|Coordinates: 53 ° 28 ′ 37 ″ N , 7 ° 10 ′ 21 ″ E|
|Height :||3.80 m above sea level NN|
|Area :||16.13 km²|
|Residents :||577 (December 31, 2012)|
|Population density :||36 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||July 1, 1972|
|Postal code :||26736|
|Area code :||04920|
Card of the Krummhörn
Grimersum is located in the northeast of today's municipality of Krummhörn in western East Frisia, about 12.5 kilometers northwest of Emden .
The place - like the nearby Groothusen - is one of the longwurt villages that were created in the early Middle Ages ( 8th century ) on the shores of inlets and bays as trading centers for the extensive sea trade Frisian peasant merchants . The terp village is characterized by its old church .
Grimersum is 12.5 kilometers north-north-west of the city center of Emden and about 6.5 kilometers north-east of the Krummhorn capital, Pewsum .
Several places to live belong to Grimersum, but they have never been politically or ecclesiastically independent. First and foremost, Schoonorth should be mentioned, which makes up the entire northern part of the Grimersums district. A small part of Schoonorths (east of the state road) belongs to the Krummhörn neighboring community of Osteel in the Samtgemeinde Brookmerland , the much larger part of the Krummhörn. The Grimersumer Altendeich settlement is also located north of the town center on the dike with which part of the Leybucht was wrested from the sea from 1495 . After further polders were dyed, the dyke was settled, the settlement is accordingly slightly higher than the surrounding land. The Hagenpolder joins Schoonorth to the west. The Grimersumer Vorwerk is just as much a separate courtyard as the following ones, where the year of the first name is mentioned: Rothe Scheune (1735), Friedrichshof (1823), Angernheim (1824), Elisenfeld (1852).
Between Wirdum are Grimersum and in the march two only 75 meters apart applied Wurten of roundish oval shape, to 3.5 or 4.7 m above sea level. NHN tower and are clearly visible from the street. These are the remains of a medieval castle, which was destroyed in 1379 and which was the ancestral seat of the old Frisian chief family Beninga , to which the chronicler Eggerik Beninga also belonged. According to excavations, the building was around 44 meters long and eleven meters wide.
Another fortress can be found at the eastern end of the Langwurt. It was only built in the late Middle Ages and was built on this spot after the old ancestral seat of the Beninga had been destroyed. The remains of the castle are uncovered and cataloged by Jörg Saathoff. In 2016, the municipality of Krummhörn and the East Frisian landscape decided to only leave part of the already restored castle walls visible. The remaining walls are to be filled. The old moat could also be rebuilt.
The dike Schoonorths took place in 1604, after the Dutch entrepreneur Jan Laurentz and consorts and the East Frisian Count Enno III. on November 15, 1603 a contract for land reclamation and subsequent use had concluded. The entrepreneur was granted six years of free tax after the dyke had been dyed, after which taxes had to be paid to the count's cash register in Aurich. In contrast to the Rheiderland , where Bunder dyke entrepreneurs still got into a dispute with the Count's House in the late 17th century about who was entitled to the growth in front of the dykes, in Schoonorth the right of the East Frisian ruling house to this growth was not questioned.
The Count's House mostly left the land to the entrepreneurs on a long lease . The new polder measure 778 Grazing what about 286.5 hectares equivalent. The farms had a size between 50 and 150 grass, the smallest farms thus measured about 18 hectares, the larger three times as much. A path in north-south direction was laid through the new polder, the forerunner of today's state road. In the early years it was difficult to manage, with occasional floods contributing to this. The tenants had to ask several times for the taxes to be postponed. The Count's House subsequently acquired some of the farms directly and leased them as a state domain . In 1618, 576 of the 778 grasslands in the new polder were owned directly by the sovereigns, the remainder free property, which was often sub-leased. The tenants changed frequently; Early on, a capitalist, i.e. market-oriented economy had established itself in the marshes in the west of East Friesia, which was associated with less attachment to the plaice than, for example, in the Geest areas of East Friesia.
