|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Height :||5 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||102.99 km 2|
|Residents:||169,077 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||1642 inhabitants per km 2|
|Area code :||0441|
|License plate :||OIL|
|Community key :||03 4 03 000|
|City structure:||34 districts, 9 statistical districts|
City administration address :
26122 Oldenburg (Oldb)
|Lord Mayor :||Jürgen Krogmann ( SPD )|
|Location of the city of Oldenburg in Lower Saxony|
Oldenburg ( Low German : Ollnborg, Sater Frisian : Ooldenbuurich ) is an independent city in Lower Saxony . The municipality carries the official name Oldenburg (Oldb) as an abbreviation of "Oldenburg in Oldenburg " to differentiate it from Oldenburg in Holstein .
Today's university town was the former residence and capital of the county , the duchy , the grand duchy , the Free State and the state of Oldenburg . After the cities of Hanover and Braunschweig , it is the third largest city in Lower Saxony, followed by Osnabrück. Oldenburg is one of the regional centers of the State of Lower Saxony and was the seat of the Weser-Ems administrative district until the Lower Saxony administrative districts were dissolved in 2004 . From 2005 to 2013, Oldenburg was the seat of a government agency of the state of Lower Saxony, which was replaced in 2014 by a regional representative for the Weser-Ems area.
In 1945, the city's population exceeded the city limit of 100,000. Since April 2005, Oldenburg has been part of the Northwest European Metropolitan Region , one of a total of eleven European metropolitan regions in Germany.
Oldenburg is located at the point where the Delmenhorster Geest in the southeast merges into the Oldenburger Geest in the northwest at a height of 2-19 meters. To the west of this, the wide bogs of the Leda-Jümme-Moorniederung spread out, to the east of it the marshland of the lower Hunte , which is at sea level . Due to the low location of the Oldenburg port, coastal ships do not have to pass through any locks on their way from there to the North Sea.
There are also moor areas in the northeast of the city. Most of Oldenburg is northwest of the river; the city center lies at the confluence of the Haaren with the Hunte. The city center is 23.5 km from the Hune estuary at Elsfleth and approx. 90 km from the open North Sea , but since the Hunteniederung below the city center is at sea level, the tides of the North Sea can be felt right down to the hair which changes its direction of flow up to four times a day just before it flows into the Hunte.
The city of Oldenburg is located in the center of the Oldenburger Land in western Lower Saxony. The next larger cities are Bremen , about 45 km east, Wilhelmshaven , about 50 km north, Osnabrück, about 100 km south, Hamburg , about 170 km northeast, Groningen , about 110 km west, and Hanover, about 170 km southeast of Oldenburg.
The following municipalities border the city (clockwise, starting in the east):
In the metropolitan area ( agglomeration ) Oldenburg 266,000 people live.
Districts and incorporations
The city is divided into nine districts, which in turn are subdivided into districts. City districts according to the city's 2005 statistical yearbook are:
- with the districts of Zentrum, Dobben, Haarenesch, Bahnhofsviertel and Judicial District
- with the districts of Ziegelhof and Ehnern
- with the districts of Bürgeresch and Donnerschwee
- with the districts of Osternburg and Drielake
- with the districts of Eversten , Hundsmühler Höhe, Thomasburg, Bloherfelde , Haarentor and Wechloy
- with the districts of Bürgerfelde, Rauhehorst (also Vahlenhorst), Dietrichsfeld, Alexandersfeld, Flugplatz, Ofenerdiek and Nadorst
- with the districts of Etzhorn , Ohmstede and Bornhorst
- with the districts of Neuenwege and Blankenburg Abbey
- with the districts of Kreyenbrück , Bümmerstede , Tweelbäke West, Krusenbusch and Drielaker Moor
In 1920 the total area of the city was 1152 ha . After that, different communities or parts of communities and districts were incorporated into Oldenburg, so that the city area today amounts to a total of 10,296 hectares after various border adjustments. In detail, the following were incorporated or outsourced:
|October 1, 1922||Incorporation of the Osterburg community .||growth||5,080 ha|
|August 1, 1924||Incorporation of parts of the Eversten community||growth||2,407 ha|
|May 15, 1933||Incorporation of the municipality of Ohmstede||growth||3,198 ha|
|April 1, 1935||Inclusion of parts of Hundsmühlen||growth||2.2 ha|
|April 1, 1935||Outsourcing of part of the Easter castle||Exit||1,875 ha|
|April 1, 1936||Incorporation of parts of Metjendorf||growth||129 ha|
|April 1, 1948||Incorporation of the Bümmerstede parade ground||growth||169.6 ha|
A new district is being built on the former Bundeswehr air base . On June 15, 2017, the City of Oldenburg's Urban Planning Committee adopted the master plan for the Mittelweg / Air Base areas - see Oldenburg Air Base - New District . A new road is to be built in 2020.
Foundation and Middle Ages
According to the results of archaeological excavations, the history of Oldenburg began in the 7th or 8th century AD. On a Geestsporn in Ammergau near a ford across the Hunte , a rural settlement was built in the area of today's market square and to the north and east of it. On the trade route from Bremen or Westphalia to Jever , there was a slight transition over the river.
In the first half of the 11th century the ring wall system of the Heidenwall was built east of Oldenburg . Archaeological investigations from 2007 allowed its construction to be dendrochronologically dated to 1032 and 1042 based on the logs used .
In 1108 the place was mentioned for the first time under the name "Aldenburg". In the 12th century, the Counts of Oldenburg used the favorable topographical situation to build a moated castle. They levied a duty, but could also block this passage in times of war. The castle was the administrative center of the county, and many members of the administration soon settled in the surrounding area.
1345 received the Archbishopric of Bremen located settlement, which is now called Oldenburg, Count Konrad I Bremer city charter . Better fortifications were built, with an extremely wide moat surrounding the wall and five city gates controlling entry into the city. The floor plan resembled a coat of arms: in the west the Obristen- or Everstentor, in the northwest the Haarentor, in the northeast the Heiliggeisttor, in the east the Stautor and in the south the huge Dammtor . This double gate with two flanked round towers (1518) and a drawbridge over the moat was located south of the ring castle with its own moat. The city of Oldenburg also benefited economically from this protection from robbers.
In 1448 Count Christian von Oldenburg became King of Denmark and in 1450 also King of Norway (personal union of both kingdoms). In 1457 he was also elected King of Sweden. In 1460 he became Duke of Schleswig and Count of Holstein (from 1474 duchy). The small count's house thus gained supraregional importance, which had a significant impact after the death of the last Count Anton Günther .
Count Anton Günther, Thirty Years War
In 1603 the reign of Count Anton Günther began . He had part of the castle rebuilt in the Baroque style and started breeding horses, which were soon very popular as " Oldenburg " horses. In addition, the city was saved from the effects of the Thirty Years' War for a long time . The breeding of draft horses for the artillery proved to be profitable in times of war. Overall, the county came out of the war with a slight plus, especially because the city was never besieged or looted. When the general Tilly and his troops, who were camped in Wardenburg , moved towards Oldenburg, Count Anton Günther was able to move Tilly through negotiating skills and bribery.
Despite a so-called plague order, from August 1667 30 to 40 people fell victim to the plague every week. The Blankenburg monastery served as a camp for plague sufferers from time to time after it was dissolved as a monastery in the course of the Reformation and initially converted into the “malting and brewing plant” of Oldenburg Count Anton Günther . In 1632 he transferred the property to a foundation so that a poor house and orphanage could be set up there.
Count Anton Günther died in 1667 and was buried in the Oldenburg Lamberti Church. Since he had no legitimate offspring, Oldenburg was assigned to the closest male relative, the King of Denmark. Thus Oldenburg became Danish.
Under Danish administration
From 1667 onwards, the Oldenburg territory was administratively administered by the German Chancellery in Copenhagen . In the same year the plague broke out in the city. Nine years later, three lightning bolts struck Oldenburg on July 27th. The city was on fire and almost completely destroyed. Because their residents were neither insured nor received help from their government at the time, they had to move to relatives and friends outside the city and region. In this way the castle and the city of Oldenburg fell into disrepair. The existing art objects were brought to Denmark: the Danish crown hardly supported Oldenburg and the reconstruction was laborious and took decades. The population sank to 3,000 by the middle of the 18th century. As a military outpost, Oldenburg was evidently of greater importance for Denmark, because the city was given fortifications by order of the Danish crown, today's ramparts. The residents of Oldenburg and the surrounding villages were forced to build.
The ruling houses of Germany, Denmark and Russia were related to each other, so Oldenburg's affiliation changed again and again. On August 27, 1773, County Delmenhorst came together with the county Oldenburg by countries exchange to the head of the House of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , the later Tsar Paul I. He entered the country four days later his cousin Frederick Augustus from, the Prince Bishop of Lübeck, who was then raised to the status of duke by Emperor Joseph II in 1774/1777. The resulting Duchy of Oldenburg belonged to the Holy Roman Empire as an Imperial Principality . Oldenburg formally became the capital of the duchy, but Duke Friedrich August's residence remained in Eutin . After his death in 1785, his nephew Peter Friedrich Ludwig became the regional administrator of the duchy, as the actual heir of Friedrich August, Duke Peter Friedrich Wilhelm , was not able to govern.
By relocating his residence to Oldenburg, Peter Friedrich Ludwig raised the city to a residence again, which he expanded in the classical style during his reign . Among other things, the classicist row of houses on Huntestrasse, the teachers' seminar on Wallstrasse, the infantry barracks on the horse market and the Prinzenpalais on Damm were built. The Lamberti Church was also rebuilt in this style.
As the father of the country, Peter Friedrich Ludwig attached great importance to the expansion of the education and health system. He himself was well educated and was also involved in social issues. Among other things, he founded the “ savings fund ” in 1786 and provided the basis for the construction of a new hospital ( Peter Friedrich Ludwigs Hospital ) with basic financing , which was only realized after his death. In the same year, the police dragon corps of the Duchy of Oldenburg was set up to secure the state borders and overland routes and to support the lower police authorities.
Post-Napoleonic period, Grand Duchy
During the French annexation of the Duchy of Oldenburg under Napoleon I , the duke was in exile . The city was from 1811 to 1813 a district of the department of the Weser estuaries with a sub-prefect. In Oldenburg, new administrative and legal regulations were introduced in accordance with the Code Napoléon . The 34th Legion of the Gendarmerie Impériale was responsible for enforcing the law ; a gendarmerie brigade was also stationed in the city of Oldenburg. After the liberation from French rule, the old rights were reintroduced, with the exception of serfdom . To the Congress of Vienna in 1815 Peter Friedrich Ludwig did not appear in person, to there being transmitted to him the title "Grand Duke" he did not accept.
In 1818 Oldenburg had become a "City First Class" and the seat of an office, in the present sense a " district-free city ". In 1833 it was temporarily re-classified as "City II. Class" before it was again "City I Class" in 1855.
After the death of Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig in 1829, his successor Paul Friedrich August assumed the title of Grand Duke. During his reign (until 1853) there were numerous cultural innovations. The forerunner of the Oldenburg State Orchestra was founded with the Grand Ducal Court Orchestra. The theater was also located on the section of the wall named after it. The Grand Ducal Natural History Cabinet founded at that time is now part of the collection of the State Museum for Nature and Man.
During this time, the expansion of the military also fell, which became visible in the construction of various barracks in the cityscape. B. the military academy on the horse market (today the registry office) and the artillery barracks on the Ofener Straße (today the technical college).
