|coat of arms||Germany map|
|State :||Lower Saxony|
|Administrative headquarters :||Brake (Lower Weser)|
|Area :||822.01 km 2|
|Residents:||88,583 (Dec 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||108 inhabitants per km 2|
|License plate :||BRA|
|Circle key :||03 4 61|
|Circle structure:||9 municipalities|
|Address of the
|Poggenburger Strasse 15
26919 Brake (Unterweser)
|District Administrator :||Thomas Brückmann ( independent )|
|Location of the Wesermarsch district in Lower Saxony|
The district of Wesermarsch is located in northwest Lower Saxony and comprises the area west of the Weser between Bremen and the mouth of the Weser. Its county seat is Brake , while the largest city is Nordenham .
The Wesermarsch lies in the north German lowlands . The area of the Wesermarsch landscape largely coincides with that of the district of the same name . However, the landscape is larger than the district. The Geestrand is the border to the Wesermarsch in the west and in the south in the Ammerland and Oldenburg districts , and the Wesermarsch landscape also includes areas to the right of the Weser, v. a. the historical landscape of Osterstade . The Wesermarsch also protrudes a good bit into the city of Bremen in the southeast .
The predominant landscape type is the marsh , two thirds of which is below the mean flood water level and is protected from flooding by dykes that separate the entire district from the water of the Weser, the North Sea and the Jadebusen. In the west the march connects to the Geest . The "Geest-Abbruch" is located on the B 211 in Loyermoor, bridging a height difference of a good 30 meters.
There are also various moors distributed over the district . B. the so-called floating moor on the Jadebusen in the district Sehestedt of the municipality Jade , as an outstanding natural monument of the unique kind. In the southwest are the Rockenmoor and the Grasmoor , in the middle of the district the Frieschenmoor and in the west at Jade the Kreuzmoor . The whole district is criss-crossed by extensive drainage channels and ditches.
The Oldenburg Wesermarsch consists of the Frisian populated areas of the Stadland and Butjadingens in the north and the Oldenburg Stedingen in the south. With its marshland, the Wesermarsch was and is particularly well suited for cattle and horse breeding. In the past, this made the Wesermarsch one of the wealthiest areas in the whole of the Oldenburger Land. Accordingly, the rich march farmers have provided their houses of worship with altarpieces, pulpits, baptismal fonts and organs in keeping with their rank.
The county borders in the clockwise direction in the northwest starting at the Jade Bay and the Inner Jade , to the Wadden Sea between Innenjade and Außenweser beyond the Weser to the independent city Bremerhaven and the districts Cuxhaven and Osterholz and to the city of Bremen (such as Bremerhaven to the country Bremen belonging ), to the independent city of Delmenhorst , to the district of Oldenburg , to the independent city of Oldenburg (Oldb) and to the districts of Ammerland and Friesland .
Since around 6000 BC The course of the North Sea coastline is determined by the alternation of phases of flooding ( transgression ) and phases of subsidence ( regression ) of the sea level. While the marshland was hardly habitable during the flood phases, it could be settled and cultivated in the rest phases. In such a lowering phase z. B. the settlement at the Hahnenknooper mill around 900 BC. Created. The water of the Weser and its left tributaries was able to spread widely in the not yet diked marsh. Only in a slow transgression phase that started again in the following centuries was the river marsh more frequently flooded by salt water, which deteriorated the soil and drinking water quality, so that the settlements north of the Hunte had to be abandoned.
Since the 2nd century the inhabitants of the Wesermarsch started to protect themselves against the floods of the sea and the Weser by means of Wurten , later also by dikes . The shape of the Wesermarsch landscape was radically changed by the inrushes of the sea in the high and late Middle Ages: Butjadingen temporarily became an island, in the south of which the Heete connected the Jade Bay that was forming with the Weser. A second connection also made the Stadland an island; it ran from the east of the Jadebusen over the Ahne and the Lockfleth to the Weser south of Brake. A third island in the Weser Delta was west of Ahne or Lockfleth; in the west it was bounded by the Frisian Balge, an arm of the sea that occupied today's bed of the jade , in the south by the Liene, a river that connected the jade with the Weser and flowed north of Elsfleth into the Weser (at high tide) or emanated from her at low tide.
