chapel and in 1885 a regular church, the St. Ludgerus Church , on the rear of the property . was built. The Ludgerus community experienced a strong growth spurt after the Second World War due to the influx of expellees from Silesia . Today it has around 3800 parishioners. Because of the high proportion of Vietnamese in the community (many boat people settled in the north), the fair is held in two languages.

The regional church community , which belongs to the East Frisian Community Association , holds its Sunday hours in the community center of the Evangelical Reformed Church on the market. She meets for her Bible studies in the parish hall of the Lutheran parish on Norddeicher Strasse.

The north has an unusually high number of free churches . The five first-mentioned churches are connected through their supraregional associations in the Association of Evangelical Free Churches (VEF).

The Mennonite Congregation Norden was founded in 1556. It is the oldest free church and the second oldest parish in the city. With the Mennonite communities in Emden (since 1530) and Leer (since 1540) it is one of the oldest communities of this denomination worldwide. Its founding fathers included religious refugees from the so-called Spanish Netherlands . Their descendants - including the ten Doornkaat , ten Cate , Cremer and Remmers families  - contributed significantly to the economic development of the north. The Northern Mennonite Congregation currently has 55 members. The denominational Mennonite Brethren Congregation of the North, which was founded at the end of the 20th century by ethnic repatriates from the former Soviet Union , also meets in its rooms . The Russian language is still used at their church services.

The Evangelical Free Church Congregation of the Baptists on Osterstrasse was constituted in 1900 as an independent congregation. Before that, the Northern Baptists were a branch of the Jennelter congregation. In addition to the Christ Church on Osterstrasse, the Baptist institutions in the north include the Lüttje Huus , a Christian book room , and the Tohus family holiday home , a branch of the Evangelical Free Church Diakoniewerk in Bremen .

The beginnings of the Friedensgemeinde Norden - Church for All in the Bund Freikirchlicher Pfingstgemeinden (BFP) go back to the 1950s. The first services were held in two small rented rooms at the Posthalterlohne. Since 1977 the congregation has had its center, the Friedenskirche, on the site of the Nazareth Social Work in Norddeich, which is under the care of the Bund Freikirchlicher Pfingstgemeinden. In October 2011, the Friedensgemeinde bought a former special items market and converted it into a community center. Since April 2012, the entire community life has been taking place in the new premises.

The Free Evangelical Congregation Im Spiet was established in the early 1950s. Her first domicile was a single-family house on Friesenstrasse. In the early 1980s, the community bought the former grocery store Panzlaff Im Spiet / Ecke Feldpfad and converted it into a community center. They form a close working group with the Free Christian Community (Friedensgemeinde) in Norddeich (now Tidofeld) and the Baptists on Osterstrasse. The cooperation takes place in different areas. In addition to non-denominational congregation instruction and an alpha course for seekers, joint evangelistic events are carried out.

The Northern Advent Church was dissolved in 2018. Its beginnings go back to the beginning of the 20th century. Their last community center was in a former restaurant building on Brauhausstrasse.

Other free churches are the Bible Congregation on Schulstrasse and the Philadelphia Community on Schulstrasse and the corner of Baumstrasse.

The New Apostolic Church had its community center on Knyphausenstrasse. It was closed in May 2015. The members of the former congregation were united with the New Apostolic parish Marienhafe .

The Jehovah's Witnesses maintain a Kingdom Hall in neighboring Lütetsburg .


Memorial Square of the Synagogue

The Jewish community existed for around 450 years from its beginnings in the 16th century to its end on April 7, 1942. The community also included the Jews on Norderney , who had their own synagogue from 1878, but their deceased continued to live in the Jewish cemetery in Buried north. The northern parish was the second oldest in East Frisia after the one in Emden.

Excluded and persecuted after 1933, many Jews emigrated. The synagogue of the Jewish community, built in 1804, was destroyed on November 9, 1938 . It is estimated that half of northern Jews perished in the Holocaust, the rest are scattered all over the world.

The memorial for the burned down synagogue on Synagogenweg and a memorial in the Jewish cemetery commemorate the Jewish community. The memorial on the site of the former synagogue was created in 1987 on the initiative of the Ecumenical Working Group on Synagogenweg . A central component of the small square is a fragment of the foundation wall of the old synagogue that was exposed in September 1985. The fragment of the wall located below street level is accessed via a multi-step, terraced staircase. A sign above the wall fragment explains its meaning. The synagogue square is rounded off by a memorial stone as a reminder and a warning. The facility was inaugurated on the occasion of the meeting week in 1987 in the presence of former Northern Jews and their relatives. The path previously known as Judenlohne was renamed Synagogenweg through the city . Other buildings of the old Jewish community center in the immediate vicinity of the former synagogue have been completely preserved.

Culture and sights

Churches and organs

Prospectus of the Arp Schnitger organ in the Ludgerikirche
Prospectus of the Rohlfs organ in the Baptist Church in Osterstrasse

The Ludgerikirche , the largest church in East Frisia, is located on the northern edge of the market square . Its construction began in 1235 with a simple Romanesque nave , a 38 meter long stone apse , which replaced the previous wooden church. Around 1318, instead of the apse, a 32-meter-long transept with three ribbed vaults was added. The bell tower , which, like in many East Frisian churches, stands free and was built in the north on the opposite side of the street, also dates from this time . After a thorough renovation of the transept in 1445, the imposing basilica high choir was completed around 1455 using large amounts of tufa . The rib vault rests on 13 round pillars. Ulrich Cirksena , whose coat of arms can be seen in the keystone of the choir vault at a height of 21 meters, made this extension possible, which was obviously modeled on the Martinikerk in Groningen , where the choir was built in 1452. Since then, the total length of the church has been 80 meters.

In addition to many cultural and art historical treasures, the Ludgeri Church houses the second largest preserved Arp Schnitger organ in Germany and the largest organ in East Frisia. Arp Schnitger built it in two construction phases 1686 to 1688 and 1691 to 1692 using eight stops from the previous organ. Schnitger solved the acoustic challenge of making the organ audible in the various parts of the church in a peculiar and ingenious way by installing the organ around the crossing pillar between the choir and the south part of the transept on a specially built gallery. The world-famous instrument has 3110 pipes, 46 registers , five works , three manuals and a pedal .

