coat of arms
|mayor||Koen Schuiling ( VVD )|
|Seat of the municipality||Groningen|
|197.96 km 2
185.60 km 2
12.36 km 2
|Residents||231,037 (Jan 31, 2019)|
|Population density||1167 inhabitants / km 2|
|Important traffic route|
|Postcodes||9614, 9622, 9701-9704, 9711-9718, 9721-9728, 9731-9738, 9741-9747|
|Website||Homepage of Groningen|
Groningen (Dutch [ ˈɣroːnɪŋə ] ( )), in old High German documents: Gröningen , Groninger Platt Grönnen , is the capital of the province of Groningen in the Netherlands . It has 231,037 inhabitants (as of January 31, 2019, with the surrounding area ( Regio Groningen-Assen ) 505,000 inhabitants). The communities Ten Boer and Haren were incorporated into Groningen on January 1, 2019.
Groningen is located at the northern end of the " Hondsrug " (not to be confused with the Hunsrück ), a sandy elevation in the middle of the formerly extensive moor, which stretches from the "Drentschen Plateau" to the center of the city and in earlier times the only connection between these two areas was.
The city has an area of 76.77 km² and is located on the Winschoterdiep, North Willems Canal , Van Starkenborghkanaal and the Eemskanaal , which connects Groningen with Delfzijl on the Ems coast . The city center is - for historical reasons - very compact.
The city of Groningen is divided into five districts with a total of 64 quarters ( Dutch “wijk” and “buurt”).
- Centrum (city center)
- with the quarters: A-Kwartier, Binnenstad , Binnenstad-Oost, Hortusbuurt, Ebbingekwartier, Westerhaven, Stationsgebied
- Oude Wijken ("Old Quarter", the residential areas that were mainly built in the 19th century to the west, north and east of the old town)
- with the quarters: De Hoogte, Korrewegwijk, Indische buurt, Professorenbuurt, Noorderplantsoenbuurt, Oosterparkwijk, Oranjebuurt, Schildersbuurt, Kostverloren, Woonschepenhaven
- Oost (the north, northeast and east of the urban area)
- with the quarters: Beijum, Drielanden, Engelbert, De Hunze, Van Starkenborgh, Lewenborg, Middelbert, Noorderhoogebrug, Oosterhoogebrug, Ruischerbrug, Meerstad, Noorddijk, Ulgersmaborg, Ruischerwaard, Woonschepenhaven
- Zuid (the south and southeast of the urban area)
- with the quarters: Badstratenbuurt, Coendersborg, Corpus den Hoorn, Grunobuurt, Helpermaar, Helpman, Herewegbuurt, Hoornse Meer, Hoornse Park, Laanhuizen, Rivierenbuurt, Oosterpoortbuurt, De Linie, Europapark, Piccardthof, De Wijert, Zeehbuurt, De Mee Martuelden, Villabuurt, Kop van Oost
- West (the west and northwest of the urban area)
- with the quarters: De Buitenhof, Dorkwerd, Gravenburg, De Held, Hoogkerk , Leegkerk, Paddepoel, Reitdiep, Selwerd , Tuinwijk, Vinkhuizen
Monthly average temperatures and rainfall for Groningen
The city of Groningen or Cruoninga - as it was called in the Middle Ages - emerged from a loose amalgamation of three or four scattered farms. The first traces can be traced back to approx. To be dated. Since the 7th century AD, the core area of the current old town - today “de Grote Markt” (German: the Great Market) - has been permanently settled. This is the result of excavations by the archaeologist Albert Egges van Giffen and the Rijksdienst voor het Oudheidkundig Bodemonderzoek (Reich Office for Archaeological Soil Studies).
Groningen was first mentioned in 1040 when the "villa Gruoninga" was donated by Heinrich III. passed on to the Bishop of Utrecht . In this document, the king also awarded the young city the coin rack and the customs rack .