The period of the Thirty Years' War meant a considerable burden for the residents. Not only did they have to pay contributions to the occupation forces. The permanent dispute between the city of Emden and the East Frisian count house in Aurich, not least over the costs of the Emden garrison, resulted in 1629 when the Emden soldiers also collected contributions in the area, which also degenerated into looting.
In 1744 Grimersum fell to Prussia like all of East Frisia . In 1756 the Prussian officials compiled a statistical trade survey for East Friesland. It emerged from it that the larger villages in the Greetsiel office were relatively evenly occupied with businesses. In 1756 there were 22 merchants and craftsmen in Grimersum. Among them were six shoemakers, three linen weavers, two coopers, bakers, bricklayers and tailors as well as one blacksmith and carpenter each. Of the three merchants, one dealt with little things like salt, soap and tobacco, one with grain, butter and spices, and one with lime.
During the Hanoverian time of East Friesland, Grimersum belonged to the Greetsiel Office (1824) and was the seat of one of the two sub-bailiffs of the Greetsiel District Bailiwick. In addition to the suburbs of Grimersums such as Schoonorth, Visquard and Werdenum with the Werdenum Neuland also belonged to the Untervogtei Grimersum. The other sub-bailiwick of the Greetsiel district bailiff had its seat in Eilsum.
In the course of the Hanoverian office reform in 1859, the Greetsiel office was dissolved and added to the Emden office, Grimersum has since belonged to the latter. During the Prussian district reform in 1885 , the Emden district was formed from the Emden district , to which Grimersum subsequently belonged.
For centuries, the natural depths and drainage channels that crisscross the Krummhörn in a dense network were the most important modes of transport. Not only the villages but also many farms were connected to the city of Emden and the port of Greetsiel via ditches and canals. The boat traffic with Emden via the Alte Greetsieler Sieltief was particularly important. Village boatmen took over the supply of goods from the city and delivered agricultural products in the opposite direction: “From the Sielhafenort, smaller ships, so-called Loog ships, transported the cargo to the inland and supplied the marsh villages (loog = village). The loog ships from the Krummhörn enlivened the canals of the city of Emden until the 20th century. "
Peat, which was mostly extracted in the East Frisian Fehnen , played an important role as heating material for the inhabitants of the Krummhörn for centuries . The peat ships brought the material on the East Frisian canal network to the Krummhörn villages, including Grimersum. On their way back into the Fehnsiedlungen the Torfschiffer often took clay soil from the march and the manure of cattle with which they their home were dug fertilized land.
In April 1919 there were so-called "bacon removals" from Emden workers, which were followed by rioting on the farm workers. Together with the Rheiderland , the district of Emden was the part of East Frisia most affected by this unrest. Workers broke into the surrounding villages in closed trains and stole food from farmers in clashes. The situation only calmed down after the deployment of the Reichswehr troops stationed in the region . As a reaction to this, resident groups were formed in almost all villages in the Emden area . The Grimersum Rescue Service comprised 60 people. These had 20 weapons. The resident services were only dissolved after a corresponding decree by the Prussian Interior Minister Carl Severing on April 10, 1920.
During the years of the Weimar Republic , in Grimersum, as in all of East Frisia, a noticeable shift to the right in the political spectrum was noticeable. In the election for the National Assembly in 1919 , the right-wing liberal DVP with 41.3 percent and the left-wing liberal DDP with 11.7 percent together won the majority of the votes. The SPD came in second with 32.7 percent, the right-wing conservative DNVP in third with 14.3 percent. In this election, Grimersum's voters stayed within what was true of East Frisia as a whole before 1919, namely that liberalism was the defining political force. Above all, the Social Democrats were able to rely on the traditional voter pool of the agricultural workers . In the Reichstag election in May 1924 , the right-wing extremist DNVP took over the leadership of the political parties with 36 percent of the votes, followed by the SPD (32.2 percent), DVP (14.9 percent) and DDP (3.7 percent). The 1928 election saw the SPD in the lead for the first time (43.3 percent, DNVP: 29.8 percent). After that, the rise of the NSDAP to the leading force in the political spectrum began in Grimersum . It won 33.6 percent of the vote in the 1932 Reichstag election, leaving the SPD (31.9 percent) just behind; The KPD followed with 15.6 percent and the DNVP with 14.9 percent of the votes. The right spectrum had taken over the political leadership on site. In the Reichstag election in March 1933, the NSDAP (42.3 percent) and DNVP (14.3 percent) together got an absolute majority of the votes, while the SPD (28.3 percent) and KPD (13 percent) lagged well behind.