The choir stalls with their carved reliefs, the sacrament house made of Baumberger lime sandstone and the artistically carved canopy of the altar date from 1481 . The Protestant winged altar from 1582 has inscriptions with biblical words instead of images. The prince's chair has replaced the late Gothic stone rood screen since 1601 . In 1712 the organ builder Rudolf Garrels carved the baroque pulpit with its mighty sound cover.

The Mennonite Church in the north on the market square is one of the city's notable buildings. It is a former patrician house , built in 1662 , which is referred to in old sources as the Kettler house. The building came to the Mennonite congregation in 1795, who carried out extensive renovations inside. In the church there is a historically valuable ceiling painting.

In 1900 the Evangelical Free Church Christ Church on Osterstraße / Kleine Hinterlohne was built and inaugurated by the Baptists . A year later the congregation bought an organ that was built between 1796 and 1799 by the Esensian organ builder Johann Gottfried Rohlfs for the Mennonite congregation in the north and had it transferred to their church. It has eleven registers on two manuals and a pedal.

Secular buildings

The Otto von Bismarck statue on the market square.

The large market square in the center of the north has an area of ​​6,678 hectares, a population of trees, some of which are more than 250 years old, and is surrounded by numerous older buildings. On the south side of the market square is the ensemble of buildings known as the Dree Süsters (Three Sisters) . It consists of three gable -facing brick buildings from the Renaissance with very similarly designed facades. They were built around the year 1600. In the 1960s the right of the three houses had to give way to a parking lot, but was rebuilt in 1991 true to the original. At Markt 46 there is a house that used to belong to the Groenewold family of pharmacists. The late Gothic building was built around 1500 and redesigned in 1680. Another renovation took place in the 19th century. There is also a statue of Otto von Bismarck on the market square .

Deichmühle. In the background the Frisia mill
Schöningh's house
Westgaster Mill
Frisia mill

Another historical building is the old town hall on the west side of the market square with the Theelachtskammer , the administrative and issuing headquarters of the oldest cooperative association in Europe. The local history museum and the attached tea museum are located in the old town hall. Other sights are the Vossenhus (fox house) and the old post office (Hotel zur Post) on the east side of the market square. The city library is housed in the Vossenhuus. Behind the classicistic ashlar plaster from Markt 66 hides a building from the 16th century. The police station building , which dates from 1610, is also located on the market square.

Not far from there, Osterstraße , which opens into the eastern part of the market square, is one of the oldest settlement areas in the north. As one of the most important main shopping streets, however, it is subject to much greater pressure to change, so that only a few older residential buildings have been preserved there. The former Jerusalem inn (formerly Osterstrasse 1) with its curved gable had to give way to a bank building in 1962. One of the most impressive buildings on the street is the Schöningh House , a richly decorated Renaissance building from 1576. After the destruction of large parts of the city center of Emden in World War II, it is considered the most important representative of the Renaissance townhouses in East Frisia based on Dutch models . It has the typical Dutch “bacon layers”: The facade is made up of alternating layers of brick and light-colored sandstone layers. The much simpler house at Osterstrasse 157 also dates from this era . In the immediate vicinity is the Schwanen Pharmacy (No. 160) built in 1835 , a broad-based classicist building .

In the center of the north there is an ensemble of older and new buildings around the main office of the Sparkasse (Neuer Weg No. 67 to 82 and 45 to 48), which is an example of a good renovation and integration of houses into the old stock. The houses 45/47, 48 and 82 designed by the Lübeck architect Helmut Riemann have been awarded with architecture prizes. House number 71, the Samson warehouse, dates from the 16th century. The listed Gulf houses include the Löwenhaus on the outskirts and Kleinschulenburgerpolder 5 south of the city center.

There are still three historical windmills in the city: the Deichmühle , the Frisia-Mühle and the Westgaster Mühle . Deichmühle and Frisia-Mühle are only insignificantly apart and form an ensemble at the southern entrance to the north of the city. Two mills in such close proximity are hard to find even in the East Frisia region, which is rich in windmills. In the Leybuchtsiel hydraulic structure , a pumping station near the Leybucht , the drainage of the low-lying regions is clearly shown.


Sperm whale skeleton in the Waloseum

The Waloseum , a branch of the seal station, is located in the former coastal radio station in the Osterloog district . The focus is on the 15-meter-long and two-tonne skeleton of a sperm whale that stranded and perished in the mudflats between Norddeich and Norderney in 2003. The museum shows the history of the development of the sperm whales and explains the stranding of whales off the north coast as well as the interplay of ebb and flow . In addition, the Waloseum has seawater aquariums and an exhibition “Birdlife of the Coast”. Furthermore, you can examine the quarantines of the seal station as well as the feed kitchen and treatment room.

Old town hall with local history museum and East Frisian tea museum

The East Frisian Tea Museum provides an introduction to the history and significance of the East Frisian "national drink". It describes itself as the "first special museum on the cultural history of tea in Europe". The exhibition concept is nationally oriented and shows the production chain from cultivation of the tea plant to harvest and processing to the finished commercial product. Chinese tea china from sunken ships from several centuries is on display in one section. A local history museum for the city and the Norderland is connected, and the history of the Norder Doornkaat distillery is presented in a separate exhibition .

The Ostfriesland Museum Railway Coast Railway Association (MKO) operates a railway museum near the Norder Bahnhof, which is housed in a locomotive shed and on the outdoor area in front of it. A collection of historical vehicles, devices and other railway objects is presented. In the summer season, the MKO offers trips from north to Dornum on the route of the former East Frisian Coast Railway . The club's own historical rolling stock is used.

Seal in the aquarium of the hatchery

The National Park House seal station has found its home in the Norddeich district. The seal station was founded in 1971, and the National Park Center was added in 1993. The two institutions have been organizationally merged since 2006. The focus of the exhibition is on harbor seals , gray seals and the other marine mammals in the Wadden Sea. In addition, the biodiversity of the Wadden Sea is shown. Visitors can watch sick or motherless mammals being cared for. Up to 250,000 visitors visit the facility annually.