The location proved to be extremely favorable for a trading center: the North Sea could be reached via the Drentsche Aa and the Hondsrug, the “stert van Drentland” (Sterz von Drenthe), created the connection to the south. Many merchants who traded with England and the Baltic countries settled here. The city wall was built from 1260 onwards. After unsuccessful earlier attempts, Groningen was finally accepted into the Hanseatic League in 1422 . By the 17th century - the " Golden Age " of the Netherlands - Groningen had developed into a flourishing trading center, not least because of the court that existed there and was also responsible for the surrounding areas.
Early modern age
In the "Frisian uprising", the power struggle between the heir of Friesland , Albrecht the Courageous , the Duke of Saxony , and his son Heinrich the Pious on the one hand and the Frisian chiefs on the other, Groningen sided with the Frisians. Thereupon Duke Albrecht besieged the city. When an epidemic broke out in the Saxon army, to which the Duke also succumbed, the Saxons first had to lift the siege. But in 1506, when Duke Albrecht's son, Duke George the Bearded , marched into Friesland, Groningen had to capitulate.
Only a few years later the city of Groningen made another attempt to evade the imperial power exercised by the inheritance holder. In the Saxon feud Groningen took the part of the East Frisian Count Edzard I. Then imposed Emperor Maximilian in April 1514 imperial ban over Groningen. When Count Edzard submitted to the Emperor, Groningen also had to submit to the Emperor and the Saxon Duke George the Bearded .
The diocese of Groningen was established in 1559 with the intention of stopping the further advance of the Reformation . From 1580 Groningen was under Spanish rule after the city had submitted to the imperial general Alessandro Farnese , the Duke of Parma . In 1594, Moritz of Orange , the Captain-General of the United Netherlands , conquered Groningen. Groningen, together with the surrounding areas, the Ommelanden , became part of the Republic of the United Netherlands and thus also Protestant . (See Reductie van Groningen )
During the Dutch War , the Prince-Bishop of Münster , Christoph Bernhard von Galen , tried to take the city by siege and cannon fire in 1672. His penchant for artillery earned him the nickname "Bommen Berend" ("Bombing"). On August 28, 1672, the citizens of Groningen managed to repel his attack. A local holiday with many activities, the so-called Gronings Ontzet ( Relief of Groningen), commemorates this event to this day in Groningen .
In the 17th and 18th centuries - thanks to the access to the sea via the Drentsche Aa - shipbuilding was an important industry; numerous shipyards emerged. Thanks to the delivery on the Drentschen Aa, an important fish market was created in Groningen. This was first held in the 17th century on the Zuiderdiep, the canal in the south of the old town (today, after the filling, the street "Gedempte Zuiderdiep"), then on the Spilsluizen, the canal in the north of the old town, and since then on the square in the city center, which the fish market gave its name. The city of Groningen set up market stalls called “fish banks” there, which were leased to the fishmongers.
Industrialization began in Groningen with the construction of the first factory in 1840, a flax spinning mill in the Vlasstraat, the spinning machines of which were operated by a 20 HP steam engine . Among the 130 workers employed there, 87 were children.
In 1866 Groningen was connected to the railway network, as the last of the larger Dutch cities. The first horse tram was opened in 1880 . The city wall, which was largely preserved until 1874, was pulled down in the following years. After that, since 1885, the urban area expanded far beyond the Grachtenring. This is how u. a. the working-class districts Oosterpoortbuurt and Noorderplantsoenbuurt and the villa district at Zuiderpaark.
In 1914, the Helpman village was incorporated south of the city. Although the Netherlands did not take part in World War I , food was rationed and bread stamps introduced from 1916 (until 1920). In 1917 the city administration set up a central kitchen in order to save gas and coal on the stoves, buy large quantities of food cheaply and thus offer the needy an inexpensive hot meal. The Centrale Keuken remained in operation until April 1919.
With the introduction of women's suffrage in 1919, three women were elected to the city council for the first time in the same year. The first social housing was built along Bedumerweg in 1914 . The 1919 housing census showed that 45% of families lived in one or two-room apartments at the time. Not least because of the results of the housing census, the first half of the 1920s became a boom in social housing construction. To the north-west of the old town, around Oranjestraat, the Oranjewijk district emerged. The city park was laid out in 1927.