Revolutionary years 1848/1849
The revolutionary years were moderate in Oldenburg. On March 2, 1848, the city council sent the Grand Duke an address calling for a state constitution , but in a very loyal, cautious tone: “The Oldenburger adores and loves his ancestral royal house with unshakable love, he knows what treasure he is ahead of many others in this. "
On March 7th, the city council received the Grand Duke's reply through the city's magistrate . This again only contained vague promises and he did not respond to the request to have the constitution discussed by knowledgeable men. The disappointment with the behavior of the Grand Duke was considerable and already on March 8th, artisans gathered to discuss the possibility of entering another petition. On March 10, deputations from Oldenburg and Jever presented in person to the Grand Duke and presented the petitions they had written . However, the addressee was unwilling to make concessions, whereupon the Jeverian deputation threatened an uprising. The Grand Duke then relented and promised to pass a resolution . The patent issued by the Grand Duke was read publicly in the early evening. He agreed to it, experienced men from across the country, a State Basic Law submitted as draft constitution. Specifically, he promised to submit a draft to an assembly of 34 men to be chosen by him, which they should discuss. The enthusiasm of the Oldenburgers was immense and the Grand Duke and his family were greeted with "cheers" several times in the theater on the same evening. This went so far that they were asked to step onto a staircase to be cheered, which he obviously disliked.
On March 11th, the press censorship was lifted by decree . However, this did not have a major impact, as there were hardly any restrictions beforehand. On March 24th there were riots in Oldenburg by members of the lower classes in the city. Mainly apprentices and journeymen banded together in front of a colonel's house , destroyed a lantern and threw a stone. This riot was condemned by the press. The Grand Duke agreed to arm the people and to create a vigilante group in order to prevent further incidents of this kind. On March 25th, shotguns were given out to Oldenburg citizens and drill exercises began on March 26th. In February 1849 the constitution was adopted in the constituent state parliament .
In 1867 Oldenburg joined the North German Confederation .
At the beginning of the First World War , Oldenburg quickly became an army camp as an important military base . In addition to thousands of reservists, many volunteers also came to the barracks. The largest unit stationed in Oldenburg was Infantry Regiment No. 91 , which suffered high losses early on and was disbanded after the war.
Weimar Republic and the time of National Socialism
The last Grand Duke Friedrich August abdicated in 1918 and with the proclamation of the Weimar Constitution in 1919, Oldenburg became the state capital of the federal Free State of Oldenburg in the Weimar Republic .
Here the NSDAP succeeded in the elections to the Oldenburg Landtag in 1932 for the first time in a Land of the German Empire to achieve an absolute majority with over 48%. Carl Röver , who had already been active in Oldenburg since the mid-1920s, NS Gauleiter Weser-Ems , was then appointed Prime Minister . Shortly after the takeover of the Nazis throughout the German Reich in early May 1933 for "Röver Reichsstatthalter appointed" for Bremen and Oldenburg. The Hanseatic City of Bremen thus lost its political independence. In return, the Oldenburg office was considerably enlarged during the Nazi era in 1933 and the new administrative district was later referred to as the Oldenburg district .
In 1935, the "Bewahr- and nursing home Kloster Blankenburg" was closed and converted into a "Subsidiary camp of SA - Labor Service " converted for young unemployed. In February 1937 the camp was disbanded and the municipal care facility Gertrudenheim was moved to Blankenburg instead. As part of the “ euthanasia ” campaign, the residents were relocated again.
On the night of November 9th to 10th, 1938, Oldenburg SA troops took part in the nationwide anti-Jewish November pogroms . The synagogue and the Jewish school were burned down and some shops were destroyed. The Jewish people from Oldenburg were rounded up in the police barracks at the horse market, today the State Library of Oldenburg . On the morning of November 10, the families were separated and 43 Jewish men were driven past the ruins of the still burning synagogue through the middle of the city center to the prison. The deportation by train followed a day later. A total of almost 1,000 men from the northwest and Bremen were brought to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp , from which they only returned broken after weeks and months. As a reminder and warning, citizens of Oldenburg initiated a reconstruction of this deportation route as a silent route in 1982. Since then, this commemorative tour has been celebrated annually on November 10th by several hundred to several thousand Oldenburgers. Schools and institutions each create an extensive supporting program.
During the Nazi era, numerous Oldenburg Sinti were also deported and murdered. At least 74 Sinti from the city of Oldenburg and the surrounding area were murdered in concentration and extermination camps .
During the Second World War , only relatively minor damage was caused by air raids on Oldenburg . Oldenburg was only 1.4% destroyed. In June 1941 an air raid caused damage in the area of traffic jams, Sophienstrasse and Würzburger Strasse as well as on the railway line to Leer. In September 1943, the state library on the dam was destroyed by bombs, as was the regional court at Elisabethstrasse 7, which burned down, as well as the museum on the dam and the Reich finance administration on the dam and the fortress ditch. In April 1945 there were four more major air raids. The Georgenvilla , the brick yard and the meat factory of the GEG were destroyed. The barracks on Ofener Strasse and Donnerschweer Strasse and the infantry barracks on Cloppenburger Strasse were badly damaged. Serious damage was also caused in the residential areas east of Cloppenburger Straße and around Klingenbergplatz. On April 17, 1945, British planes attacked the Donnerschwee barracks . 13 children lost their lives in this bombing raid. In an air raid on April 21, 1945, the station forecourt, the harbor and the industrial area in the east of the old town were destroyed. The barracks in Kreyenbrück were also destroyed in April / May 1945. During the air raids, many people sought protection in the high- rise bunker built in 1942/43 on Moslestrasse (blown up and demolished in 1979) and in the hundreds of shatterproof small round bunkers distributed throughout the city. A total of 130 houses were destroyed in Oldenburg during World War II.
post war period
After the end of the Second World War, Oldenburg belonged to the British zone of occupation . In 1945 the British city commandant took over the villa at Gartenstrasse 5 as his residence, which had previously been the official seat of the head of the NSDAP district Weser-Ems (later the “ Bridge of Nations ” was housed there). The British military administration set up several DP camps in Oldenburg to accommodate up to 5,000 so-called displaced persons . The majority of them were former forced laborers from Poland and the Baltic States , but also non- German refugees from the areas occupied by the Red Army . The camps "Ohmstede", " Wehnen ", "Sandplatz", "Unterm Berg" and "Ammerländer Heerstraße" existed beyond the establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany until the 1950s.
Latvians and Estonians settled on the site of the former racing course in Ohmstede, many of whom have remained in Ohmstede to this day. On the one hand, these exiles did not want to return to their homeland, which was occupied by the Soviet Union in 1940 , but on the other hand they also did not want to emigrate to a country of the western war opponents of Germany. In 1960 the wooden houses of the "Lettenlager" were torn down and gradually replaced by apartment buildings, into which, however, not only Baltic exiles moved. In the 1970s there were still around 300 Latvians living in Oldenburg. Most of the Latvians and Estonians who lived in Ohmstede after the Second World War and their descendants remained in Germany in 1990 even after the sovereignty of the State of Latvia was restored . The most prominent exiled Latvian who died in the Ohmsteder exile was the former Latvian general and later general of the Waffen SS, Rūdolfs Bangerskis . The Latvian composer and conductor Bruno Skulte led a Latvian opera ensemble in Oldenburg after 1945.
By accepting around 42,000 displaced people after the end of the war, Oldenburg exceeded the number of 100,000 inhabitants and grew into a large city . In 1946, the state of Oldenburg became part of the new federal state of Lower Saxony by decision of the English occupying power, Oldenburg became the seat of the " administrative district of Oldenburg ", one of the then eight administrative districts of the state.
In the former Blankenburg monastery, a municipal retirement home was opened in 1949, and from 1957 the long-term psychiatric "Klinik Blankenburg" was mainly operated. The dissolution in 1987/88 was considered a nationwide model project for the outpatientization of psychiatric care .
Various district reforms in the 1970s changed the Oldenburg district. From the administrative district of Oldenburg with the administrative districts of Aurich and Osnabrück , the administrative district of Weser-Ems with the capital Oldenburg emerged in 1978 . Despite all administrative and territorial reforms, Oldenburg remained an independent city . In 1988 the district administration of the district of Oldenburg, which until then had been in the city of Oldenburg, was relocated to Wildeshausen by decision of the district council .
In 1954 the Weser-Ems-Halle was opened and in 1967 the redesign of the old town began, making Oldenburg one of the first cities in Germany to have a pedestrian zone. Oldenburg developed into a banking center in the region, including a main office of the state central bank and a branch of the Deutsche Bundesbank. In 1973 the Carl von Ossietzky University was founded after the lower education colleges were abolished . In the same year, the construction of the auxiliary hospital in Oldenburg began .
From 1990 to the end of June 2011, the state of Lower Saxony maintained a reception center for asylum seekers in the "Blankenburg Abbey" , which in the course of the 1990s provided communal accommodation (pursuant to Section 53 of the Asylum Procedure Act (today's name: Asylum Act )) and an exit facility (pursuant to Section 61 (2) Residence Act ).
In 2009 Oldenburg bears the title City of Science with the concept of Übermorgenstadt . In 2009, the conversion of the former municipal rubbish dump Easter castle into a park began. At the highest point of the former heap is the Easter burger Utkiek .
Middle Ages, Early Modern Times
The function of the Heidenwall , which was built in 1032, has not been clearly clarified . It is likely that it served to secure a ford of the Hunte. The castle , which was probably built in the 11th century, was converted into a fortress in the old Italian manner from around 1530 onwards.
The first arsenal was built in 1576 . The so-called civil guard was established by 1600 . Expansion of the fortress began around 1615. In 1681 the Danish King Christian V , who had inherited the county of Oldenburg-Delmenhorst from his father, had stone barracks built on the Waffenplatz as soldiers' quarters, which were used as the first city hospital about a hundred years later . In the so-called Danish era , Oldenburg was a Danish royal fortress from 1700 to 1765 .
After the elevation to the Duchy of Oldenburg, the city became a ducal garrison . In 1775 the ducal infantry corps was set up. This part of the troops was part of the so-called Rheinbund contingent in 1808/09 . Until 1919, the military center of the city was always the castle guard , which was responsible for guarding the castle as the seat of government. It was also the seat of the garrison command.
German Confederation, North German Confederation, German Reich until 1919
In 1813 Duke Peter Friedrich Ludwig issued an order for a ducal Oldenburg infantry regiment. In 1831 there was a union with contingents from Bremen, Hamburg and Lübeck to form the Oldenburg-Hanseatic Brigade .
German Empire 1919 to 1945
After 1919 the Oldenburg garrison was greatly reduced. The successor to the 91st regiment was the 110th Infantry Regiment, which was converted into the 16th Infantry Regiment (Reichswehr) in 1921 .
After 1935 the Oldenburg garrison was massively expanded.
In early May 1945, Oldenburg was taken by Canadian units of the 4th Canadian Armored Division . The Canadian occupation forces were replaced by British units in 1946/1947. These were replaced by the Danish military at the end of the 1940s . The British withdrawal took place in 1954.
From the 1960s to the 1980s, Oldenburg was the second largest garrison town in the Federal Republic after Koblenz . It was the location of various army and air force associations and units. In the 1970s, the Bundeswehr employed 10,000 soldiers and civil servants in Oldenburg.
In 1990, the year of the reunification of Germany, 4555 soldiers and 1600 civilian employees were employed by the Bundeswehr in the city of Oldenburg. In a study published jointly by the Universities of Oldenburg and Göttingen, it was predicted in 1995 that the Bundeswehr would do without two thirds of its soldiers and half of its civilian employees in Oldenburg. In fact, 1100 members of the Bundeswehr have been employed in Oldenburg since 2006. Since the suspension of compulsory military service in Germany on July 1, 2011, no conscripts have been stationed in Oldenburg.
Due to the reforms of the army structure, only the Henning von Tresckow barracks in Bümmerstede is still a troop base today . After the reunification of Germany, this initially housed the staff of the Airborne Brigade 31 , two companies of the Airborne Support Battalion 272, a paramedic unit and the driver training center.
The airborne brigade was restructured in 2014 into a paratrooper regiment at the Seedorf location . From 2015, the staff of the 1st Panzer Division was relocated to the Hennig von Tresckow barracks . After the parachutists had withdrawn in March 2015, the advance command of the 1st Panzer Division moved into the Henning von Tresckow barracks. Since December 14, 2015, the headquarters and the headquarters / telecommunications company of the 1st Panzer Division have been stationed in Oldenburg. The driver training center remained at the Bümmerstede location.