Since the Federal Republic of Germany was founded, Grimersum - like all of Krummhörn and East Friesland as a whole - has been a stronghold of the SPD. It won the most votes in the 1949 federal election with 30.8 percent. Behind were the DP (22.5 percent) and the right-wing extremist DRP (10.9 percent). Splinter parties came to a total of 21.5 percent. Between 1949 and 1972, the Social Democrats prevailed with results between 40.8 (1953) and 62.7 percent (1972) in favor of the voters, followed in second place by the Christian Democrats with results between 20 (1953) and 43 percent (1965).
On July 1, 1972, Grimersum was incorporated into the new municipality of Krummhörn.
Culture and sights
The following people were born in Grimersum.
- Eggerik Beninga (1490–1562), chronicler
- Johannes Acronius (1565–1627), Reformed theologian
- Hinrich Swieter (1939–2002), Lower Saxony politician and finance minister
- Harry Westermann (1909–1986), law professor in Münster
- ^ Ortschronisten der Ostfriesischen Landschaft: Grimersum. PDF file, 6 pp., 1/2, accessed on May 20, 2013.
- ↑ Günther Leymann: Investigations into the agricultural historical development of the areas of Werdenumer Neuland and Schoonorth. In: Gerhard Steffens (Ed.): The eight and their seven sluices. Cultural, water and agricultural development of an East Frisian coastal landscape. Second, ext. Edition, Verlag Rautenberg, Leer 1987, ISBN 3-7921-0365-6 , p. 317 ff. In the following: Leymann: Agrarian historical development.
- ↑ Heiko Leerhoff: Who does the growth in front of the dikes belong to? . In: Harm Wiemann: From days gone by. Chronicle of the combined community of Bunde. Edited by the Samtgemeinde Bunde. Self-published, Bunde 1983, without ISBN, pp. 46–60.
- ^ Leymann: Agricultural historical development. P. 323.
- ↑ For the dimensions cf. Leymann: Agricultural historical development. P. 582.
- ^ Ohling in the same volume
- ^ Leymann: Agricultural historical development. P. 337 ff.
- ^ Karl Heinrich Kaufhold ; Uwe Wallbaum (Ed.): Historical statistics of the Prussian province of East Friesland (sources on the history of East Friesland, Volume 16), Verlag Ostfriesische Landschaft, Aurich 1998, ISBN 3-932206-08-8 , p. 387.
- ^ Curt Heinrich Conrad Friedrich Jansen: Statistical Handbook of the Kingdom of Hanover 1824. P. 172, accessed on May 21, 2013.
- ^ Ordinance on the reorganization of administrative offices in 1859. pp. 675 f., Accessed on May 21, 2013.
- ^ Harm Wiemann / Johannes Engelmann: Old streets and ways in East Frisia . Self-published, Pewsum 1974, p. 169 (East Frisia in the protection of the dyke; 8)
- ^ Gunther Hummerich: The peat shipping of the Fehntjer in Emden and the Krummhörn in the 19th and 20th centuries. In: Emder Yearbook for Historical Regional Studies in Ostfriesland , Volume 88/89 (2008/2009), pp. 142–173, here p. 163.
- ↑ Hans Bernhard Eden: The Resident Services of Ostfriesland from 1919 to 1921. In: Emder Yearbook for Historical Country Studies of Ostfriesland , Vol. 65 (1985), pp. 81-134, here pp. 94, 98, 105, 114.
- ↑ The election results of this and the following section come from local chronicles of the East Frisian landscape: Grimersum , PDF file, 6 p., Here p. 3, accessed on May 28, 2013.
- ^ Federal Statistical Office (ed.): Historical municipality directory for the Federal Republic of Germany. Name, border and key number changes in municipalities, counties and administrative districts from May 27, 1970 to December 31, 1982 . W. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart / Mainz 1983, ISBN 3-17-003263-1 , p. 263 f .