The Second World War left deep wounds in Groningen. The city was occupied by German troops in May 1940 without resistance (→ History of the Netherlands ). 3,300 residents died immediately in the war, including 2,800 Jewish citizens of Groningen.
Up until the Shoah there was a flourishing Jewish community in Groningen. For example, Attila Groningen was the oldest Jewish gymnastics and sports club in Europe, six months older than Bar Kochba Berlin . He was national, and refused to emigrate to Palestine as well as cooperation with the Zionist Maccabee profit mutual off. In 1940, 3,000 Jews lived in Groningen, including 250 Jewish refugees from Germany. The first 600 Groningen Jews were deported in August 1942; the deportations to the labor and extermination camps ended in April 1943. Only a few Groningen Jews managed to go into hiding and survive.
At the end of the Second World War, the city suffered considerable damage. When the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division of the Allies reached Groningen in April 1945, they encountered fierce resistance from the German occupation forces, from parts of the "Landstorm Nederland" of the Waffen-SS and from Belgian SS units . The street fighting in the city center lasted three days, from April 14-16, until the German troops surrendered.
The buildings that were subsequently built as part of the reconstruction are now the subject of heated debates. Many want to replace them with something more beautiful.
Houses of worship
- The Martinikerk (Martinikirche) on the "Grote Markt", the oldest and largest church in the city. Your Martinitoren (Martiniturm) connected to the west side was built between 1469 and 1482 from Bentheim sandstone . From 1548 to 1577 the tower was 127 meters high, until the wooden top burned down on the occasion of a bonfire after the withdrawal of enemy troops.
- The Aa-kerk (Aa-Kirche) , parish church since 1247
- Pelstergasthuiskerk , consecrated in 1267
- The Nieuwe Kerk was built from 1660 onwards in the expansion of the city that began in 1625. The district was only slowly being built upon, and the church is in a park.
- The neo-Gothic Sint-Jozefkathedraal is the main Catholic church in the city and the episcopal church of the diocese of Groningen.
- Synagogue : In the synagogue built in 1906 300 m south of the Vismarkt, Jewish services have been celebrated again since 1981.
Martinikerk (Martinikirche) on the Grote Markt
- The house at Brugstraat 24 was built in the 15th century and is the best preserved brick Gothic town house in the city.
- Provincial House, seat of the provincial government . The oldest wing is at the Martinikerkof and was built around 1550 as a Latin school.
- Construction of the Stadhuis (town hall) began in 1792 after the medieval town hall and wine house had been demolished in 1775. But it was not completed until 1810. In 1872 the previously U-shaped floor plan was closed to form a rectangle due to the increased space requirement. The building is a Rijksmonument .
- The Korenbeurs (former grain exchange ) at the front of the Vismarkt (fish market) is a (late or neo) classical building from the years 1862–1865.
- The University of Groningen has two distinctive buildings in the city center:
- The Akademiegebouw was built after the previous university building fell victim to the fire in 1906 during renovation work. It was designed in 1909 by the imperial master builder Johannes Antonius Willibrordus Vrijman. Otto Linnemann from Frankfurt created seven windows in the stairwell in 1909/1914, the middle one depicting the founding of the university, the side with allegorical depictions of the faculties. Documents on this can be found in the Linnemann archive. The building is a Rijksmonument.
- The University Library of Groningen is opposite the Academy building.
- Groninger Museum : The building, inaugurated in 1994, was built into the water of the Zuiderhaven between the old town and the main train station and is a spectacular work of modernity. It was designed by the designer Alessandro Mendini in collaboration with the architects Michele De Lucchi , Philippe Starck and Coop Himmelb (l) au . In addition to changing exhibitions, exhibits from the prehistory and early history of the province of Groningen and the remarkable collection of Chinese porcelain are shown.
Due to the incorporation of Ten Boer and Haren on January 1, 2019, the last local elections ( herindelingsverkiezing in Dutch , German "local reform election") took place on November 21, 2018. Citizens in the municipalities of Ten Boer, Groningen and Haren were able to vote for the new municipal council, which will consist of 45 seats.