In the radio technology museum Norddeich Radio in the north of the city center technical and other pieces of equipment of the former coastal radio station Norddeich Radio can be seen. The museum also reports on the history of the radio station. The museum is housed in the rooms of the local group of the DARC . The German Society for the Rescue of Shipwrecked People maintains an old rescue shed at Norddeicher Hafen, in which exhibits from the history of sea rescue are shown. Film screenings are part of the program. In the Kunsthaus Norden , a monument from the 16th century with a newer facade from 1812, changing art exhibitions take place. The northern museum landscape is rounded off by an automobile and toy museum in Lintelermarsch as well as the Norddeich Radio museum located in Osterstraße . The mussel and snail museum with more than 1000 different exhibits is housed in the Frisia mill . In the same mill there is also an exhibition of old machines and tools from the bakery trade.

A documentation center on flight and expulsion after the Second World War is located in the profaned Tidofeld Church . The patronage of this center is the former Prime Minister of Lower Saxony, David McAllister .

sport and freetime

The city ​​library is housed in Vossenhus from the mid-19th century

Among the Norder associations that are dedicated to cultural work are the Norder Männergesangverein (founded in 1857), the Norder Stadtorchester and the Niederdeutsche Bühne Norden. The city of the north does not have its own theater building, but in 1968 it set up a theater hall with 500 (fixed) seats in the rooms of the school center in the Ekel district. It was renovated in 1993. The North City Library has around 25,000 volumes.

The Turnverein (TV) Norden has a large athletics department and has provided a large number of titleholders in northern German and German championships over the past few decades. The Tanzsportclub (TSC) Norden, which is represented with its three Latin formations at national championships, takes part with the A formation in the Regionalliga Nord, while the B formation and C formation dance in the Oberliga and the regional league.

After playing in the then fifth highest league, the Landesliga, in the 1980s and 1990s, the soccer team of FC Norden now only plays in the Ostfriesland district league. The club with the largest number of members in the city is Süderneulander SV. In order to concentrate youth work in the city, the clubs founded the youth football club (JFV) Norden. This plays in the youth leagues at district to state level. In adulthood, the youth players return to their respective clubs - if they want. The youth national player Lennart Thy , who has switched to SV Werder Bremen, has emerged from the youth work of the JFV in recent years .

Also to be mentioned are the Boxing Club Norden, the Motorsportclub Norden, which maintains its Motodrom in the neighboring half moon , as well as a number of Boßel and Klootschießer clubs.

The former Waterkant house , now Meta's music shed in 2010

The clubs have their own sports fields. The central sports field where FC Norden and JFV Norden play football is Jahnplatz . In addition to sports halls, which are sponsored by the city and the district, there is also a Norder TV gymnasium. There are two tennis facilities in the city, a municipal indoor swimming pool, a municipal outdoor swimming pool (located outside the dike) in Norddeich and the privately operated Ocean Wave adventure pool .

In the 1960s Meta Rogall was a pioneer of beat music in East Friesland. From 1961 onwards, bands from Great Britain , the Netherlands and Germany performed in their house Waterkant , including Otto Waalkes with his beat band The Rustlers . In later years Otto was a DJ at Haus Waterkant for a short time . While Rogall was denied official recognition for her work for a long time, there are now books, the musical Meta, Norddeich by the Landesbühne Niedersachsen Nord and a DVD-Video documentation from the Medienzentrum Norden about her life. The discotheque, known beyond East Friesland, still exists today under the current name Meta's Musikschuppen (original spelling).


Mini-church, built by apprentices from BBS Norden

The history of the northern school system goes back to the beginning of the 16th century. Over the centuries, the north has developed into an important educational center in the Aurich district.

In the north there is a high school and the Ulrichsgymnasium . Two primary schools, the Linteler Schule and the school in Spiet , are located in the city center, as is the Wiesenweg primary school. Further primary schools can be found in the districts of Norddeich, Süderneuland I and Leybuchtpolder. Two special schools and the vocational schools (BBS) complete the school offer. The Aurich district is responsible for the grammar school and the BBS, and the city for the other schools.

The vocational schools have had the new name Conerus School North since spring 2009 . From the 2009/2010 school year, a branch of the Cooperative Comprehensive School (KGS) Hage started teaching in the premises of the Wildbahn School Center.

In the north there is a district adult education center, which has its center on the east side of the north market square. The city is one of the two locations of the Aurich district music school. The music school is located in the rooms of the former Countess Theda School in Gartenstrasse.

Economy and Infrastructure

Norddeich ferry port with the
Frisia I car ferry in the foreground
View to Norderney, from the Norddeicher pier, across the fairway, at high tide
Fishing boats in the port of Norddeich

The predominant economic sectors are tourism and retail.

Service and production

The largest employer is the district's own Ubbo Emmius Clinic with 650 employees. The larger employers with a three-digit number of employees include the city administration with the municipal subsidiary Wirtschaftsbetriebe der Stadt Norden , the printing and publishing house SKN , the Glave Group with the stainless steel processor Norder Bandstahl , Doepke Schaltgeräte GmbH and the construction company Tell . In addition, there are mechanical engineering, metal processing, construction companies, a refrigeration technology manufacturer and one of the three East Frisian tea houses, Onno Behrends , from the manufacturing sector .

Most of the larger companies are concentrated in an industrial area in the Neustadt district to the northwest of the city center and in particular in the Leegemoor industrial area , which is located in the southern district of Süderneuland I and covers around 154 hectares. The companies there employ around 2000 people. The area is located at the southern end of the city, so it is most conveniently located via the B 72 and (from Georgsheil ) the B 210 to the A 31 in Emden. The retail trade is concentrated in the Neustadt industrial park and in the city center around the pedestrian zone on Neuer Weg .