From the 16th century, a continuous band of dikes was built along the Weser, the Inner Jade and the Jade Bay. The last gap was closed in 1725 at the floating moor on the Jade Bay. The inlets between Jade and Weser were cut off from the influx of water from the North Sea and the Weser. Some of the waters silted up by themselves, some were dismantled into small drainage canals, and some were filled in. In this way, north of the Hunte and south of Langwarden, a contiguous area of land between Jade or Jadebusen and Weser was created.
Roman sources already speak of Chauken , who populated the coastal area between the Weser and Ems. Tecelia is known as the Chauken trading center in the Wesermarsch near the mouth of the Huntes. From 250 AD many Chauken left their Wurten in the Wesermarsch as a reaction to a rise in sea level. The areas that became free were settled by Frisians from 400 onwards.
To the west of the mouth of the Weser, the Gau Rüstringen emerged , the eastern part of which today forms the north of the Wesermarsch. Since the 10th century, the residents of Rüstringen have secured the fertile marshland with earth walls in front of the sea. The churches in Rüstringen, built in the 11th century, testify to the considerable prosperity and the preserved freedom of the Frisians. In the Middle Ages, huge storm surges caused profound changes in the course of the coast. The attempt of the Counts of Oldenburg to get the northern Wesermarsch under their control initially failed. Only an allied Braunschweig-Oldenburg army succeeded in defeating the Wesermarsch-Frisians in 1514 in the battle of the Hartwarder Landwehr near Rodenkirchen .
Little is known about the history of Stedingen in the early Middle Ages. In 783, Bishop Willehad was given the task of Christianizing the coastal areas west of the Weser. In 1062 the Archbishop of Bremen, Adalbert, had the "uninhabited area" between "Aldenabrock" (Oldenburg) and Bremen transferred as possession. After 1062 Stedingen was gradually (re) populated. Initially, the Saxons founded settlements from neighboring Geest areas along the Weser above the Hune estuary and the Ollen . From 1106 Dutch were brought to Stedingen. The colonizers received privileges that were comparable to those in the northern settlement areas of the Frisians. At the beginning of the 13th century, there were conflicts with the Archbishop of Bremen, which led to the Stinging War. In the battle of Altenesch in 1234 the Stedinger lost their freedom.
Together with the Oldenburg family, the entire Wesermarsch belonged to Denmark from 1667 to 1773 . From 1774 the Wesermarsch was under the rule of the Duchy of Oldenburg . The administrative reform of 1814 eliminated the counts' bailiwicks as well as the cantons from the French occupation (1811/1813).
Since 1879, the area of today's district was divided into the three Oldenburg offices of Brake , Butjadingen and Elsfleth . In 1933 these three offices, the Altenesch municipality from the Delmenhorst office and the Jade and Schweiburg municipalities from the Varel office were merged to form the new Wesermarsch office . At the same time, many of the old communities were merged into new large communities, including Altenesch and Berne to form the community of Stedingen .
In 1937, the city of Wilhelmshaven ceded the Eckwarderhörn settlement to the Butjadingen municipality of the Wesermarsch office. On January 1, 1939, the Wesermarsch district became the Wesermarsch district , which in 1946, together with the state of Oldenburg, became part of the newly established state of Lower Saxony. Most of the large communities formed in 1933 were split up again in 1948 into smaller communities.
The regional reform in Lower Saxony created the current layout of the Wesermarsch district on March 1, 1974:
- The municipality of Landwürden , located on the east bank of the Weser , left the district and was incorporated into the municipality of Loxstedt in the Wesermünde district.