The Bundeswehr catering office , the Bundeswehr service center and the civil-professional training and further education Betreuungsstelle Oldenburg (ZAW Betreuungsstelle Oldenburg) are located on the site of the former Dragoons barracks in Osternburg .
The air base on Alexanderstraße and the barracks in Ohmstede, Donnerschwee and Kreyenbrück are no longer used for the purposes of the Bundeswehr. The abandoned Bundeswehr locations in Oldenburg could be used for new purposes from 1993 .
In 1898 Oldenburg had 25,000 inhabitants, by 1925 this number had doubled to 50,000. In 1946 the population of the city quickly exceeded 100,000 due to the influx of refugees. In 2015, according to the city of Oldenburg's population register, 25,672 minors and 139,424 adults lived here, a total of 165,096 people; historic high. Oldenburg is one of the still growing cities in the Federal Republic. Oldenburg has been the third largest city in Lower Saxony since 2011, ahead of Osnabrück (census and extrapolation). On December 31, 2019, Oldenburg had 169,077 inhabitants.
In a population forecast by the Lower Saxony State Office for Statistics, around 171,000 inhabitants are forecast for Oldenburg in 2021.
The overview of the number of inhabitants according to the respective territorial status is mostly estimates up to 1833, then census results (¹) or official updates from the respective statistical offices or city administration. From 1843 the information relates to the “local population”, from 1925 to the resident population and since 1987 to the “population at the place of the main residence”.
¹) Census result
As of December 31, 2011, there were 74,370 (47.3%) male and 82,890 (52.7%) female residents in Oldenburg, the proportion of foreigners was 5.4%.
Religious and ideological communities
- In 2011, 45.9% of the population were Protestant , 14.3% Roman Catholic and 39.8% were non-denominational , belonged to another religious community or did not provide any information.
- In 2019, 37.2% were Evangelical Lutheran Christians, 13.2% Catholics and 0.8% Evangelical Reformed Christians. The non-denominational as well as different faiths are only shown together, the proportion was 48.8%.
From 2008 to 2017, the Evangelical Lutheran Church lost 6,353 members and the Catholic Church gained 55 members.
Oldenburg initially belonged to the area of the Archdiocese of Bremen , or to its Archdiaconate St. Willehadi, the St. John's Chapel belonged to the Diocese of Osnabrück . The Reformation took off from 1526, and the city had been permanently reformed from 1529, but converted to Lutheranism in 1573 (introduction of a Lutheran church order). After that, Oldenburg was predominantly Protestant for many centuries . As the capital of the Duchy or Grand Duchy of Oldenburg , the city was also the seat of the administration of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg . The consistory or the upper church council of this regional church is located here to this day . Oldenburg also became the seat of the Oldenburg-Stadt church district very early on , to which all parishes in the city now belong, provided that they are not free churches .
By the end of the 18th century at the latest, there have been Catholics in Oldenburg again . These have been looked after by a chaplain since 1785 . The Duke of Oldenburg had a first Catholic church built at his own expense in 1807, after the incorporation of large parts of the Lower Monastery of Münster into the Duchy, which was adapted to the needs in the last third of the 19th century and replaced by today's representative building of the St. Church was replaced. Other Catholic churches were built later. In 1831 Oldenburg became part of the Oldenburg official office of the Münster diocese , after the state of Oldenburg failed to form its own Catholic diocese . However, the seat of the official office was the city of Vechta . A deanery was set up in Oldenburg , which at the time was responsible for the entire northern part of the state of Oldenburg. The design of the Oldenburg deanery was later changed, but today all parishes in the city of Oldenburg (Oldb) belong to this deanery within the diocese of Münster.
The oldest free church is the Evangelical Free Church Community ( Baptists ), which today has its community center on Eichenstrasse. It was founded in 1837. The parish pastors in the founding phase were August Friedrich Wilhelm Haese and Johann Ludwig Hinrichs . In the beginning, the congregation suffered from persecution by state and church authorities: the children of the congregation were forcibly baptized, gatherings were dissolved by the police and holding church services was punishable by heavy fines and imprisonment.
In addition to the Baptists, there are other free churches in Oldenburg: the Methodist Church , the Independent Evangelical Lutheran Church (SELK), the Seventh-day Adventist Community (STA), the Free Evangelical Congregation (FeG), the Free Christian Congregation and more free Christian communities.
Other religious communities committed to Christianity in Oldenburg are the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , Jehovah's Witnesses , the New Apostolic Church , Christian Science (the Christian Scientific Association) and the Christian Community .
Since 1992 there has been a Jewish community in Oldenburg again (JGO). For this purpose, the city of Oldenburg handed over a cultural center with a synagogue to the Jewish community on March 5, 1995 . It is the former Baptist chapel at Wilhelmstraße 17, which was converted for the purposes of the Jewish community and is very close to the synagogue that was destroyed during the November pogroms in 1938 . On June 25, 1995, the community was able to open its new synagogue. From August 1, 1995 to April 30, 2004, the Swiss Bea Wyler officiated as the first female rabbi in Germany after the Holocaust in Oldenburg (temporarily also in Braunschweig and Delmenhorst ). From September 2006 to 2008, Daniel Alter, one of the first three rabbis ordained in Germany after 1945 , officiated in Oldenburg. He is a graduate of the Abraham Geiger College in Potsdam , as is Alina Treiger , who has been looking after the JGO as well as the Jewish community in Delmenhorst since 2010.
Three mosques from different Muslim communities are registered in Oldenburg, namely the DITIB's Hacı-Bayram-Mosque in Emsstraße (prayer language: Turkish), the IGMG's Hamidiye-Mosque on Breslauer Straße and the Maryam-Mosque of the Islamic Cultural Association, an association without Umbrella organization, in Alexanderstraße (prayer languages Arabic and German).
Other religious communities
At the head of the city had been a council since the 14th century , which from 1345 consisted of 18 members. Among them were three mayors . However, only one mayor ruled with five councilors . The council changed annually on January 6th. From 1676 the number of mayors was reduced to two. From 1773 there was only a lawyer mayor at the head of the council and the city. The town charter of 1833 led a city manager one as senior officials. This later received the title of mayor or lord mayor .
In 1946 the military government of the British zone of occupation introduced the local constitution based on the British model. Then there was a popularly elected council. This elected the mayor from among his number as chairman and representative of the city, who was active on a voluntary basis. In addition, from 1946 there was a full-time senior city director, also elected by the council, as head of the city administration . 1996 Oldenburg (Oldb) gave up dual leadership in the city administration. Since then there has only been the full-time mayor. He is the head of the city administration and representative of the city. Since then he has been elected directly by the people. However, the council continues to have its own chairman, who is elected from among its members at the constituent meeting of the council after each local election .
The Oldenburg members of the Lower Saxony state parliament directly elected on January 20, 2013 are the SPD politicians Ulf Prange (constituency 62 Oldenburg center / south) and Jürgen Krogmann (constituency 63 Oldenburg north / west). The Green politician Susanne Quantity also entered the state parliament via her party's state list . On September 22, 2013, the SPD politician Dennis Rohde was elected directly to the German Bundestag as a representative of constituency 28 (Oldenburg-Ammerland) . The CDU politician Stephan Albani moved into the Bundestag via the state list of the Lower Saxony CDU.
The Oldenburg Council has had 50 members since 2006. This is the specified number for a municipality with a population between 150,001 and 175,000. The 50 council members are elected by local elections for five years each. The current term of office began on November 1, 2016 and ends on October 31, 2021.
Since the last local elections on September 11, 2016, ten parties have been represented in the City Council of Oldenburg, with the SPD making up the largest parliamentary group (16 members), followed by the CDU (11 seats) and Bündnis 90 / Die Grünen (10 seats). The Left has five members, the FDP and AfD two each. FW-BFO , Pirate Party , WFO and the ALFA, now LKR , each have a seat.
Share of votes of the parties currently represented in the City Council of Oldenburg in the last local elections in percent
|year||SPD||Green||CDU||left||FW / FW-BFO||FDP||Pirates||NPD||LKR||AfD|
Distribution of seats in the last local elections
In the last election of the Lord Mayor , none of the applicants could achieve the required absolute majority. In the necessary runoff election on October 12, 2014, Jürgen Krogmann (SPD) was able to prevail with 69.21% of the votes against the non-party opponent Christoph Baak, who was supported by the CDU, with 30.79%. The turnout in the runoff election was at a historically low level of 33.18 percent. Krogmann officially took over the office of Lord Mayor from his predecessor Gerd Schwandner on November 1, 2014. The term of office ends at the end of October 2021.
All mayors of the city of Oldenburg since 1363 are listed in the list of city leaders of Oldenburg (Oldb) .
Senior City Directors 1945–1996
|1948-1950||Hans Klüber , SPD|
|1950-1963||Jan Eilers , FDP|
|1972-1996||Heiko Wandscher , SPD|
According to the main statute of the city, its name is Oldenburg (Oldb) . The Federal Statistical Office carries them under the name Oldenburg (Oldenburg) . The city's logo uses the name Oldenburg i. O.
coat of arms
Blazon : “A red crenellated wall in gold crowned by three gold-knotted, blue-roofed pointed towers, the middle one wider and higher; a golden shield with two red bars leaning against the blue bordered black gate. "
The city colors of Oldenburg are gold and red.
For the residence of the Count's House , which became a town in the 13th century, the first seal has been passed down since 1307, dating from the late 13th century. Like the smaller seal since 1366, it shows a three-tower castle without the sovereign beam shield. In the second main seal from the middle of the 14th century, the local patron St. Lambert is in the gate, the count's coat of arms in two shields next to the saint and two tower flags. The heraldic simplified coat of arms before 1622 is based on the fourth seal from the 15th century, which in the archway contains the bar shield of the Oldenburg counts with their "fiev pieces"; In 1927 it got its present form.
According to legend, the Oldenburg Count's coat of arms is the result of a lion fight : After the lion was killed, Emperor Heinrich IV dipped his fingers in the animal's blood and then stroked the golden shield of the winner.
The city flag of Oldenburg is gold - red - gold - red - gold (1: 1: 1: 1: 1) striped horizontally. Usually the gold is represented with the color yellow.
Oldenburg maintains city partnerships with the following cities and districts:
- Taastrup , Denmark , since 1978
- Cholet , France , since 1985
- Groningen , Netherlands , since 1989
- Makhachkala , Russia , Republic of Dagestan , since 1989
- Rügen district (dissolved in 2011), Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , since 1990
- Mateh Ascher County in the Northern District of Israel since 1996
- Kingston upon Thames , England , since 2010
- Xi'an in Shaanxi Province in the People's Republic of China , since 2017
Mainly due to its former function as the residence and capital, Oldenburg has a large number of dishes. In the judicial district, the district court , the regional court and the higher regional court of Oldenburg were built right next to each other. The OLG Oldenburg is one of three higher regional courts in Lower Saxony and is responsible for the former Weser-Ems administrative region. The Oldenburg social court is only accessible from the three o. G. Courts separately; the administrative court is on Schloßplatz, the labor court on Bahnhofstrasse.
Since 2001, the new prison in Oldenburg has been located in Kreyenbrück on part of the site of the former Hinderburg barracks . Its predecessor was since 1857 on the Rechtsstrasse between the criminal courts and the Strasse Damm. The last prisoner left the old building on March 23, 2013. Its owner, the State of Lower Saxony, has not yet made a decision on the further use of the property.
Economy and Infrastructure
Until 1918, Oldenburg was the royal seat, then the capital of the Free State and the State of Oldenburg and the district capital of Lower Saxony. This, as well as the large number of courts, results in a traditionally high proportion of employees in the public sector in the city of Oldenburg.