The history of tourism in Norden-Norddeich goes back to the 1880s. A bathing life can be proven for Norddeich from 1882. Until the First World War, the Norder Badegesellschaft , the Norddeicher Seebad-Verein and the Norder Kurverein were active as tourism promoters . The war as well as the economic problems of the post-war years led to a sharp decline in Norddeicher bathing life. The north-north dike Kurverein , which was newly established on May 26, 1925, was able to slow this development down. For 1926 it was reported that “every guest room was occupied”. The Frisia ferry company, founded in 1917, whose origins go back to 1871, expanded its fleet significantly in the years that followed.

To this day, tourism plays a major role in economic life in the north, both in the hotel and catering industry, in services such as ferry and flight operations to Juist and Norderney, and indirectly, such as in retail. While Norden-Norddeich recorded just under 113,000 in 1995, in 2015 there were already more than 2.6 million day visitors who brought the city at least 1.6 million overnight stays. The focus of the overnight stays is the district of Norddeich, which is officially known as the “state-approved North Sea spa”. In addition to hotels and pensions, there is also a youth hostel and a campsite . Accommodation options can also be found in large numbers in the city center, as well as on farms in all other districts.


Agriculture not only plays a role in terms of the area share, but also as a labor market factor. In addition to the farms, many service providers for agriculture are located in the north. In the Norddeicher fishing port, fishermen are represented with their cutters.

Wind farm in the northern part of the city near Lintelermarsch

Due to the coastal location with steady and strong winds, the sparsely populated outer areas of the city are particularly suitable for the use of wind energy . Accordingly, there are two larger wind farms in the northern urban area (in the northern urban area on the border with the municipality of Lütetsburg and in the Westermarsch II district) as well as a large number of individual wind turbines .

Economic problems

After the spirits manufacturer Doornkaat , which was founded in Norden, ran into economic difficulties in the 1970s and 1980s (and after the takeover by Berentzen is now distilled in Haselünne ) and a factory of the office machine manufacturer Olympia in the Tidofeld district was closed, the city ran into economic difficulties. The unemployment rate in the mid-1980s was in some cases well over 20 percent. Despite some efforts in the tourism sector and the success of individual local companies, the city has not been able to fully compensate for the general decline in employment in agriculture due to mechanization and increased productivity, as well as the two setbacks in the industrial sector. The unemployment rate in the area of ​​the Norden branch (Norden, Hage, Großheide, Dornum, Brookmerland) is the highest annual average within the Emden district and is consistently higher than ten percent, in winter around 15 percent. Due to the great importance of tourism for the job market in (and around) the north, it is subject to significant seasonal fluctuations. As a consequence of the high unemployment rate, the number of people living below the poverty line is also above average in the north. As of October 2017, 16.1% of residents were receiving benefits under Book Two of the Social Code . For residents under the age of 18, this figure is 23.3%.

Compared to the surrounding communities, the north has a commuter surplus . However, many northerners are also employed beyond the city limits, especially at the Volkswagen plant in Emden .

Public facilities

The North Police Department is located in a building from 1610

In the north is the seat of the Lower Saxony State Office for Water Management, Coastal and Nature Conservation (NLWKN). There is also an NLWKN office in the city. The city's headquarters and operations together employ 210 people.

The north dike and the north drainage association (managed in personal union) are also based in the city. The north dike is responsible for most of the sea dike in the city. A smaller part, the Störtebekerdeich in the Leybuchtpolder district, is looked after by the neighboring Krummhörn dike . In the east, the association area extends into the municipality of Dornum . The dyke is responsible for maintaining around 30 kilometers of sea dykes. The north drainage association is responsible for draining the low-lying areas behind the dike.

In the north there is a police station which is affiliated with the police station in Aurich. It is responsible for the area of ​​the old district of the north . The North District Court is responsible for the city, the islands of Juist, Norderney and Baltrum as well as the (velvet) communities of Hage, Brookmerland, Großheide and Dornum. The same area of ​​responsibility applies to the Norder tax office. In the city there is also an office of the employment agency (district Emden), which looks after the city of Norden, the island community of Baltrum and the (velvet) communities of Hage, Brookmerland, Großheide and Dornum. Norden is the seat of the Lutheran parish office of the parish north.

The Aurich district administration operates a branch in the north, which offers frequently requested services of the district (vehicle registration, social affairs, etc.). This is done to save citizens from the north and the surrounding area having to go to Aurich for everyday official business.

The North Voluntary Fire Brigade is a priority fire brigade . The fire brigade is divided into four trains, the first three of which are in the north. The fourth is stationed in Leybuchtpolder. Two vehicles of the federal disaster control are stationed in the north, the fleet comprises a total of 16 vehicles. Since May 31, 2009, the fire brigade and THW have been located in the new help center (HLZ) at Osterstrasse 93 near Bundesstrasse 72 (bypass).


Road traffic

Northern transport network
The end of the federal highway 72 directly at the ferry terminal

The B 72 begins in Schneiderkrug in the Cloppenburg district and ends at the ferry terminal in Norddeich. It connects the city north with the next traffic junction in Georgsheil , where it meets the B 210 . This in turn leads to Emden, from where there is a connection to the A31 . The distance between the north and the Emden-Mitte junction of the A 31 is around 25 kilometers. For decades, the federal road ran through the northern city center (Norddeicher Strasse, Burggraben, Bahnhofstrasse), which caused considerable traffic congestion, especially in the summer months due to the tourist traffic from and to Norddeich Mole. Since July 2009, the B 72 has been running from the southern outskirts of the city to the ferry terminal in Norddeich via a new non-cultivation bypass route to the east of the city. Traffic-calming measures, such as the construction of roundabouts or the “abolition” of the moat as a one-way street, were implemented in the inner city area. A previously planned extension of the A 31 from the Emden / Riepe area to Norddeich was not built.