- The district border between the districts of Wesermarsch and Wesermünde was moved continuously to the middle of the river Weser. As a result, among other things, the river island Harriersand came completely to the Wesermünde district.
- Through various mergers, the number of communities in the Wesermarsch district has been reduced to nine. The changes to the structure of the municipalities during the regional reforms of 1948 and 1972 are shown in the following overview:
|Organization of the Wesermarsch district|
|Land dignities 3||Land dignities||(to Loxstedt )|
(from 1987 to December 31st)
As a result of the election result opposite, the district council is composed as follows:
|Parties and constituencies||Percent
|SPD||Social Democratic Party of Germany||37.3||16||37.8||16||42.4||18th||47.1||21st|
|CDU||Christian Democratic Union of Germany||28.2||12||31.3||13||33.4||14th||35.1||16|
|Green||Alliance 90 / The Greens||10.0||4th||14.7||6th||6.3||2||6.3||2|
|UW||Independent voting community Wesermarsch (UW)||8.3||3||5.3||2||6.4||3||-||-|
|FDP||Free Democratic Party||7.3||3||6.5||3||11.5||5||10.6||4th|
|AfD||Alternative for Germany||6.1||3||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|BfB||The Berne Citizens' Forum for the Wesermarsch district||-||-||0.7||-||-||-||-||-|
|Flat share||Voter communities||-||-||-||-||-||-||0.9||-|
|Turnout in percent||51.8||51.7||52.2||54.3|
- since the electoral communities for 2001 cannot be broken down, the result is listed separately.
- In addition to the elected members of the district council, the district administrator belongs to the district council.
Since October 1, 2013, the former mayor of Ovelgönne, Thomas Brückmann, has been district administrator. In the direct election on September 22, 2013, he received 54.10 percent of the votes cast. The turnout was 66.73 percent. His predecessor Michael Höbrink (SPD) did not stand for re-election.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the district was approved as a national emblem on February 2, 1953. It shows two red bars on the left of the coat of arms in gold (former Duchy of Oldenburg ) and on the top right in silver a green medieval cog with green pennants and billowing sails on three masts and below it in green a silver Friesian warrior with a round shield and spear. A statue of the warrior ( Hartwarder Friese ) stands in the Rodenkirchen district of Hartwarden. The motto is " Lewer dod as Sklav " ("Better dead than slave").
The Wesermarsch district was in debt with 396.7 million euros at the end of 2012. This corresponds to the third highest per capita debt of all districts in Germany.
Sights and culture
- Corporation of the Oldenburg landscape for the maintenance and promotion of cultural and historical concerns
- National Park House and Museum Butjadingen in the harbor of Fedderwardersiel with information on the Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park and the settlement history of Butjadingen
- Maritime Museum of the Oldenburg Lower Weser - housed in a former telegraph building (originally part of an optical telegraph line for transmitting messages with moving pointers) and a former town house. Among other things, the life and work of the first German admiral Karl Rudolf Brommy is documentedusing exhibits. Another part of the museum ishousedin the Villa Steenken in Elsfleth .
- Museum Moorseer Mühle - last fully functional gallery Dutch windmill in the district. As a special feature, the mill has a double compass rose, whichis paintedin the old Oldenburg national colors.
- Museum Nordenham - city history exhibition, a. a. with two versions of the "brother kiss" picture by H. Zieger (1910)
- Historic department store Abbehausen - not a static museum with a mere exhibition, but still a real department store with over 3,000 products
- Military history museum "Alter Flakleitstand"
- In the historical building ensemble from the Second World War, the bombing war is discussed, especially the effects in the Lower Weser region. One of the largest private military history collections is also on display.
- Craft Museum Ovelgönne - In the small chambers of the listed town house from 1773, old crafts from the Wesermarsch are shown. The over 500 year old place is the historical center of the Wesermarsch. Today you can use the Ovelgönner time crank in the museum to go back to these times.