Distribution of seats in the municipal council
The municipal council has 45 seats and is elected for four years. Since 1982 it has been formed as follows:
|Stadspartij voor Stad en Ommeland a||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||2|
|Student en Stad||-||-||-||1||1||2||1||1||2||1|
|PPR / Evangelical People's Party||-||1||-||-||-||-||-||-||-||-|
- Parties that took part in the election but were unable to obtain a seat on the council will not be considered.
College of Mayors and Aldermen
After the municipal council elections in 2014, a coalition of D66 , PvdA , GroenLinks and VVD was formed. The coalition parties each provide an alderman, with the exception of D66, who contribute two alderman. The following people belong to the college and are responsible in the following areas:
|Joost van Keulen||VVD||Economy and innovation, international trade and cooperation, personnel and organization, city administration and cleaning, tourism and recreation, events, market affairs, coordination of the city center, alderman for the Centrum district|
|Mattias Gijsbertsen||GroenLinks||Social affairs and youth welfare, sustainability, green participation and ecology, integration and emancipation, public health, animal welfare, councilor of the Oost district|
|Paul de Rook||D66||Traffic and transport, culture, east side of the Grote Markt and Groninger Forum , sport, alderman for the western district|
|Roeland van der Schaaf||PvdA||Labor market and approach against youth unemployment, space-oriented work (social & physical), social real estate, urban development, housing, monuments, foundations, older people, alderman of the Oude Wijken district|
|Ton Schroor||D66||Finance, education, care and welfare, public services and information and communication technology, alderman for the Zuid district|
The office of community secretary has been exercised by Peter Teesink since May 2014.
Groningen is primarily a trade and service center, but it also has an industrial tradition in the production of food and beverages. Sugar beet processing was one of the economic pillars of Groningen . In 2008 the parent company of Suiker Unie , Royal Cosun , decided to close the sugar factory on Van Heemskerckstraat. The group also has a factory in Hoogkerk .
In the tobacco industry , Theodorus Niemeijer's company made a name for itself outside the city, especially in the 20th century. The existing factory on Paterswoldseweg is now operated by British American Tobacco Benelux .
Groningen is the seat of the Dutch gas trading company Nederlandse Gasunie NV , which was founded in 1963 when natural gas production started in the province of Groningen . Due to earthquakes triggered by the funding that caused damage to buildings, funding is to be reduced to around half by 2022 (12 billion m 3 per year) and discontinued by 2030.
Other well-known Groningen companies are the Hooghoudt distillery, which produces fruit syrups in addition to alcoholic beverages, and the Noordhoff Uitgevers publishing house, which mainly publishes school books.
Local public transport
Groningen has a dense city bus network with a total of 37 lines (plus nine night lines), on which buses usually only run every half hour (on Sundays only every hour). Many bus lines reach the ZOB in front of the main train station. In addition, Groningen is the center of an extensive regional bus network. The company Qbuzz Groningen Drenthe operates both city and regional buses .
All Groningen city and regional buses accept the OV-chipkaart . Occasional passengers buy a Eurokaartje from the driver (from 2.50 euros for a maximum of one hour's journey over a maximum of two zones) with various time and tariff zone restrictions.
From 1880 to 1949, Groningen had a tram network , which was initially replaced by trolleybuses and finally by conventional diesel buses. A reintroduction of the tram in the form of a light rail system with two lines was planned until the end of 2012, but was abandoned.
According to a study by the Verkehrsclub Österreich VCÖ from 2013, Groningen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in Europe in terms of the percentage of bicycles in everyday traffic. Around 31% of the residents' journeys here are made by bike, only in Houten (44%), Oldenburg (43%), Münster (38%), Copenhagen (35%) and Leiden (33%) more bikes are used. Streetfilms declared Groningen a world cycling city in 2013 and compiled an English-language video with impressions of what is happening on the road, background information on the particular attractiveness of cycling and comments from users. Due to deliberately planned restrictions for car traffic - especially in the city center, but also in other source-destination connections - the bicycle is significantly faster than the car and the bus. There are special bridges for pedestrians and cyclists over a busy canal; Cars have to wait up to ten minutes at a swing bridge for ships to pass. At some larger intersections, the traffic light switch allows bicycles to enter the intersection in all directions at the same time. In an interview with the weekly newspaper Die Zeit in May 2016 , Paul de Rook, head of the transport department, spoke of a 60 percent bicycle traffic share and that a further increase is being sought.