The three largest groups of employees in Oldenburg in 2011 were retail (7,270 employees), health care (6,829 employees) and public administration, defense and social security (5,348 employees despite the drastic decline in the number of members of the Bundeswehr). Oldenburg's economy today is characterized by a dynamic medium-sized company and a strong service sector, for example in the banking and insurance sector. The service sector generated 87.5 percent of gross value added in the city of Oldenburg in 2016 . Manufacturing companies have also settled here in Oldenburg, such as automotive suppliers , companies from the food industry , photo processing and the printing trade. However, several companies in the manufacturing industry with their headquarters outside Oldenburg have given up their locations in Oldenburg in the last few decades. This concerns v. a. the Oldenburg operations of AEG , Gerresheimer Glas , Bavaria-St. Pauli Brewery and Coca-Cola . With EWE , one of the largest energy companies in Germany is based in Oldenburg.
Oldenburg is considered the center of information technology . Just like renewable energies or the health industry, this area is a focus of the work of the city's economic development department . Business start-ups and innovative spin-offs can be found in the Oldenburg Technology and Start- up Center (TGO), which was opened in 2003 and expanded in 2010, at Marie-Curie -Straße in the immediate vicinity of the university on around 10,000 square meters of suitable office, laboratory and workshop space. By participating in the EU project “Creative City Challenge”, the City of Oldenburg's Economic Development Agency intends to promote the creative industries and to achieve a stronger networking of creative people and traditional businesses.
The retail trade in the regional center of Oldenburg has always been of great importance for the entire region. The basis for this is the urban structure of the city center , which offers the possibility of a circular route. Around 1,250 retail outlets are evidence of the city's high supply function. With an annual turnover per m² sales area of 3,275 euros and 2.38 m² sales area per inhabitant, Oldenburg is well above that of comparable cities.
The Oldenburg port is one of the most important ports in Lower Saxony. In 2014, 1.04 million tonnes were handled here in inland traffic (2013: 990,686 t, 2012: 1.027 million t). In 2014, 96,164 t of sea freight were handled in the Oldenburg port (2013: 109,897 t). The main goods handled are animal feed , grain , fertilizer and various building materials (stones, gravel, sand). In 2015, only 82,150 t were handled in sea freight. In 2017, cargo throughput in the port of Oldenburg was 968,878 t for inland shipping and 64,412 t for sea shipping. In March 2016, the Rhein-Umschlag company abandoned bulk cargo loading at the Old City Harbor and relocated its operations to the East Harbor. With this measure it opened the way for a redesign of the south bank of the old city harbor below the confluence of the coastal canal into the Hunte.
In 2009, over 70 percent of the entrepreneurs surveyed rated Oldenburg as business-friendly in a Germany-wide study by IW Consult and the University of Bonn. No other city achieved a higher score.
In 2016, Oldenburg achieved a gross domestic product of € 7.239 billion, making it 51st in the ranking of German cities by economic output . In the same year, GDP per capita was € 43,934 per capita (Lower Saxony: € 34,812 / Germany € 38,180). In 2017, around 114,700 people were employed in the city. The unemployment rate was 6.0% in December 2018, slightly above the Lower Saxony average of 5.0%.
In the future atlas 2016, the city of Oldenburg was ranked 902 out of 402 districts, municipal associations and cities in Germany, making it one of the places with “future opportunities”.
- Ashampoo GmbH & Co. KG
- BASF Coatings GmbH
- CEWE Stiftung & Co. KGaA
- Danish Crown Oldenburg Convenience
- Deutsche Post AG ( letter center )
- EWE Aktiengesellschaft with its subsidiaries (EWE Vertrieb GmbH, EWE Trading GmbH, EWE TEL GmbH , EWE NETZ GmbH, BTC AG and others)
- Floragard Vertriebs GmbH for horticulture (soil and substrates)
- Gina Laura GmbH & Co. KG
- GSG Oldenburg
- Oldenburg Clinic
- Immerda GmbH
- Landessparkasse zu Oldenburg
- Ludwig Freytag GmbH & Co. KG
- Nanu-Nana purchasing and management company mbH
- North German Landesbank
- Northwest Newspaper
- Public insurance Oldenburg
- Oldenburgische Landesbank AG
- Rhine envelope
- Vierol AG
Formerly resident companies
- AEG AG (manufacture of small motors and household appliances)
- Bölts Fleischwarenfabrik → GEG (largest meat processing company in Germany around 1930)
- Brand shipyard
- Bremer Landesbank Kreditanstalt Oldenburg
- Forwarding agency FW Deus
- Ehlers Brewery → Bavaria-St. Pauli brewery
- Franz Hermeling → Coca-Cola (CCEG)
- Gerresheimer Glas AG
- Haslinde Hoyer Brewery
- Oldenburg gasworks
- Oldenburger Vorortbahnen Pekol GmbH
- Stalling, printing and publishing
In 2016 there were 24 accommodation establishments with more than ten beds in Oldenburg. The number of beds that can be provided by these establishments was 2208.
The main attractions for day and overnight guests are shopping, museums and exhibition halls, theaters, classical architecture, nightlife, concerts and major events. In addition to the catering trade, the retail sector benefits greatly from tourists.
As a regional center in north-western Lower Saxony, Oldenburg offers a wide range of shopping opportunities - in the shopping centers and specialist markets on the periphery ( Famila shopping area Oldenburg-Wechloy, IKEA, etc.) as well as in the city center and its pedestrian zone, the oldest nationwide area in Germany. On March 16, 2011, the Schlosshöfe shopping gallery with around 90 specialty shops, cafes and restaurants was opened on the site of the former indoor swimming pool directly on Schloßplatz .
- A 28 , which leads west to East Friesland ( Leer / Emden ) and east over an elevated road to Delmenhorst and Bremen,
- A 29 , which leads north to Wilhelmshaven and south to the Ahlhorner Heide motorway triangle ,
- A 293 , which connects the A 28 at the Oldenburg-West triangle, as well as the A 29 and B211 towards Brake at the Oldenburg-Nord junction,
- and the north bypass (K 347 / L 865n), which has four lanes of motorway - like construction and closes the motorway ring in Oldenburg. It connects the A 29 and the A 293 and runs through the districts of Ohmstede and Nadorst.
The A 28 and A 293 motorways as well as the north bypass are typical city motorways that cut through the Oldenburg urban area and take up a significant part of the inner-city traffic. They have a high density of entrances and exits and had to be provided with complex noise protection measures.
Other important highways are the federal highways B 401 , which starts in Oldenburg and connects Oldenburg with the Emsland , and B 211 , which leads into the Wesermarsch to Brake and the Weser Tunnel .
The Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry is calling for the gap between the Oldenburg-Ohmstede junction of the A 29 and the L 865 in Bornhorst north of the Huntewiesen to be quickly closed. There is resistance to this plan in Bornhorst.
The former federal highways B 69 and B 75 , which were replaced by the A 29 and A 28 motorways and which were removed after the completion of the motorways in their direct catchment areas, are only of historical importance . These two federal highways crossed the city in a north-south direction (B 69) and east-west direction (B 75) and were the main thoroughfares in Oldenburg at that time.
After the Nahe Valley Railway , which was extended to Oberstein in 1859 , the second railway line in the then Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, the one from the state capital to Bremen, was opened to traffic on July 15, 1867. One of the oldest movable railway bridges in Europe, the bascule bridge over the Hunte, is located on this route. Immediately next to it is the former railway water tower , which supplied the steam locomotives with water.
The Kingdom of Hanover was able to prevent Oldenburg from being connected to the German railway network until 1866. The Kingdom of Prussia, on the other hand, which had annexed the Kingdom of Hanover in 1866, did not stand in the way of Oldenburg's connection to the German railway network.
Today, the city of Oldenburg is located on the railway line Bremen-Oldenburg , at the Oldenburg-Leer railway , at the Wilhelmshaven-Oldenburg railway and the railway Oldenburg-Osnabrück . To the railway -Fernverkehr Oldenburg is through the circulating every two hours IC -line (Norddeich-) Oldenburg-Bremen-Hanover Leipzig connected. There are also individual ICE connections to Dresden and Munich . The earlier importance of Oldenburg as a railway junction declined after the closure and demolition of the marshalling yard and the repair shop as well as the demolition of the Braker Bahn through the Ipweger Moor (" rubber railway ").
Since mid-December 2010 Oldenburg has been connected to the network of the regional S-Bahn Bremen / Lower Saxony . In the Wechloy district there has been a stop on the S-Bahn line RS3 since June 2015.
Verkehr und Wasser GmbH (VWG) has been operating public transport on behalf of the City of Oldenburg since 1985 . The 21 VWG city bus routes open up the entire urban area and individual localities outside, with numerous stops being served every 15 minutes. All lines travel on sections of the Wallring, the ring road around the city center, with the common junction at Lappan . Between Lappan and the Oldenburg train station with the central bus station (ZOB), 20 lines establish connections at frequent intervals.
Regional buses run from the central bus station to surrounding cities and districts. The operation of the nine lines will be put out to tender under the leadership of the ZVBN and, divided into line bundles, will be awarded for several years. Operators are mostly medium-sized bus companies or their subcontractors, including the companies Bruns Omnibusverkehr, Michael Büsing Busbetrieb, Gerdes Reisen, Emil Hilgen, Pfeiffer-Reisen, Travel Service Wissgott, Wolters Linienverkehr, or the Weser-Ems-Bus belonging to the DB Group and theirs Subsidiary Hanekamp. Since May 2017, line S35, which uses Autobahn 28 to connect the district town of Westerstede with Oldenburg, has had a special status as a regional bus route with extended operating times .
In the night bus service seven municipal lines N25 and N36 are made to N41, which depart daily at 00.30 pm from Lappan. On the weekend nights Friday ‒ Saturday and Saturday ‒ Sunday there are further departures every hour at 1.30 a.m. and 2.30 a.m. The night owl N27 and the night owl Ammerland with the lines N31, N32, N34 and N35 only run on weekend nights.
The collective tariff of the Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen (VBN), which also applies to regional trains, is used for all bus routes . The city of Oldenburg is a member of the Zweckverband Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Lower Saxony .
From 1933 to 1985, was public transport (public transport) in Oldenburg by the company Oldenburg Vorortbahnen Pekol GmbH has been carried out, the 1936 to 1957 several overhead line bus lines operating. In 2017, after a changeover phase of more than ten years, VWG retired its last diesel-powered buses. This means that the entire city bus fleet, which comprises almost one hundred vehicles, is powered by biogas supplied by VWG shareholder EWE . The regional buses to the surrounding area continue to use diesel as fuel.
In 2018 long-distance bus transport , buses from various private and European providers, including the Ecolines and Flixbus brands, will stop at a newly built long-distance bus station directly at the central bus and train station. Line connections exist in the u. a. to the East Frisian ferry ports, to Berlin , Cologne , Amsterdam , to Poland or the Baltic States.
Even before the national long-distance bus market was opened in Germany, the company Publicexpress , founded by Christoph Marquardt , offered trips to Groningen in the Netherlands several times a day between 2005 and 2015 .
Ship and boat traffic
The port of the city of Oldenburg is connected to the German inland waterway network via the coastal canal as an inland waterway . Oldenburg also has a seaward access via the Hunte and Weser . The Hunte, which is a maritime shipping route from the confluence with the Weser to Oldenburg , can also be used by smaller ocean-going vessels as far as Oldenburg . In 2011, 143,631 tons of goods were handled by sea in the Oldenburg port , in 2012 the figure was 127,627 tons, in 2015 it was only 82,150 tons. In 2016, sea freight throughput fell by 14% to 70,507 t. In contrast, throughput in inland traffic increased by 5% to 969,297 t in 2016, so that throughput in combined sea and inland waterway traffic was 1.04 million t.
There is also a small city harbor. The Hunte , which is not navigable above Oldenburg, offers beautiful routes for boating, as does the Mühlenhunte at the edge of the castle gardens.