From the north of four state roads , two each lead south and east. The L 4 begins on the B 72 in the Süderneuland district and leads via Eilsum to Pewsum in the neighboring municipality of Krummhörn to the south. The L 27 begins at the southern entrance to Norddeich and leads past Norder Markt via Westermarsch and Neuwesteel south to Greetsiel . The L 5 begins at the same point and leads eastwards crossing the B 72 via Ostermarsch , Neßmersiel , Dornumersiel and Bensersiel to Neuharlingersiel , almost always within sight of the sea dike. The L 6 begins at a roundabout of the B 72 on the border with Lütetsburg and continues to connect the city with Hage , Westerholt , Esens , Neuharlingersiel and Carolinensiel , where it ends. Because of its extremely traffic-calmed streets through Hage, the through traffic is routed via a bypass without any cultivation.

The public transport is buses of Verkehrsverbund Ems-Jade ensured that almost all the central bus station (ZOB) approach at the station north. One main line operates as a service bus from the compact city center to the ferry terminal in Norddeich, others to Greetsiel and Pewsum in the neighboring municipality of Krummhörn to the south and to Esens and Carolinensiel. The most frequented main line leads to Georgsheil with the option of continuing to Aurich or Emden. Furthermore, some branch lines essentially only function as school buses.

Rail transport

North station
Historic locomotive shed on the station premises

The north lies on the Emsland route , which leads from Rheine to Norddeich Mole , as well as on the partially disused Ostfriesland coastal railway to Dornum .

There are three stations in the city that are still used for rail transport. Two of them are long-distance train stations of Deutsche Bahn : Norden and Norddeich with the Norddeich Mole station track . Ferries to the East Frisian islands Juist and Norderney can be reached directly from the latter . The Norddeich Mole platform was renovated in 2013, while the Norddeich train station, only a few meters away, was rebuilt. The aforementioned museum railway to Dornum operates the Norden-KOF station .

Intercity trains run daily on line 35 in the direction of Koblenz via Münster , the Ruhr area and Cologne, and on line 56 to Berlin / Cottbus or Leipzig (via Bremen and Hanover ). There is no surcharge between Norddeich and Leer / Bremen. Regional connections exist via Oldenburg and Bremen to Hanover. Regional trains in the direction of Münster do not begin until Emden. The electrified railway Norddeich-Emden is single track in Marienhafe and Abelitz exist sidings .

Until the mid-1980s, the Norder Bahnhof was a railway hub on the north-west German coast. Up until the 1950s, Norden was the location of a railway depot, which included a four-person roundhouse that still exists and is used, among other things, as a railway museum. A water tower was blown up in 1984. The goods handling building was demolished in the course of the construction of the new train station at the beginning of the 2000s, like the former reception building - except for a few technical systems.

The decline of the north railway junction reached its preliminary climax on May 28, 1983 after the closure of the depot and the cessation of passenger traffic between the north and Esens on the East Frisian coastal railway: Until then, the north station was still the starting point for trains traveling on the coastal railway via Esens Sande, it then became a mere transit station between Emden and Norddeich. The section between Dornum and Esens was dismantled and used as a cycle path . Passenger traffic between the north and Esens is now served exclusively by buses. Up until 1989, the north – Dornum line was occasionally used by freight trains, after which the line was sold to the neighboring communities.

The neighboring municipalities of the coastal railway are currently considering reactivating them again for regular passenger traffic.

The timetable change on May 28, 1983 also sealed the final end of the Norden Stadt stop , also known as Lüttje Bahnhof in northern vernacular : the station located on Osterstraße was formally recorded in the timetables of the Emsland route until then, but had been there since No train stopped in the early 1970s.

As a result of these developments, the importance of the old Norder Bahnhof declined. Under the project name Zukunftsbahnhof , the construction of a modern railway station and a central bus station in front of it was started as part of a fundamental urban renewal of the southern outskirts of the city in the mid-2000s on the site of the former northern freight processing facility in the direction of the city center. In this context, a new station building was built.

The dilapidated old station building, located further south, was given up with the inauguration of the new station facilities, but remained in place for several years as important railway facilities were still located here. After years of vacancy without being used, it gradually degenerated into an unsightly ruin, was finally demolished and replaced by a new commercial property. A signal box, which is also located in the southern area of ​​the Norder Bahnhof, was sold to a private buyer and is currently being renovated again.

Air traffic

The Norden-Norddeich airfield is a special airfield , four kilometers north of the city center. From there, FLN Frisia-Luftverkehr flies to the East Frisian Islands and the Helgoland-Düne airport .


Passenger ferry Frisia II on the way from Norddeich Mole to Juist

Norddeicher Hafen is the ferry port to the islands of Juist and Norderney. A new ferry terminal was inaugurated on August 1, 2009. There is also excursion traffic to the East Frisian Islands (with the exception of Wangerooges ) and the Wadden Sea. The Norderney-based AG Reederei Norden-Frisia takes over the ferry operation . In the eastern part of the port area, next to the yacht and sport boat port, there is the Norddeicher fishing port, which is home to shrimp cutters. The fairway in the direction of the islands is bordered several hundred meters into the Wadden Sea by guide dams before sufficiently deep fairway is reached north of the Jantjemoeplate .

Norddeich is the seat of a rescue station of the German Society for Rescue of Shipwrecked People (DGzRS), which has stationed the sea rescue boat Cassen Knigge here.


The leading daily newspaper in the north is the Ostfriesische Kurier , published by Soltau-Kurier Norden (SKN). In addition, there is a branch of the Emden / Norden district editorial office of the Ostfriesen-Zeitung in the north . The Ostfriesland Magazin is also published monthly by the SKN publishing house . The editorial office is in the north. The publisher also publishes regional literature and telephone books.

The German Telekom is in the north with a submarine cable represented -Endstelle lead from which submarine cable in the world, including the TAT-14 to New Jersey , USA , and the SEA-ME-WE 3 , which Germany via the North Sea , the Atlantic and the Mediterranean connects with Asia and Australia. This makes it an important intercontinental communication relay for telephone and Internet in Germany and is considered by US security authorities to be important for the national security of the USA. Due to its reference technology, the Competence Center Submarine Cables North (CCSC) is also the technology leader , advice center and task force in the fiber- optic backbone of Deutsche Telekom.