The actual city center around the Great Market and Fish Market is completely car-free, the outer center is divided into four sectors. Direct car traffic between the sectors is not possible. The city is surrounded by a four-lane ring road, both to connect the outskirts and the highways. Work has been going on for a number of years to ensure that all connections are free of traffic lights and the work is expected to be completed in 2015.
The Autobahn 7 runs in an east-west direction and the A 28 in a north-south direction.
Major inland waterways meet in Groningen. From the west (Friesland / Amsterdam) the Van Starkenborghkanaal , from the east ( Delfzijl and mouth of the Ems ) the Eemskanaal , from the southeast the Winschoterdiep and the Nord-Willemskanal from the south.
While in the Middle Ages the Hunze flowed through the city or along the city wall northwest to the Reitdiep and thus to the Lauwers , today Groningen is on the watershed between Lauwers and Ems . Two locks on the south-western and south-eastern corners of the city center and a third on the north-western outskirts separate the river basins. The water from the Hunze (through the Winschoterdiep) and the Nord-Willemskanal (catchment area of the Drentsche Aa ) flows through the Eemskanaal to Delfzijl an der Unterems.
The Groningen railway station is on the railway line from Leeuwarden to Germany (East-West connection, railway line empty Groningen ) and south on Assen to Meppel . In addition, two branch lines branch off to the north; one leads to Delfzijl and the other to Eemshaven .
More than 50,000 students live in Groningen.
The venerable Rijksuniversiteit Groningen (RUG) looks back on four hundred years of history (founded in 1614) and has earned a good international reputation as a research and teaching facility. The university is divided into nine faculties: theology, philosophy, medicine, mathematics and natural sciences, law, language and literature, social sciences, economics and spatial planning.
There is also the state-run Hanze University Groningen, University of Applied Sciences (Dutch: Hanzehogeschool ) in Groningen . This is not a university in the German sense, but an HBO that is comparable to a German university of applied sciences .
The Hanze University of Applied Sciences traces its founding year back to 1798. That year the first Minerva Art Academy was opened. The university offers its more than 25,000 students 70 different master's and bachelor's degrees as well as courses from the internal commercial service provider HanzeConnect . There are courses in business and management, technology, health and sport, social affairs, art, music and dance at a total of 19 different faculties.
- Theater festival “Noorderzon”: the theater festival attracts thousands of visitors every year
- Pop festival “ Eurosonic Noorderslag ”: takes place every year in Groningen and consists of a music conference and the showcase festival for European music, as well as some prizes.
Culture and leisure
There are several museums in Groningen. In addition to the Groninger Museum , these are the “Noordelijke Scheepvaartmuseum” and the “Universiteitsmuseum”. The “Nederlandse Stripmuseum”, a comic museum, was closed in March 2019 after fifteen years. The successor is “Storyworld”, which is located in the Forum Groningen . The "Oosterpoort" is a large concert hall, the "Stadsschouwburg" houses the city theater. The city's discos are located on the Grote Markt and in the Poelestraat. The Holland Casino operates one of its twelve branches here.
- The city of Groningen is represented in Dutch football by FC Groningen . The first men's football team plays in the top Dutch league, the Eredivisie . FC Groningen plays its home games at its home stadium Noordlease Stadion .
- The student sports club UC Face Off was founded in 1998 as one of the first floorball clubs in the Netherlands.
- Even American football is played in Groningen. The Groningen Giants, founded in 2000, play their home games in the Sportpark Corpus den Hoorn, since 2016 in the top division, the Eredivisie. For the 2018 season it was decided to return to the Eerste Divisie (2nd division) in order to be able to play for the championship again.