The Oldenburg-Hatten airport is about ten kilometers away from Oldenburg . From here sightseeing flights in the region and flights to the East Frisian Islands can be undertaken. The next larger airport is in Bremen . Oldenburg itself does not have its own airport after the military airfield on Alexanderstrasse was closed. The former runway has now been built over with a solar power plant, so that it cannot be used as an airport. From 1964 to 1993 the Luftwaffe 's fighter-bomber squadron 43 (JaboG 43) was stationed at the air base , and from 1993 to 2006 the anti-aircraft missile group 24 of anti-aircraft missile squadron 2 .
The bicycle is the most popular form of transport for Oldenburgs. According to a study by the Austrian Transport Club (VCÖ) in 2016, Oldenburg is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in Europe in terms of the percentage of bicycles in everyday traffic. Around 43 percent of the journeys made by residents here are made by bike, only in Houten (44%) is more bicycles used. In the study, Oldenburg was followed by Eindhoven and Groningen with 40%, Oss with 39% and Münster with 38%. With an average of 9.1 participants per 10,000 inhabitants, Oldenburg organizes the most active Critical Mass in Germany.
For decades there has been an extensive network of accompanying cycle paths in Oldenburg. The city districts and residential areas are connected by many paths that are only allowed for bicycles and pedestrians (a very important connection - Nedderend / Babenend - has been interrupted by Deutsche Bahn). There are two bicycle stations at the train station (at the central bus station and on the south side). You can also rent and buy bicycles there. In addition, Oldenburg and the surrounding area offer a network of transport routes for bicycles, which offers excursions especially for cyclists along the Hunte and in the Hunteniederungen (a water catchment area for floods).
The General German Bicycle Club (ADFC) gives the city of Oldenburg a grade of 3.5 for bicycle friendliness. This puts Oldenburg in fourth place out of 38 German cities with 100,000 to 200,000 inhabitants (and in second place in Lower Saxony, after Göttingen , which is also nationwide test winner with a mark of 3.32). The weaknesses reported are the narrow width of the cycle paths and the problems when trying to take a bicycle into public transport vehicles. The high number of bicycle thefts in the city is particularly negative (sub-rating 4.8). According to police crime statistics, these account for around 12 percent of total crime. The number of known bicycle thefts fell from 2,812 cases in 2009 to 1,538 cases in 2018, with 1 to 2 out of 10 cases being resolved on a multi-year average.
Regional hiking trails
Two hiking trails of the Wiehengebirgsverband Weser-Ems run through Oldenburg :
- Radio and television
- FFN City Studio Oldenburg in the building of the Nordwest-Zeitung (NWZ)
- Norddeutscher Rundfunk - Studio Oldenburg
- Radio Oldenburg - local station (FM broadcast will start in 2016, so far only as web radio)
- Oldenburg eins - local broadcaster for television and radio (formerly: Offener Kanal Oldenburg)
- Radio 21 - Regional Studio Oldenburg
- ENERGY BREMEN - 103.5 MHz local from Oldenburg and around
- Catchment area of the north German DVB-T network (Digital Video Broadcasting - Terrestrial)
- Oldenburger Lokalteil - Independent online magazine for Oldenburg
- Ganz-oldenburg.de - Independent online magazine for Oldenburg
- Print media
- Various advertising-financed weekly newspapers (Hunte Report, Oldenburger Sonntagszeitung, Neue Zeitung Oldenburg, Diabolo) and city magazines (MoX, CityNews, Oldenburg-Live)
- Extra sheet Uni / Gastro, gastronomy guide for the greater Oldenburg area
- Gastronomy guide on the way - Eating & drinking in the northwest
- Nordwest-Zeitung - Daily newspaper for Oldenburg and the Oldenburger Land
films and series
The following films or series were shot in Oldenburg:
- Civil War in Russia , FRG 1967, five parts, director: Wolfgang Schleif , with the Peter Friedrich Ludwigs Hospital as the Tauride Palace in Petrograd
- No songs about love
- Better together than lonely (working title: Hannah and Sophie)
- Munich 72 - The assassination attempt
- Sunshine Reggae in Ibiza
- Sleepless in Oldenburg (working title: Talk to me)
- The Site of Crime 2
- Four minutes
The city is the seat of the following bodies and institutions or corporations under public law :
- Federal Institute for Culture and History of Germans in Eastern Europe (BKGE)
- Deutsche Rentenversicherung Oldenburg-Bremen : Successor of the State Insurance Institution Oldenburg-Bremen
- Evangelical Lutheran Church in Oldenburg
- Chamber of Crafts Oldenburg - Chamber district: District-free cities of Oldenburg (Oldb), Delmenhorst and Wilhelmshaven as well as districts Ammerland, Cloppenburg, Friesland, Oldenburg, Vechta and Wesermarsch
- Main customs office in Oldenburg
- Guild health insurance fund Weser-Ems
- Jade College
- State Office for Taxes Lower Saxony - Tax Department
- State Library Oldenburg
- Lower Saxony Chamber of Agriculture
- Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry - Chamber district: District-free cities Oldenburg (Oldb), Delmenhorst and Wilhelmshaven as well as districts Ammerland, Cloppenburg, Friesland, Oldenburg, Vechta and Wesermarsch
- Oldenburg landscape
- Oldenburg State Theater
- State Archives Oldenburg
- Oldenburg City Library (emerged from the " Bridge of Nations ")
- Bundeswehr catering office
- Zweckverband Kommunale Datenverarbeitung Oldenburg (KDO)
Oldenburg's settlement structure is characterized by a large number of one and two-family houses with gardens. The most coveted addresses are in a belt around the city center: Judicial District, Dobbenviertel, Haarenesch, Ziegelhof, Ehnern, Bürgeresch. They are characterized by a stable mix of historical building fabric and modern additions. A special architectural style are the Oldenburg dog houses, one and a half-story houses with a gable roof, which were built between around 1875 and 1920.
Examples of modern Oldenburg are quarters such as the “Bloherfelder Anger” or a new quarter in the Alexanderhaus district, in which residential and natural space were closely intertwined on a 30-hectare site that was used for agriculture for a long time. Furthermore, a new district called Alter Stadthafen is being built on the Hunte , for which industrial and fallow areas are being converted into residential areas. Hundreds of apartments are being built on both sides of the Hunte. Business will be located on the north side or the railway side, and a new promenade and gastronomy will be built on the hunt side. The new district of Neu Donnerschwee is being built in the former barracks area as a conversion measure .
University, colleges, academies
From 1793 to 1927 elementary school teachers were trained at the Evangelical Teachers' College in Oldenburg and the advanced school. From 1947 to 1965 teachers were trained at the Pedagogical Academy and the Pedagogical University (PH), which was converted into the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg on December 5, 1973 and has had its current name since October 13, 1991. Around 14,000 people are currently studying here (winter semester 2014/15). The university operates a botanical garden as a teaching garden, which is located on Philosophenweg. This is also accessible to the public free of charge, as is the listening garden next to the “ House of Hearing ” on Marie-Curie-Strasse. As an affiliated institute of the University of Oldenburg , OFFIS - the Oldenburg research and development institute for IT tools and systems - has been offering scientific and technological know-how in the field of IT in the research areas of energy, health and transport since it was founded in 1991.
The European Medical School Oldenburg-Groningen (EMS) was founded in 2012 . It is a German-Dutch cooperation project with the University of Groningen . It is intended to train 40 students to become doctors for the Northwest region every year. EMS works together with the three Oldenburg hospitals and cooperates with the Karl Jaspers Clinic in the field of psychiatry.
In 2000, the University of Applied Sciences Oldenburg / Ostfriesland / Wilhelmshaven (FH OOW) with the locations Elsfleth , Emden (headquarters of the FH), Leer , Oldenburg and Wilhelmshaven was founded by merging various predecessor institutions. With around 10,000 students, this university was the largest university in Lower Saxony until it was closed on September 1, 2009. The University of Applied Sciences Wilhelmshaven / Oldenburg / Elsfleth (today: Jade University ) and the University of Applied Sciences Emden / Leer (today: University of Emden / Leer ) emerged from it. A short time later, the two universities gave each other new names.
The University of Cooperative Education for IT and Business Oldenburg , sponsored by IBS IT & Business School Oldenburg e. V. supplements the educational offer with two dual Bachelor degree programs in Business Administration (Bachelor of Arts) and Business Informatics (Bachelor of Science).
At the Lower Saxony Police Academy in the Bloherfelde district, around 700 prospective police officers are being trained in a 3-year bachelor's degree.
The Zweckverband Kommunale Datenverarbeitung Oldenburg (KDO) was founded in 1971 as a joint institution for local authorities from the Weser-Ems area. The KDO is (2012) the largest municipal area data center in Lower Saxony.
The Academy for Education and Training Stenographers Association Oldenburg (Oldb) e. V. offers various educational offers in the areas of IT, languages and vocational training.
The only student association on site is the D.St.V. Chamavia to Oldenburg. It has existed since 1925 and connects students at the Jade University of Applied Sciences in Oldenburg and the University of Oldenburg.
- In its city-wide library network, the Oldenburg City Library offers the latest media for schools, training, further education and training. They offer books, magazines, digital media and access to the Internet. It has been based in the Peter Friedrich Ludwigs Hospital culture center on Peterstrasse since 1992 . Branches of the city library are the children's library at the PFL and the district libraries Eversten, Flötenteich, Kreyenbrück and Ofenerdiek.
- The state library as the regional library of the northwest has resided in a converted former infantry barracks on the horse market since 1987 .
- The Oldenburg University Library has its headquarters on the university campus on Uhlhornsweg.
- High schools
- Old High School Oldenburg , Cäcilienschule , High School Eversten Oldenburg , Herbart High School , New High School Oldenburg
- Integrated comprehensive schools
- Integrated comprehensive schools (IGS): Helene-Lange-Schule , IGS Flötenteich, IGS Kreyenbrück, all with upper school level.
- Secondary schools in Alexanderstraße, Eversten, Ofenerdiek, Hochheider Weg and Secondary and Secondary School Easterburg.
- Primary schools, special schools
- 29 primary schools in all districts
- Two special schools : Comenius School Oldenburg in the Eversten district and Froebel School Oldenburg in the Nadorst district.
Schools from other school bodies
- Public carrier
- Free carriers
- Free Waldorf School Oldenburg (lower, middle and upper grades from 1st to 13th grade) sponsored by the Association for a Free School System .
- The educational center Freiraum , consisting of the elementary school Freiraum and the secondary school FREIraum, is run as a reform pedagogical school by the association FREIraum Oldenburg e. V. operated.
- Christian bearers
- Liebfrauenschule , grammar school sponsored by the Catholic Church.
- Paulusschule , secondary and secondary school sponsored by the Catholic Church.
City of Science
In 2004, Oldenburg first applied for the title City of Science, awarded by the Stifterverband für die Deutsche Wissenschaft . The award, endowed with prize money of € 250,000, was awarded to Bremen and Bremerhaven . After a decision by the city council, Oldenburg started again in 2009. This time Oldenburg was able to prevail against competitors such as Heidelberg , Konstanz and Lübeck . The motto Übermorgenstadt should make it clear that science should be the decisive driving force behind the city's further development and future viability. The decision to make Oldenburg City of Science in 2009 was made on February 28, 2008 at 2:25 pm in Jena .
The competition is intended to motivate the applying cities to develop existing synergies between science, business, culture and citizens and to create new networks. The specially appointed campaign office therefore picked up on a large number of ideas from the population and formed 16 lead projects from them. They formed the framework for a marathon with several hundred events that were supposed to help anchor Oldenburg as a science city in the minds of its residents and visitors.
The logo, which was developed for the application campaign and which has won multiple awards, found its way into the corporate design of the city of Oldenburg at the end of the year as City of Science .
As a result of the award, the Smart House Oldenburg was expanded and established as a scientific venue. The Schlaues Haus Oldenburg gGmbH now also supports the Stifterverband for German Science.