The coastal radio station Norddeich Radio was located in Utlandshörn in the Westermarsch II district . The complex, which was last used as a Telekom call center, was to be used briefly for tourist purposes (soccer golf, etc.) and has served as emergency accommodation for up to 200 refugees since October 2015.

Since April 30, 2014, “Radio Nordseewelle” has been broadcasting its programs as a commercial local radio station for East Friesland from a studio on the east side of the north market square. The transmitter can be received on the VHF frequency 88.2 MHz in the northern part of the city. The North German Broadcasting Corporation (Hamburg) as well as the private commercial providers radio ffn, Antenne Niedersachsen (both Hanover) and Radio 21 (Garbsen) consider the city of Norden to be part of their broadcasting area as further broadcasting stations. In addition, radio Ostfriesland (Leer), a non-commercial local station, can be heard in Norden.


Hermann Conring

At the beginning of the modern era, two personalities appear who were born in the north and / or who worked there. Hermann Conring (* 1606 in Norden; † 1681 in Helmstedt ), was a polymath , personal physician to Queen Christina of Sweden , Danish State Councilor and head of the Bremen-Verdean archive in Stade . Ubbo Emmius , theologian , historian , educator and founding rector of the University of Groningen , was born in neighboring Greetsiel in 1547 , received part of his training in Norden and later worked there as the rector of the Latin school for nine years before leaving the city. He died in Groningen in 1625.

The teacher and poet Recha Freier , born in Norden in 1892, was a German- Jewish resistance fighter against National Socialism . In 1933 she founded the Aid Committee for Jewish Youth , the so-called Child and Youth Aliyah . Freier died in Jerusalem in 1984 . The surveyor Walter Grossmann was born in 1897 in the north.

Several former federal and state politicians of the SPD also come from the north and / or had temporarily lived and worked there. These include the former member of the Bundestag Johann Cramer (* 1905 in Norden; † 1987 in Wilhelmshaven ), who was chairman of the Bundestag committee for postal and telecommunications during the first legislative period (1949–1953). Georg Peters (* 1908 in Marienhafe; † 1992 in Norden) was a member of the Bundestag in his constituency for more than three decades. At the same time he was district administrator of the former district of Norden and in this capacity in 1972 chairman of the founding committee of the German North Sea Coast Protection Association. His successor as district administrator, Hinrich Swieter (* 1939 in Grimersum ; † 2002 in Norden), was also a member of the Lower Saxony state parliament for 16 years and state finance minister from 1990 to 1996 . The former member of the Bundestag Jann-Peter Janssen is also a native of Northern Germany. As a further north, Hans Forster belonged to the German Bundestag from 1998 to 2002 and in 2005 as a social democratic member. The current member of the state parliament for the Emden / Norden constituency is Hans-Dieter Haase, who was born in 1955 in Norden and lives in Emden .


  • Gerhard Canzler: Old North . H. Risius KG, Weener 1997, ISBN 3-88761-062-8 .
  • Ufke Cremer , Johann Haddinga : North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 .
    The volume consists of two works: on the one hand the unchanged reprint of the city chronicle by Ufke Cremer from 1955, on the other hand from the northern city chronicle of the 20th century from the pen of Johann Haddinga. The first part is supplemented by notes in those cases in which the status of 1955 has been considered obsolete by recent research.
  • Johann Aeils, Jan Smidt, Martin Stromann: Stone witnesses tell history. In search of traces of architectural treasures from northern building history. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-47-X .
    This work describes Northern architectural treasures from several centuries. Photos by Martin Stromann complete the book.
  • Johann Haddinga , Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself . Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 .
    Overview of the city of the north with (current) information on the city's history and sights. Most of the volume also contains translations into English and is extensively illustrated by Martin Stromann.
  • Johann Haddinga : Turbulent times in the north. History in the mirror from 1914–1918. Volume XXIII in the library series Ostfriesland. Norden 2010, ISBN 978-3-939870-85-2
    The extensively illustrated book describes the history of the north of the city in the first half of the 20th century. The focus is, among other things, on the time of National Socialism and the reorganization after 1945; here the situation of the refugees takes up a large part.