- In 2011 and 2012 the Long Track World Championship Grand Prix of the Netherlands took place as part of the motorcycle long track world championship on the 1100 m long trotting dirt track in the city park of Groningen.
sons and daughters of the town
- Jacob Canter (1469–1529), pastor, poet and humanist
- Roche Braziliano (1630-1671), pirate
- Tiberius Hemsterhuis (1685–1766), philologist
- Jan Albert Sichterman (1692–1764), seaman and collector
- Daniel Bernoulli (1700–1782), Swiss mathematician
- Elisabeth Geertruida Wassenbergh (1729–1781), genre painter
- Matthias Steevens van Geuns (1735–1817), physician and botanist
- John Goodricke (1764–1786), English astronomer
- Petrus Gobbels (~ 1782–1856), painter
- Herman de Ranitz (1794–1846), Mayor of Groningen
- Theodorus Niemeijer (1822–1910), merchant and tobacco manufacturer
- Jozef Israëls (1824–1911), painter
- Hendrik Willem Mesdag (1831–1915), marine painter
- Adrien Jean Madiol (1845–1927), genre painter
- Josue Jean Philippe Valeton the Younger (1848–1912), theologian and orientalist
- Johan d'Aulnis de Bourouill (1850–1930), economist
- Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853–1926), physicist and Nobel Prize winner
- Johan Frans van Bemmelen (1859–1956), paleontologist and zoologist
- Felix Ortt (1866–1959), civil engineer, author and Christian anarchist
- Jantine Tammes (1871–1947), botanist
- Johan Huizinga (1872–1945), historian
- Antoon Gerard Roos (1877–1953), classical classical philologist and ancient historian
- Jaap Kunst (1891–1960), ethnomusicologist
- Ben Ali Libi (actually Michel Velleman ; 1895–1943), magician
- Nico Rost (1896–1967), anti-fascist, writer and journalist
- Herman Nankman (1897–1973), racing cyclist
- Louis de Vries (1905-1935), jazz musician
- Cornelius H. Edskes (1925–2015), organ researcher and expert
- Willem Hendrik Crouwel (1928–2019), graphic artist, painter, university professor and museum director
- Maarten Schmidt (* 1929), astronomer
- Dirk Bolt (* 1930), architect and urban planner
- Lammert Leertouwer (* 1932), church historian and Reformed theologian
- John Engels (* 1935), jazz musician
- Piet Fransen (1936–2015), football player
- Andries van Dam (* 1938), computer scientist
- Coosje van Bruggen (1942–2009), Dutch-American sculptor, art historian and art critic
- Nico Been (* 1945), racing cyclist
- Herman van Dijk (* 1947), econometrician
- Herman Franke (1948-2010), criminologist and writer
- Lex Jasper (* 1949), jazz musician
- Dick Nanninga (1949-2015), football player
- Jan Marinus Wiersma (* 1951), politician
- Stef Tuinstra (* 1954), organist, organ expert and author
- Arjen Lenstra (* 1956), mathematician
- Louwrens Langevoort (* 1957), director
- Barend Joannes ter Haar (* 1958), sinologist
- Edwin Paul Wieringa (* 1964), Islamic scholar
- Hayo Boerema (* 1972), organist
- Annemiek de Haan (* 1981), rower
- Rutger Smith (born 1981), athlete
- Henk Nijboer (* 1983), politician
- Arjen Robben (* 1984), soccer player
- Ben Woldring (* 1985), IT entrepreneur
- Ben van Gelder (* 1988), jazz musician
- Julia Soek (* 1990), racing cyclist
- Leandro Bacuna (* 1991), football player
- Lois Abbingh (* 1992), handball player
- Niels Lootsma (* 1994), tennis player
- Jerry St. Juste (* 1996), soccer player
- Suzanne Schulting (* 1997), short tracker
- Jordan Teze (* 1999), soccer player
Personalities with a relationship to the city
- Johannes Corputius (died 1611 in Groningen), cartographer, military man and finally captain in Groningen. Its epitaph is in the Martini church.
- Ubbo Emmius (died 1625 in Groningen), pastor, historian, educator and first rector of the University of Groningen
- Johann Heinrich Alting (1583–1644), professor of theology in Groningen since 1627, died in Groningen
- Aletta Jacobs (1854–1929) studied medicine in Groningen from 1871 and became the first female doctor in the Netherlands; she was also active as a women's rights activist.