- Occupational Health Service Oldenburg
- Medical Center Oldenburg
- Day eye clinic
- Evangelical Hospital Oldenburg
- Specialist Clinic Oldenburger Land
- Hearing Center Oldenburg
- KfH Board of Trustees for Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation
- Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Oldenburg
- Oldenburg Clinic
- Pius Hospital Oldenburg
- Rehabilitation center Oldenburg
Nature and recreational areas
Lakes and ponds
Immediately to the east of the federal motorway 29, four lakes are lined up, some of which are suitable for swimming and water sports: the Kleine Bornhorster See , the Große Bornhorster See , the Blankenburger See and the Tweelbäker See (the city limits of Oldenburg runs through this; its eastern bank already belongs to the municipality of Hude in the district of Oldenburg). The lakes owe their creation to the construction of the motorways 28, 29 and 293. Large quantities of sand were required, in particular for the construction of the ramps on both sides of the motorway bridge over the Hunte, which was dredged and washed out of the area where the lakes are today.
In addition, there are a number of smaller lakes and ponds as well as smaller rivers in the urban area.
Green spaces and forests
In addition to the palace gardens and the Mühlenhunte landscape park , the botanical garden, Eversten Holz, the Große and Kleine Bürgerbusch and the area around the Easter burger Utkiek are used for walks in the countryside. There are also opportunities for recreation in the ramparts, whose green belt around the city center has largely been preserved. The two municipal cemeteries in Bümmerstede and on Patentbusch have a park-like character. There are also smaller parks in the city, such as the Cäcilienpark near the State Theater.
From May to August, since 2005, temporary gardens have been set up under the name "City Gardens" , especially in the city center . The temporary gardens are intended to demonstrate “Oldenburg's great affinity for parks and gardens”.
Temporary Japanese Garden at Leffers-Eck 2013
There are six nature reserves in the urban area , which together cover around 5.4 percent of the urban area: Alexanderheide , Krusenbusch railway embankment, Bornhorster Huntewiesen, Everstenmoor, Gellener Porfmöörte with Rockenmoor and Fuchsberg and Osternburger Kanal .
NSG Bornhorster Huntewiesen
The " Bornhorster Huntewiesen " cover 350 hectares and were placed under protection in 1991. It is a bird sanctuary based on the European Birds Directive of national importance. They belong to the Natura 2000 network. The protected area is characterized by wide meadows that are covered by an extensive system of ditches. The curlew , black godwit and snipe populate the wide, tree-free and in winter often flooded plain. Every year, large numbers of migratory birds such as water birds and waders rest in the meadows. Rare plant species such as swan flower , swamp pea or swamp trident can only be found here within the city.
There is an absolute ban on entering the entire nature reserve. It is divided into two protection zones with different usage restrictions. In zone 2, for example, the cultivation of the areas during the breeding season of the meadow birds and the spreading of liquid manure is prohibited and the edges of the ditch may only be mowed during the second grassland cut. The areas can be viewed by interested visitors from the dykes or from the refuge on Kuhweg.
The 105 hectare “ Everstenmoor ” was placed under nature protection in 1990. It is the last uncultivated, larger raised bog in the area of the city of Oldenburg. Raised bog specialties such as sundew , cotton grass , white schnabelried , moor frog , adder and rare dragonfly and butterfly species are still represented here. Through rewetting measures , the regular removal of growing birch trees ( peeling ) and the grazing of the moorland areas with moorland sheep , an attempt is made to maintain the structural wealth and the typical high moor communities. The Freesenweg and the Sandfurter Weg are specially marked hiking trails on which the moor can be discovered.
NSG railway embankment site Krusenbusch
The nature reserve " Railway Embankment Krusenbusch " has a size of 53 hectares and was placed under protection in 1998. It is located in the south-eastern part of the city of Oldenburg. It is a marshalling yard that has been closed since 1976. In the area, rare and endangered animal and plant species settle on the remaining sand as well as gravel and slag residues. The area is accessible to visitors via a circular hiking trail of around 1.5 kilometers.
- List of nature reserves in Oldenburg (Oldb)
- List of landscape protection areas in Oldenburg (Oldb)
- List of natural monuments in Oldenburg (Oldb)
- List of protected landscape components in Oldenburg (Oldb)
Culture and sights
The oldest theater is the Oldenburg State Theater . A theater built in 1833 by the carpenter Muck as a wooden structure, which stood near the present day theater, was replaced in 1881 by the building in the Italian Renaissance style. The court architect Gerhard Schnitger completed the Grand Ducal Residence Theater on the site between the Theaterwall and Stadtgraben . However, it burned down in November 1891 by a fire, probably caused by fireworks in the interior. The theater, which was rebuilt in the neo-baroque style, was opened in 1893 and expanded with a dome and additional workshop buildings . In 1918 the last Grand Duke abdicated and the theater was renamed the Oldenburgisches Landestheater . Since the building was taken over by the State of Oldenburg as part of the financial equalization between the federal states and municipalities in 1938, it has been called the Oldenburg State Theater . The theater actress and current member of the Vienna Burgtheater ensemble , Andrea Clausen, began her stage career in this theater . The actress Ulrike Folkerts , known from the ARD series Tatort as Commissioner Lena Odenthal , also began her career here.
Attached to the State Theater is the August Hinrichs stage , which only plays pieces in the Low German language. In March 1921, the stage was founded from members of the Späälkoppel, initially under the name Ollnborger Kring . In 1923 it was incorporated into the State Theater and the name was changed to Niederdeutsche Bühne Oldenburg at the State Theater . With the State Theater, the August Hinrichs stage at the Oldenburg State Theater also got its current name in 1939. Between 1945 and 1998 the AHB played in the theater in the Oldenburg Castle. Since 1998 she has been playing in the so-called Small House of the State Theater. The stage is run as an association, the members pursue acting as a leisure activity. Since the general manager Markus Müller took over the management in 2006, the August-Hinrichs-Bühne has been integrated into the theater as one of the six branches (Low German Drama).
The Studentenwerk Oldenburg has been running the UNIKUM and the Unitheater since 1985. The Oldenburger Uni Theater GmbH, which was founded at the time, has been using the UNIKUM since July 1997 . Student and free theater groups are organized in it.
The Wrede Theater, a modern theater for adults and children, also opened in 1985. 1999–2009 the theater moved into its first own theater, the Theaterfabrik Rosenstrasse . In autumn 2009 it opened its new performance and research facility under the new name “Theater wrede +” in Klävemannstraße 16.
The Kulturetage was founded in 1986 by the Kulturkooperative Oldenburg e. V. started. Since renting a floor in a warehouse near the main train station, the culture floor offers space for different art forms in addition to a cabaret. Concerts , cabaret and readings are currently available in a hall, a studio and three rehearsal rooms that offer space for the various events.
The private theater Laboratorium has been showing mainly contemporary puppet theater since 1995. In the performances in which the self-designed figures are used, elements of drama are also used. In addition to the plays, concerts and readings are also given.
The free theater hof / 19 has been the youngest theater in Oldenburg since it was founded in September 2001. The widu-Theater production, which has its venue here, was previously shown on the stages of the Kulturetage and the Theaterfabrik.
Due to necessary renovation work in the large house to improve fire protection, the last performances of the 2017/2018 season took place in a tent in the theater harbor on the former premises of the company "Rheinumschlag" on the south bank of the Hunte.
- CineK, cinema in the Kulturetage
- Oldenburger Wallkino (closed)
- The Lower Saxony mobile cinema is located in the Oldenburg station district
The Oldenburg State Museum is showing the permanent exhibition “Cultural History of a Historical Landscape”, the “History of Applied Arts” exhibition, exhibitions on individual aspects of cultural history and special exhibitions in Oldenburg Castle . In the Augusteum , which is also part of the State Museum for Art and Cultural History , the works of old masters are usually shown (paintings by Italian and Dutch painters from the 16th to 18th centuries, European painting from the Middle Ages to modern times and changing exhibitions). The Prinzenpalais is the third house of the State Museum for Art and Cultural History, here the art of the 19th and 20th centuries with a focus on German impressionism and the expressionism of the Brücke painters is exhibited, and the development of the visual arts in Germany since the Epochs of Romanticism and Classicism are shown. The formerly private grand ducal collections form the basis of the exhibits shown in the State Museum for Art and Cultural History.
The State Museum for Nature and Man was opened in 1836 as the "Natural History Museum Oldenburg" by Grand Duke Paul Friedrich August . It includes the departments of archeology , natural history and ethnology in interdisciplinary permanent exhibitions. In addition, exhibitions and special exhibitions are also shown in this museum.
In the Oldenburg City Museum , the city history department shows the early and city history of Oldenburg. In addition , exhibits that have come into the possession of the City Museum can be viewed through foundations of Theodor Francksen , Bernhard Winter , Claus Hüppe, Elise Bamberger and Juliane Böcker. The Theodor Francksen Foundation represented the basis of the city museum's holdings.
The Horst Janssen Museum is located on the grounds of the Oldenburg City Museum . Works by the draftsman and graphic artist Horst Janssen and related artists are exhibited here. Three to four temporary exhibitions can be visited annually.
The Edith Russ House for Media Art, founded in 2000, goes back to a foundation by Edith Russ . With changing exhibitions, it exclusively shows contemporary art created with new media and awards grants to international artists.
Since 2008, the Oldenburg Computer Museum has been one of the few computer museums in Germany in the city. The exhibition shows the computer and video game history of the 1970s and 1980s. After moving, the OCM has been showing the exhibition at over 600 m since August 2014.
Sculpture in the horse market
Both the Oldenburg State Archives and the Oldenburg City Archives are located on the dam (house numbers 43 and 41). The State Archives are files and documents of the country Oldenburg , archives of Oldenburg in the city archives archives. Both institutions also have extensive collections of images on the city and state history as well as their own libraries .
- Old grammar school in Oldenburg from 1573, neo-Gothic building from 1878
- Old town hall from 1888 in neo -Gothic and neo-Renaissance style
- Amalienbrücke over the Hunte from 1980
- Cäcilienbrücke , lift bridge over the Hunte from 1927
- Degodehaus , half-timbered building from 1502
- Hall of honor of the Oldenburg artillery from 1921 on the grounds of the Jade University , Oldenburg
- Elisabeth-Anna-Palais from 1896 ( historicism )
- Garrison Church Oldenburg
- Gertrudenkapelle from 1250 and 1481 ( Romanesque and Gothic )
- Graf-Anton-Günther-Haus from 1682, remodeling around 1838, since 1894 a hotel and named after Count Anton Günther von Oldenburg
- Oldenburg Central Station from 1915 in Art Nouveau style
- Lambertikirche , first mentioned in 1237, west tower from 1873, neo-Gothic redesign from 1887
- State Parliament building and State Ministry of Oldenburg from 1916/17 based on plans by Paul Bonatz , today the seat of state authorities
- Lappan , the symbol of the city, bell tower from 1467/68
- Mausoleum , classical stately grave chapel from 1785 for the ducal-Oldenburg house
- Oldenburger Mühle, replica from 1998 on the Lower Saxony Mühlenstraße , today a hotel
- Oldenburg State Theater , rebuilt in 1893 in neo-baroque style.
- Oldenburger Turnerbund , Haarenufer 9, gym from 1890, later historicism
- Peter Friedrich Ludwigs Hospital from 1841, since 1992 city library, cultural office and cultural center
- Peterkirche , catholic, neo-Gothic church from 1876
- Powder tower of the former city fortifications from 1529
- Smart House Oldenburg , oldest town house in Oldenburg, built in 1562
- Oldenburg Castle , baroque residence from 1615 and 1753
- Schlosswache , neo-classical guard from 1839 on the Schloßplatz, the former castle freedom
- Mourning hall at the Jewish cemetery , inaugurated in 1921
- Synagogue , Leo-Trepp- Strasse (until 2013 Wilhelmstrasse), former Baptist chapel , building from 1868
- Achterdiek hydropower plant , built in 1927, architect Adolf Rauchheld
- Donnerschwee water tower from 1896
- Water tower for the railway in the port from 1908, today an open-plan office
- Weser-Ems-Halle from 1954, expanded in 1956, 1975, 1980 and 1996, renovated in 1994, supplemented by the small EWE Arena in 2005 , and the large EWE Arena in 2013
- Botanical Garden
- EWE Arena (sports arena)
- Marschweg Stadium
- Castle garden
- Mural of Count Anton Günther
At the end of January the holiday fair “Caravan Freizeit Reisen” and at the beginning of February the motorcycle and biker fair “Motorrad Show” in the Weser-Ems halls .