Web links

Commons : North  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019  ( help ).
  2. a b Ostfriesischer Kurier from June 25, 2010, pages 1 and 3
  3. a b Norden-Norddeich - now “Nordseeheilbad” ( Memento from May 21, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) List of organs between the Elbe and Weser (PDF file; 11 kB), accessed on September 30, 2012.
  4. Numbers and data
  5. National Park Nds. Wadden Sea on
  6. ^ Ordinance on the regional spatial planning program at
  7. a b Tourism on the East Frisian Islands (PDF; 30.8 kB) Chamber of Commerce and Industry for East Frisia and Papenburg. Retrieved February 3, 2016.
  8. Verena Leidig: Exceeded 6 million euros for the first time . Spa administration balance sheet: Norderney gained around 3.9 percent in overnight stays in 2014. The number of day visitors also increased. In: Norderneyer morning . No. 19 , 23 January 2010, p. 3 ( online edition PDF; 912 KB).
  9. ^ Eberhard Rack: Kleine Landeskunde Ostfriesland, Isensee Verlag, Oldenburg 1998, p. 94
  10. The Leyhörn was diked in on the Leybucht in the 1990s . However, it is an uninhabited nature reserve and the extension of the fairway protected by dykes and locks into Greetsieler Hafen. In the course of the construction of the JadeWeserPort in Wilhelmshaven , 360 hectares of land are currently being flushed out, so that the port area in Wilhelmshaven would generally be the youngest land. See JadeWeserPort - Modern Land Reclamation ( Memento from February 3, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF file) on the homepage However, the port area will not be diked. In addition, it is used by humans, but not populated.
  11. Numbers and dates . City north. June 30, 2009. Retrieved December 20, 2009.
  12. City of the North: Population numbers by district (as of December 31, 2009)
  13. a b Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 30.
  14. ^ A b Ostfriesische Fundchronik - Emder Jahrbuch Vol. 77, 1997 , accessed on January 1, 2010
  15. O. von Heinemann: The Kingdom of Hanover and the Duchy of Braunschweig: depicted in picturesque original views of their most interesting areas, strangest cities, seaside resorts, churches, castles and other monuments of old and new times , Vol. 2, Darmstadt 1858, p. 718 f. with the wrong year 884. The mention was borrowed from the histories of Nithard ; the faulty one on the north probably comes from the Danish historian Jacob Langebek, Scriptores rerum Danicarum medii aevi: partim hactenus inedit . Copenhagen 1772, p. 524 (note).
  16. Manfred Niemeyer, German book of local names , 2012, p. 456.
  17. ^ Norden (2007) , accessed on January 1, 2010
  18. ^ Norden (2007) viewed on January 7, 2010
  19. ^ Hajo van Lengen : History of the Emsigerland: from the early 13th to the late 15th century , 1973, p. 13
  20. Herbert Obenaus (Ed.): Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen . Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-753-5 , p. 1122.
  21. Thus writes the book author and local historian Johann Haddinga: "In the assessment of everyday practice, specifically: the relationships and entanglements between the up-and-coming regional center of the north and the whole of the north, the historians' opinions and theses do not clearly coincide." In: Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 37.
  22. ^ The Norder Treaty 1255 , original text with translation by Gerd Dickers, Norden (PDF 73 kB)
  23. This is how the author and local historian Ufke Cremer judged: In: Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: Norden. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , Part I, p. 85.
  24. Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , Part II, p. 8
  25. "Leybuchtsiel" building
  26. Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself . Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 46.
  27. ^ This is the verdict of the book author and local homeland researcher Johann Haddinga in: Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself . Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 46.
  28. ^ Dietrich Janßen: September 6, 1844: Emden goes under. Destruction and end of the war 1944/1945 . Wartberg Verlag, Gudensberg-Gleichen 2004, ISBN 3-8313-1411-X , pp. 24-26.
  29. Information on the Gnadenkirche Tidofeld website (as of December 14, 2009).
  30. Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , p. 46
  31. Helmut Fischer: Land for workers who created it. In: Ostfriesischer Kurier , January 8, 2009, page 6
  32. Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , p. 85
  33. - Idea: Central Clinic in Georgsheil , accessed on October 30, 2013
  34. Emder Zeitung of June 11, 2017
  35. Emder Zeitung of May 26, 2019
  36. 1652.522.1 & sub = 0 Tidofeld district
  37. a b Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality register for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer GmbH, Stuttgart and Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 264 .
  38. ^ Herbert Obenaus (Ed.): Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen . Wallstein, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-89244-753-5 , p. 1122 (population up to 1939).
  39. Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , Part I, p. 90
  40. The population figures from 1977, 1980 and 1990 are based on the information provided by Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. norden.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  41. The local homeland researcher and author Johann Haddinga writes: It is unclear how the name Norden came about. Because the place was originally in Federgau, it cannot be derived from the Gau Nordendi to the east and is therefore probably an independent name according to the direction of the compass. All attempts at interpretation have so far not produced a clear result. In: Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 35.
  42. See Johann Haddinga: Zero Hour. 1944-1948. East Friesland's hardest years. Norden 1988, ISBN 3-922365-76-0 , p. 100 f.
  43. ↑ The reason for Schöneberg's dismissal was the charge that he had made false statements about his membership in National Socialist organizations. This accusation was later refuted, which led to Schöneberg's rehabilitation.
  44. ^ Johann Haddinga: Das Jahr-100 im Kurier (special print Ostfriesischer Kurier ), Norden 1999, section 1945–1960, p. 47 (Nordens first city director: Falscher Doktor)
  45. ^ Inge Lüpke-Müller: East Frisia. A region in political upheaval. The democratization process in East Frisia after World War II , Aurich 1998, p. 344
  46. ^ Johann Haddinga: Ostfriesland - the way into the fifties , part 2, in: Ostfriesischer Kurier from 21./22. January 1989, p. 13
  47. Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: North. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , p. 72
  48. This expression was used by the author and local researcher Johann Haddinga in: Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: Norden. The city chronicle. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-46-1 , p. 101
  49. ^ Atlas of the Lower Saxony state elections 2013 , accessed on December 28, 2016.
  50. a b c Local election results North 2016 , accessed on December 28, 2016.
  51. ^ City of North: Composition of the Council of City of North (group / parliamentary groups) , accessed on December 28, 2016.
  52. The CDU gets the most votes nationwide. September 12, 2016, accessed December 27, 2016 .
  53. Overall result of the runoff election for mayor in the city of Norden on June 15, 2014 , accessed on October 25, 2014
  54. KDO - runoff election for mayor September 25, 2016: Preliminary overall result. In: September 25, 2016. Retrieved September 25, 2016 .
  55. ^ City of the North - The Mayoress: Predecessor in office. In: Retrieved September 25, 2016 .
  56. ^ Nordwest-Zeitung: Bundestag election: These members represent our region . In: NWZonline . ( [accessed September 29, 2017]).