- Albert Egges van Giffen (1884–1973), archaeologist
- Frits Zernike (1888–1966), professor at the University of Groningen from 1920 to 1958, received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1953 for the invention of the phase contrast microscope
- Ben Feringa (born 1951), professor at the University of Groningen since 1988, received the shared Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 2016 for his "nano-car" developed in Groningen
The horse breed " Groninger " comes from the Groningen region .
Groningen has partnerships with the following cities:
- Bremen , Germany
- Hamburg , Germany
- Oldenburg , Germany
- Odense , Denmark
- Kaliningrad , Russia
- Tallinn , Estonia, since 1993
- Zlín , Czech Republic, since 1996
- Newcastle upon Tyne , UK
- Graz , Austria, since 1964
- Tianjin , People's Republic of China, since 1986
- Xi'an , People's Republic of China, since 2011
- Katowice , Poland
in order of appearance
- Johann Gottfried Hoche: Journey through Osnabrück and Niedermünster to Saterland, East Frisia and Gröningen. By JG Hoche, doctor of philosophy and preacher in Rödinghausen in the county of Ravensberg, and member of the Königl. literary society in Halberstadt , Bremen, with Friedrich Wilmans, 1800. Therein journey through Gröningen back to Westphalia , pp. 329–403, esp. pp. 368–403 - Repr. Verlag Theodor Schuster, Leer, 1977 ISBN 3-7963-0137 -1 ), 1978, ISBN 978-3-7963-0137-7 . (Full text)
- Arent Toncko Schuitema Meijer: Groningen vroeger en nu . Fibula-Van Dishoeck, Bussum 1969.
- Thomas Schumacher (Ed.): Boundless on Deich and Dollart. The travel and reading book for the Ems-Dollart region. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2003. ISBN 3-86108-903-3 .
- Maarten Duijvendak, Bart de Vries (ed.): Stad van het Noorden. Groningen in de twintigste eeuw (= Groninger historical reeks , vol. 25). Koninklijke Van Gorcum, Assen 2003, ISBN 90-232-3984-9 .
- Wolfgang Stelljes: Groningen. The young city of culture. Edition Temmen, Bremen 2012. ISBN 978-3-8378-3004-0 .
- Website of the municipality of Groningen (German, Dutch, English)
- Tourist website of the city and province of Groningen (German, multilingual)
- City tours with German students (German)
- Website of the Groninger Museum (German, Dutch, English)
- Useful and current information from Groningen (German)
- Benoeming burgemeester Groningen. In: rijksoverheid.nl. Rijksoverheid, June 28, 2019, accessed October 4, 2019 (Dutch).
- Bevolkingsontwikkeling; regio per maand . In: StatLine . Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek (Dutch)
- Tweede Kamer besluit: Haren moet fuseren met Groningen en Ten Boer. In: RTV Noord . April 24, 2018, accessed June 23, 2018 (Dutch).
- Lena Bopp: We are provincial, this is where the heart beats. Groningen is on the northern edge of the Netherlands - but not in the quiet . In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung, October 30, 2008.
- Contribution to street films on Groningen as a world bicycle city
- Wijken en wijkwethouders , accessed June 29, 2018.
- arent Toncko Schuitema Meijer: Groningen vroeger en nu . Bussum 1969, pp. 5-6.
- arent Toncko Schuitema Meijer: Groningen vroeger en nu . Bussum 1969, p. 6.
- Jan Frans Joseph van den Broek: Groningen, een stad apart . van Gorcum, Assen 2007, p. 48.
- arent Toncko Schuitema Meijer: Groningen vroeger en nu . Bussum 1969, p. 8.
- Reinout Rutte, Jaap Evert Abrahamse (Red.): Atlas van de verstedelijking in Nederland. 1000 years ruimtelijke ontwikkeling . Uitgeverij Thoth, Bussum 2014, ISBN 978-90-6868-615-9 , p. 74.
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