The Oldenburg Model United Nations ( OLMUN ), which has now risen to become Germany's largest student MUN , takes place in June with over 700 national and international schoolchildren and students and is organized by them throughout the year.
The Christopher Street Day (CSD) is celebrated since 1995 in Oldenburg in June.
The international music festival “Oldenburger Promenade” takes place in the first half of June. The concept: With a ticket chosen by the visitor for a concert evening, the so-called “Promenade”, three different programs at different historical locations can be experienced for 45 minutes each. In between there is time to stroll to the other venue and the marquee.
During the summer holidays, the Kulturetage organizes the Oldenburger Kultursommer, a three-week event with jazz, rock, pop, folklore, classical music, pantomime and other visual and performing arts. The motto is "free and outside". At the end of the cultural open-air activities, the International Ceramic Days present around 100 leading ceramic artists and workshops from all over Germany and Europe on the first weekend in August . The three-day Oldenburg City Festival begins on the last Thursday in August , an open-air festival with numerous (live) music stages and stalls in the pedestrian zone.
The international film festival Oldenburg , a film festival dedicated to international filmmaking, takes place on five days in the first half of September. On the first or second weekend in September, the wine festival is celebrated with dance and folklore. The Kramermarkt , which begins around St Michael’s Day (29 September) , the folk festival that takes place in Oldenburg, is celebrated for 10 days until the beginning of October. The art market in the Cäciliensaal can be visited during the autumn holidays.
The Oldenburg Children's and Youth Book Fair ( KIBUM ), the largest non-commercial fair (business) in this field in Germany, is organized by the city, the university and the adult education center in November with the award of the Oldenburg Children's and Youth Book Prize . The Oldenburger Kurzfilmtage zwergWERK, a short film festival, is also celebrated in November.
Discontinued regular events
In the summer from 1998 to 2009, an annual “wash tub regatta” took place on the Haaren in the section next to the Heiligengeistwall. Since 2010 this spectacle has not been continued due to the high organizational and financial effort. The wash tubs were sold to Augustfehn , where they have been used annually since 2010.
For about a hundred years there was an Easter market in Oldenburg for nine days from Holy Saturday , until the 1960s on the horse market, before the construction work for the castle gallery on the castle square and finally next to the Weser-Ems-Halle. The last event took place in 2011. The tradition of the Easter market was (for the time being) discontinued due to insufficient visitor feedback.
Until 2012, a flower show took place in the Weser-Ems-Hallen at the beginning of March , which was attended by an average of 40,000 people. The center of the event was the 5000 m² flower show hall. Around 170 exhibitors presented their products on a further 11,000 m² of exhibition space at the accompanying garden and consumer fair. The flower show was replaced by a fair called the “Oldenburger Gartentage”, during which, however, large-scale blooming flowers are not shown. In 2019 the "Oldenburg Garden Days" were buried due to a lack of profitability.
Flower show in the Weser-Ems-Halle (2005)
Dialects / languages
Until a few decades ago, Low German was the common language in Oldenburg, with the upper class speaking High German since the 19th century. The dialects belonged to Northern Lower Saxony . They spoke North Oldenburgish .
Today standard German prevails as the colloquial language. Only a few Oldenburgers can still master Platt.
Wealthy merchants from Oldenburg drove their horse-drawn carriages to East Friesland as early as the 19th century to enjoy winter vegetables in the village inns there. The cabbage rides, which are popular throughout the northwest, have their origins in this tradition. Since 1956, the Defftig Ollnborger Gröönkohl-Äten with guests from politics, culture and society has taken place every year in the federal capital (first in Bonn, then in Berlin) . Since the summer of 2010, Oldenburg has been referring to itself with a wink as the “Cabbage Tour Capital”.
Even after the dissolution of the administrative districts is still in Oldenburg Schützenwesen the county umbrella organization Oldenburg Schützenbund, the protecting circuits 16 with 185 shooting clubs belong.
The Stadtsportbund Oldenburg has 98 sports clubs with over 39,000 members.
- BTB Royals (basketball club of the German regional league for men)
- Bürgerfelder Turnerbund (athletics, basketball, handball, dance sport)
- EWE Baskets (basketball club of the German basketball league for men)
- Oldenburg Outlaws Men & Oldenburg Outlaws Coyotes Women (American Football)
- Oldenburg Gymnastics Federation
- Schwarz-Weiß Oldenburg eV (aikido, ball art, baseball, football, gymnastics, judo, ju-jutsu, karate, children's gymnastics, gymnastics wheels, marksmen, tennis, table tennis, volleyball)
- Seikenjuku Oldenburg e. V. Association for Asian Culture and Sport ( Kendō )
- SV Eintracht Oldenburg
- TCH Oldenburg ( dance sport , formation dancing , single couple dance and mass sport dance groups)
- TUS Bloherfelde 06 ( football , badminton , gymnastics )
- TuS Eversten (football, table tennis, badminton)
- VfB Oldenburg (football club of the German Regionalliga Nord for men)
- VfL Oldenburg (handball club of the handball Bundesliga (women) ; football club of the German U-19 Bundesliga ; football club of the German Oberliga Nord for men, handball, American football, athletics)
- MSC Oldenburg Motorsport Club in Oldenburg; Organizer of Oldtimer Grand Prix, car slalom, kart races and from 1952 to 1991 also speedway and grass track races in Oldenburg, Rastede and Apen / near Westerstede.
- OTeV Oldenburg Oldenburger Tennisverein (tennis regional or 2nd Bundesliga)
The oldest sports club in the city are the Oldenburger Schützen from 1816 with around 500 members.
- List of personalities of the city of Oldenburg (Oldenburg)
- List of sons and daughters of the city of Oldenburg (Oldenburg)
- List of honorary citizens of the city of Oldenburg (Oldb)
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Oldenburg
Literature and media
- German city book. Handbook of Urban History, Volume III Northwest Germany, Volume 1 Lower Saxony / Bremen - On behalf of the Working Group of the Historical Commissions and with the support of the German Association of Cities , the German Association of Cities and the German Association of Municipalities , ed. by Erich Keyser, Stuttgart, 1952.
- Hermann Lübbing: Oldenburg, historical contours. Heinz Holzberg Verlag, Oldenburg 1971, ISBN 3-87358-045-4 .
- Albrecht Eckhardt, Heinrich Schmidt (ed.): History of the state of Oldenburg. 3rd edition, Holzberg, Oldenburg 1998, ISBN 3-87358-285-6 .
- Hans Patze , Ernst Schubert (ed.): History of Lower Saxony. 3 volumes, Lax, Hildesheim (last volume 3, part 1: 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 ).
- Oldenburgische Blätter: 1848 numbers 11, 12 and 13, March 14, 21 and 28.
- Monika Wegmann-Fetsch: The revolution of 1848 in the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, Heinz Holzberg Verlag, Oldenburg 1974.
- Jörg Eckert, Urban Archeology in Oldenburg. In: Guide to archaeological monuments in Germany. Volume 31: City and District of Oldenburg, Theiss-Verlag, Stuttgart 1995, pp. 101–112.
- History of the city of Oldenburg. Volume 1: From the beginning until 1830. Isensee-Verlag, Oldenburg 1997.
- Werner Meiners: Oldenburg. In: Herbert Obenaus (Ed. In collaboration with David Bankier and Daniel Fraenkel): Historical manual of the Jewish communities in Lower Saxony and Bremen. Volume 1 and 2 (1668 pp.), Göttingen 2005, pages 1172–1196 (with 5 illustrations), ISBN 3-89244-753-5 .
- Udo Elerd (Ed.): From the vigilante to the Bundeswehr. On the history of the garrison and the military in the city of Oldenburg. Oldenburg 2006, ISBN 3-89995-353-3 .
- Wilhelm Gilly de Montaut: Fortress and garrison Oldenburg. Oldenburg 1981, ISBN 3-87358-132-9 .
- Rolf Dalheimer: Kleine Kirchenstraße 5, published 2008, ISBN 978-3-8370-6439-1 .
- City of Oldenburg (Ed.): Oldenburg 1914–1918. A source volume on the everyday, social, military and mental history of the city of Oldenburg in the First World War ( publications of the Oldenburg City Archives, vol. 7), Oldenburg (Isensee) 2014, ISBN 978-3-7308-1080-4 .
- Andreas von Seggern : Big city against its will. On the history of the reception and integration of refugees and displaced persons in the city of Oldenburg after 1944 (= foreign proximity . Vol. 8). Lit, Münster 1997, ISBN 3-8258-3553-7 .
- Doris Böker: City of Oldenburg (Oldenburg) (= monument topography Federal Republic of Germany: architectural monuments in Lower Saxony , volume 31). Niemeyer, Hameln 1993, ISBN 3-87585-253-2 .
- Other media
- In the beginning there was the river ... Oldenburg - on the trail of the past, PAL video, 80 minutes, Nordwest-Zeitung and Boklage Film, 1995.
- Link catalog on Oldenburg at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- Official website
- statistical data about Oldenburg
- Oldenburg used to be in pictures and texts
- Oldenburg today
- Literature from and about Oldenburg in the catalog of the German National Library
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- § 1 main statute of the city of Oldenburg (Oldb) from September 26, 2016 ("The municipality bears the name Oldenburg (Oldb) [...]") www.oldenburg.de . Retrieved July 7, 2017 (PDF), found under Constitution and General Administration .
- Martin Teller: Geography. Map "The landscapes of Oldenburg according to physical-geographical features."
- Urban agglomerations (Germany): & Urban agglomerations - population figures, graphics and map. Accessed August 21, 2020 .
- Oldenburg, The years 1921–1932. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 10, 2015 ; Retrieved April 10, 2014 .
- City of Oldenburg: Air base master plan - plan drawing (change in zoning plan) and air base master plan - plan drawing (new development plan)
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Fliegerhorst In Oldenburg: The first building sites are for sale . In: NWZonline . ( nwzonline.de [accessed on August 1, 2018]).
- G. Rüthning: The nuns in Blankenburg. In: Oldenburg yearbook of the society for antiquity and regional history . Stalling, Oldenburg 1925, pp. 185-201.
- The Oldenburg Castle Garden: Initial situation , accessed on February 16, 2012
- https://www.zeit.de/zeit-geschichte/2017/05/dreissigjaehriger-krieg-westfaelische-frieden-syrien-georg-schmidt-interview/seite-2 , zeit.de, accessed on August 10, 2019
- Kreiszeitung : No second Blankenburg , March 2, 2011.
- Ludwig Kohli: Handbook of a historical-statistical-geographical description of the Duchy of Oldenburg together with the inheritance of Jever and the principalities of Birkenfeld and Lübeck, Wilhelm Kaiser, Bremen 1825, p. 21 ( online ).
- District Association Oldenburg: Blankenburg Abbey Foundation ( Memento from October 10, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) . Retrieved February 1, 2014.
- Dietrich Kohl: On the history of the Lappan in Oldenburg iO According to municipal files. Reprint from the Nachrichten für Stadt und Land, Oldenburg 1929, p. 6.
- A. Eckhardt, H. Schmidt: History of the State of Oldenburg. Heinz Holzberg Verlag, Oldenburg 1987, p. 310.
- City-Land-Oldenburg Modern Times 1829–1852 , accessed on March 7, 2011.
- Oldenburgische Blätter, number 11, Tuesday, March 14, 1848 p. 1.