  57. www.staedtepart ( Memento from January 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive )
  58. Sister Cities
  59. town twinning
  60. arms of the city north
  61. Statistics ( memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), viewed September 30, 2012.
  62. See for example: Team “Timeline” in the Church working group for the anniversary 750 Years North (Ed.): With God through time. North Church History , North 2008
  63. ^ Hajo van Lengen: Ostfriesland: History and shape of a cultural landscape , Aurich 1995, p. 220
  64. ^ "Timeline" team in the Church working group on the 750th anniversary of the North (ed.): With God through time. North Church History , North 2008, panels 14 and 15
  65. ^ "Timeline" team in the Church working group on the 750th anniversary of the North (ed.): With God through time. Norder Church History , North 2008, Plate 17
  66. Our churches. In: Retrieved December 29, 2017.
  67. Homepage of the Leybucht Church , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  68. Heinz Foraita: The times are yours, Lord. The history of the North Catholic Congregation. Published for the 100th anniversary of St. Ludgerus Church to the north . Norden 1985, p. 19.
  69. See also Ufke Cremer, Johann Haddinga: Norden. The city chronicle. 2001, p. 80 f.
  70. ^ Parish of St. Ludgerus in Norden , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  71. ^ Homepage of the East Frisian Community Association : Watt'n District ; accessed on December 29, 2017.
  72. Diether Götz Lichdi: The Mennonites in the past and present. From the Anabaptist movement to the worldwide free church. 2004, p. 120.
  73. Norden , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  74. ^ Homepage of the Free Christian Community / Friedensgemeinde Norddeich ; accessed on December 29, 2017.
  75. Free Evangelical Congregation North , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  76. ^ Menno Smid: Ostfriesische Kirchengeschichte , Krummhörn 1974 (edited by Jannes Ohling), p. 551.
  77. Homepage of the North Bible Congregation ; accessed on December 29, 2017.
  78. ^ Homepage of the Philadelphia Community North , accessed December 29, 2017.
  79. ^ NAK: community Marienhafe-Norden ; accessed on December 29, 2017.
  80. ^ Ostfriesische Landschaft: Fundchronik 1985 , accessed on January 1, 2010
  81. 1652.82.1 & sub = 0 A Week of Encounters , accessed on January 1, 2010
  82. For the building history, see the website of the parish (as of December 13, 2009).
  83. Detailed building history and description in Robert Noah: God's houses in Ostfriesland . Soltau-Kurier, Norden 1989, ISBN 3-922365-80-9 , p. 81-87 .
  84. ^ Hermann Haiduck: The architecture of the medieval churches in the East Frisian coastal area . Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1986, ISBN 3-925365-07-9 , p. 155-156 .
  85. Norder Schnitger organ on NOMINE (as of December 13, 2009).
  86. Gottfried Kiesow : Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz , Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 268, 271-272 .
  87. ( chronicle in the section about us ... ) (seen December 13, 2009).
  88. ^ Kurt Asche: Town houses in East Friesland. Verlag Soltau Kurier, Norden 1992, p. 17 f.
  89. See: Aelis / Smidt / Stromann: Stone witnesses tell history. Norden 2001, page 78, as well as: Adolf Sanders: Our city behind the dike. Norden and its surroundings , Norden 1988, page 18. There is also a photo from 1908. The building was probably from the 16th century.
  90. Gottfried Kiesow : Architectural Guide Ostfriesland . Verlag Deutsche Stiftung Denkmalschutz , Bonn 2010, ISBN 978-3-86795-021-3 , p. 275.
  91. See: Aelis / Smidt / Stromann: Stone witnesses tell history. Norden 2001, illustration on page 79
  92. Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself. Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 80.
  93. Overview on the website of the architect
  94. Waloseum , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  95. North Tea Museum , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  96. Website of the National Park House Seal Station , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  97. ^ Website of the Auto-Museum , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  98. ^ Website of the Museum Norddeich Radio , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  99. Muschel- und Schnecken-Museums ( Memento from December 29, 2017 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on December 29, 2017.
  100. Overview on Museums , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  101. See the main article on the Tidofeld refugee camp
  102. from the recent past are about the Sprinter Siewert Andre (now Hamburg SV) , the runners Waltraud Klostermann and Oliver Nauer man , the high jumper Mareike Blum (PDF, 1.0 MB) and the decathlete Paul Thieleke small and the four-way battle squadron to call.
  103. Medienzentrum Norden: Meta-Doku - Medienzentrum Norden starts local project "Meta-Doku" ( Memento from January 9, 2010 in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved November 15, 2018.
  104. ^ Medienzentrum Norden: DVD Meta ... memory is alive published ( Memento from May 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). Accessed on November 15, 2018.
  105. ^ Gerhard Canzler: The Norder Schools , Weener 2005
  106. 750 Years of the North 1255–2005: History of the North Schools
  107. Schools
  108. Ubbo-Emmius-Klinik - North location - , accessed on November 15, 2018.
  109. Overview of the number of employees in the Glave Group ( Memento from November 3, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
  110. Commercial Leegmoor
  111. ^ Johann Haddinga: Summer at the sea. Bathing life in Norden-Norddeich , Norden 2007
  112. Johann Haddinga, Martin Stromann: Norden / Norddeich - An East Frisian coastal town introduces itself . Verlag SKN, Norden 2001, ISBN 3-928327-43-7 , p. 52.
  113. , accessed on February 3, 2016.
  114. Ostfriesischer Kurier of February 17, 2018 on Hartz IV: North strongly affected ( Memento of February 17, 2018 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on February 17, 2018.
  115. ^ Ostfriesen-Zeitung of January 27, 2010: Norder authority is on the brink , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  116. ^ Website of the North Fire Brigade: Vehicles , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  117. ^ Website of the north fire brigade: locations , accessed on December 29, 2017.
  118. 53 ° 36 '26.2 "  N , 7 ° 15' 10.1"  E
  119. Reactivation of the north-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: potential assessment (PDF; 4.0 MB), accessed on December 17, 2009
  120. Reactivation of the north-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: Needs for route expansion north-Dornum (PDF; 3.8 MB), accessed on December 17, 2009
  121. Reactivation of the north-Esens-Wilhelmshaven rail link: Example of a roundabout crossing (PDF; 2.3 MB), accessed on December 17, 2009
  122. The new ferry terminal in Norddeich , supplement to the Ostfriesischer Kurier of August 1, 2009, in Norderney-Chronik (PDF 24.9 MB), accessed on November 15, 2018.
  123. Timetables shipping company Norden-Frisia, accessed on November 15, 2018.
  124. Undersea cable SEA-ME-WE 3
  125. Sebastian Bronst, Eric Piermont: BACKGROUND: Submarine cables in the sights of the secret services ( Memento from June 29, 2013 in the web archive )
  126. North allegedly a terrorist target. Wikileaks presents again secret material Nordwest-Zeitung Online (dpa), 7 December 2010
  127. Reference ID 09STATE15113 Wikileaks
  128. First redirect, then repair. How cable defects are managed as seen September 30, 2012.
  129. Refugees reach emergency accommodation Utlandshörn Regionalblog NOR-A, October 27, 2015
This article was added to the list of excellent articles on January 14, 2010 in this version .