- oldenburg.de .
- Ingo Harms: The Blankenburg Abbey Nursing Home under the influence of racial hygiene and National Socialism . In: Biologism - On the theory and practice of a powerful ideology . BIS-Verlag of the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg. 2011, p. 13.
- Memory course .
- Ole Sparenberg: From the foreigners' housing camp in Ohmstede to the racing area settlement . In: Oldenburg Yearbook . Vol. 100, 2000. pp. 177-199.
- Arvaldis Andrejs Brumanis: The Baltic countries and their exile using the example of Latvia . East-West European Perspectives 1/2006.
- Gemeinnützige Siedlungsgesellschaft Oldenburg (GSG): Building & Living in and around Oldenburg .
- Aina Urdze: Approaching Obsolescence (PDF; 863 kB). Lecture at the European University Viadrina Frankfurt (Oder), December 16, 2011, p. 11.
- Heinz Arndt: Many changes in the old monastery, ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Nordwest-Zeitung , February 6, 2010.
- Die Zeit : The End of the Institution , November 16, 2008
- Jan Glasenapp: In the field of tension between security and freedom: on deinstitutionalization in assistance for the disabled, 2010. Page 165 f. In: Series: Forum Behindertenpädagogik, Volume 14, ISBN 978-3-643-10755-8 ( Google Book ).
- taz : “People were lying in the hallways” , May 17, 2013.
- Beate Lama: Underworlds - The Blankenburg Monastery ( Memento from July 11, 2011 in the Internet Archive ). Oldenburg local section, September 5, 2010.
- Lower Saxony State : Oldenburg site ( Memento from March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive )
- M. Roth, P. Tornow: Essays on the medical history of the city of Oldenburg. Isensee, Oldenburg 1999, p. 218, ISBN 3-89598-539-2 .
- The Bundeswehr location in Oldenburg was "shaken" . welt.de . January 17, 2002
- Klaus Brake / Wolfgang Krumbein: Location conversion and structural change in Lower Saxony . Institute for Regional Research (IfR) Göttingen / Research Institute Region and Environment (FORUM) at the Carl von Ossietzky University of Oldenburg. December 1995. p. 42
- Michael Exner: Bundeswehr: Oldenburg becomes a paratrooper center . nwzonline.de. February 3, 2006
- City of Oldenburg: Development of the garrison from 1945 to today
- City of Oldenburg: Oldenburg in numbers - City of Oldenburg. (No longer available online.) In: www.oldenburg.de. Archived from the original on August 20, 2016 ; Retrieved July 7, 2016 .
- City of Oldenburg Religion , 2011 census
- Inhabitants by denomination and share of the total population 2012–2019 , accessed on June 17, 2020
- Population by denomination and proportion of the total population 2010–2017 , accessed on February 23, 2019.
- Die Zeit No. , p. 77.
- Muhammad Max Krüper: Mosques in Oldenburg (Oldenburg) . www.moscheesuch.de
- Report of the Humanist Association of Lower Saxony: Humanist Center Weser-Ems officially opened ( Memento from May 2, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Lower Saxony Municipal Constitutional Law (NKomVG) in the version of December 17, 2010; Section 46 - Number of MPs , accessed on January 6, 2017.
- Local election official final result 2016. (PDF) In: oldenburg.de. Retrieved September 22, 2016 .
- Unexpectedly clear election victory for Jürgen Krogmann , accessed on October 18, 2014.
- Oldenburg and Kingston upon Thames sign partnership document ( Memento of May 27, 2011 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on October 2, 2010
- Dirk Fisser: Thick walls have had their day: after 160 years, the prison in Oldenburg is closing . Lingener Tagespost ( noz.de ) . 21st March 2013
- City of Oldenburg: Demography Report 2013 . 2013. p. 59
- City of Oldenburg: The city of Oldenburg in regional comparison: gross value added in 2016 * in current prices in million euros . 2017
- Eckhard-Herbert Arndt: Ports want to grow sustainably . In: Daily port report of February 17, 2015, p. 3.
- Differentiated picture in the development of the envelope . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 4/2014, pp. 44–47, here p. 47.
- Frank Binder: Emden: New record for car handling . In: Daily port report of February 16, 2016, p. 3
- German seaports report stable handling development . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 4/2018, pp. 32–36, here p. 34.
- Rhein-Umschlag invests millions . Oldenburger Online Newspaper . March 24, 2016.
- Current results - VGR dL. Retrieved January 7, 2019 .
- Federal State of Lower Saxony. Federal Employment Agency, accessed on January 7, 2019 .
- Future Atlas 2016. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 2, 2017 ; accessed on March 23, 2018 .
- The history of AEG in Oldenburg . alt-oldenburg.de
- Bölts meat product factory . alt-oldenburg.de
- Brand shipyard . alt-oldenburg.de
- The history of the Deus shipping company . alt-oldenburg.de
- JD Ehlers and Bavaria St. Pauli Brewery . alt-oldenburg.de
- Marc Geschonke: [The traditional location closes: Coca-Cola packs the moving boxes in Oldenburg ]. nwzonline.de. July 9, 2016
- Oldenburg glassworks . alt-oldenburg.de
- Haslinde-Hoyer Brewery . alt-oldenburg.de
- Oldenburg gas works . alt-oldenburg.de
- Gerhard Stalling, printer and publisher . alt-oldenburg.de
- City of Oldenburg: Statistics - Economy - Table 0336 Overnight stays and guests in accommodation establishments ... ( Memento from July 28, 2017 in the Internet Archive ).
- Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry: City of Oldenburg: Oberzentrum des Oldenburger Land ( Memento from June 22, 2016 in the Internet Archive ).
- Records orspecial. Retrieved October 10, 2017 .
- ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry: Transport projects in the district of the Oldenburg Chamber of Commerce and Industry . January 1, 2012 ( Memento of November 13, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 111 kB) p. 4.
- New route arouses displeasure in Bornhorst. Protests in the building committee - "Extended northern bypass divides village". In: Nordwestzeitung from February 8, 2008.
- laenderbahn.info .
- Timetables, network plans, line plans. Verkehr und Wasser GmbH, accessed on December 10, 2018 .
- Part C: Securing, developing and improving public transport. In: Local transport plan 2018–2022. Zweckverband Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen, archived from the original on March 30, 2019 ; accessed on March 30, 2019 .
- VBN Bad Zwischenahn - travel friends. January 9, 2017, accessed January 6, 2018 .
- Gerdes Reisen receives award from ZVBN for regional bus services in the Ammerland district. Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen GmbH, accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- trips. Emil Hilgen GmbH & Co. KG, accessed on January 6, 2018 .
- Deutsche Bahn AG, Passenger Transport, Marketing eCommerce: With the WeserSprinter to Bremerhaven, Oldenburg and the Wesermarsch. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 21, 2017 ; accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- DB Mobility Logistics AG: Hanekamp Busreisen takes over traffic in Ammerland. Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen GmbH, July 8, 2014, accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Lower Saxony (ed.): Olaf Lies opens state bus route S35 . May 5, 2017 ( vbn.de [accessed on May 6, 2017] leaflet , folding timetable ).
- The night express timetable. Verkehr und Wasser GmbH, accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- Our night line offer. Verkehrsverbund Bremen / Niedersachsen, accessed on March 30, 2019 .
- "For the love of Oldenburg" - VWG operates the most environmentally friendly bus fleet in Germany. Verkehr und Wasser GmbH, October 21, 2016, accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- The traffic and water company (VWG). In: company brochure. Verkehr und Wasser GmbH, accessed on September 7, 2017 .
- Different development of the turnover figures · Balance sheet 2012 . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 5/2013, pp. 16/18, Seehafen-Verlag, Hamburg 2013,
- Peter Kleinort: Economic reconstruction weighs on ports . In: Daily port report of February 28, 2017, p. 3.
- VCÖ: Austria's cities have to catch up in terms of cycling compared to other EU countries. Retrieved October 10, 2017 .
- Jördis Fruchtchtenicht: When cyclists are allowed to ride over Rot. TAZ .nord, May 11, 2015, accessed on March 23, 2016 .
- ADFC: ADFC Bicycle Climate Test 2016. Evaluation Oldenburg (Oldb) .
Police crime statistics (PKS) for the year 2018, communicated by the Police Inspectorate Oldenburg-Stadt / Ammerland:
https://www.presseportal.de/download/ document / 554904-pks2018stadtoldenburg.pdf
(PDF 2.8 MiB) Archive link: https://web.archive.org/web/20190309125237/https://www.presseportal.de/blaulicht/pm/68440/4210708
- Wiehengebirgsverband Weser-Ems: Der Jadeweg ( Memento from July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 9, 2016.
- Wiehengebirgsverband Weser-Ems: Der Ems-Hunte-Weg ( Memento from July 8, 2016 in the Internet Archive ), accessed on July 9, 2016.
- Customs online - general agency search. Retrieved July 7, 2017 .
- City of Oldenburg: Old City Harbor - City of Oldenburg. Retrieved August 24, 2020 .
- Wilhelm Meyer: The Botanical Garden in Oldenburg . In: Oldenburger Jahrbuch of the Oldenburger Landesverein for history, natural history and local history . Vol. 50, 1950. pp. 232-245.
- Homepage of the Oldenburg Botanical Garden
- Homepage of the Hörgarten Oldenburg .
- City of Oldenburg: City library .
- German Library Association: Members: Oldenburg City Library, City of Oldenburg .
- Homepage of the Oldenburg State Library
- Homepage of the University Library Oldenburg .
- Oldenburg is City of Science 2009
- Björn Quäck: Science in the City | Places, formats, actors. February 15, 2018, accessed August 5, 2020 .
- The green side of Oldenburg: Schlossgarten, Eversten Holz and Botanical Garden. Travel guide Oldenburg Schwarzaufweiss - The travel magazine .
- cmo (City Management Oldenburg): 10 years Oldenburg City Gardens - from May 10 to August 10, 2014 ( Memento from May 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Ordinance on the "Bornhorster Huntewiesen" nature reserve (PDF)
- Information brochure on the “Bornhorster Huntewiesen” nature reserve (PDF).
- Ordinance on the “Everstenmoor” nature reserve ( Memento of July 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 21 kB).
- Ordinance of April 21, 1998 on the nature reserve "Krusenbusch railway embankment area" (PDF)
- Information about the "Krusenbusch railway embankment site" .
- Oliver Schulz: State Theater puts up tent at the harbor . nwzonline. 20th January 2018.
- Edith Russ House for Media Art , accessed on February 14, 2014.
- Computermuseum Oldenburg , accessed on July 11, 2013
- Museum shows young "antiques" , accessed on November 20, 2010.
- What future do computer have? , accessed July 11, 2013.
- Computer .
- Nordwest-Zeitung: “caravan Freizeit Reisen” fair in Oldenburg: You are always right with dream destinations. January 28, 2019, accessed July 9, 2019 .
- Nordwest-Zeitung: Motorcycle Show In Oldenburg: Two days. February 11, 2019, accessed July 9, 2019 .
- Interest group Nikolaiviertel: Applied Art Oldenburg . 2010 ( Memento from July 19, 2011 in the Internet Archive )
- City of Oldenburg: Statistics: Children's and youth book fair KIBUM 2005–2013 ( Memento from July 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Anniversary: 10 years of the Waschzuberregatta Die Bürgerzeitung. June 9, 2008 ( Memento from June 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
- Final: The wash tubs will not come back NWZ Online. July 14, 2010 .
- Last round for Easter market . Northwest Newspaper . May 3, 2011.
- fair makes you want to go green. Premiere from Friday - 15,000 visitors expected . Northwest Newspaper . March 8, 2013.
- Nordwest-Zeitung: No spring show More Oldenburg: Garden days are buried. March 13, 2019, accessed July 9, 2019 .
- page of the association
- Page of the Seikenjuku Association ( Memento of the original from May 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , accessed March 26, 2013