- Flieger-Horst-Museum, deals with the history of aircraft construction in the municipality of Lemwerder
In the large hall of the Friedeburg town hall in Nordenham, various guest theaters show performances, including a. from the Oldenburg State Theater .
- Low German theater "De Plattdüütschen"
- Theater fatal
- Theater group Phiesewarden
- Low German stage Brake
- Stadland open-air spectacle
- Jaderpark zoo and leisure park
Regular major events
- Roonkarker Mart - annual market in Stadland-Rodenkirchen, the "fifth season" in the district
- “Brake celebrates !!!” - The city festival
- Fish market in Nordenham-Großensiel
- Cutter regatta in Butjadingen-Fedderwardersiel
- Ovelgönner horse market every 1st Monday in September
- TIDES - art and culture week in Butjadingen
- Kite festival in Butjadingen-Tossens
- Kites over Lemwerder on the Ritzenbütteler Sand
- Fonsstock Festival on the Weserstrand in Nordenham
- WaterQuake Festival in the stadium in Brake
- Maritime School Festival Elsfleth
- Totally planned in the Brake Sports Hall, every six months
The main traffic routes in the district are
- Bundesstraßen 212 (north-south direction), which begins at the Weser ferry pier in the Blexen district of Nordenham and leads in the south to the district boundary of Lemwerder,
- Bundesstrasse 211 in east-west direction (connection to Oldenburg )
- Bundesstraße 437 in east-west direction (connection to the Bundesautobahn 29 towards Wilhelmshaven ).
- In the Kleinensiel district of the Stadland community, the Weser tunnel leads to the eastern side of the Weser and connects to the A 27 ( Cuxhaven - Bremen ).
Although the district used to belong to the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, it was the Prussian State Railroad that brought the first railway into the district in 1867 near Jaderberg with its Oldenburg – Wilhelmshaven line.
The Oldenburg State Railway followed in 1873 with the main line Hude – Brake, which was extended to Nordenham in 1875 and as a branch line to Blexen in 1905.
The cross connections to the main line Oldenburg – Wilhelmshaven, which were opened between Brake and Oldenburg ( rubber railway) in 1896 and between Rodenkirchen and Varel in 1913 , branched off from here.
The Butjadingen peninsula was opened up in 1908/09 by a Nordenham – Eckwarderhörne small railway, which the Butjadingen District Association had built and operated as the Butjadinger Railway .
Finally , in 1922, the Deutsche Reichsbahn added the Delmenhorst – Lemwerder branch line to the network, which served freight traffic until 1998.
From 1956, 80 km of the total 126 km of passenger traffic were closed:
- 1956: Nordenham – Burhave – Eckwarderhörne, 30 km
- 1958: Varel – Diekmannshausen – Rodenkirchen, 17 km
- 1961: Oldenburg Hbf – Großenmeer – Brake, 19 km
- 1962: Delmenhorst - Altenesch - Lemwerder, 7 km
- 1980: Nordenham – Nordenham-Blexen, 7 km
Until mid-December 2010, Deutsche Bahn AG only regularly operated the 46 km long Hude – Berne – Elsfleth – Brake – Nordenham line with six stations. The line has been integrated into the network of the regional S-Bahn Bremen / Lower Saxony operated by Nordwestbahn since mid-December 2010 . Museum trains operated by Delmenhorst-Harpstedter Eisenbahn GmbH (DHE) operated at irregular intervals on the route between Lemwerder and Delmenhorst until the end of 2009 .
The district is located on the waterways of the Weser that are deep to sea. There are port facilities in Nordenham-Blexen, Nordenham, Brake, Elsfleth and Lemwerder. The port facilities are connected to the rail network.
In the area of the district there are the following ferry connections over the Weser:
- Nordenham-Blexen - Bremerhaven
- Golzwarden - Sandstedt
- Brake - Harriersand (only pedestrians and cyclists)
- Berne - Bremen-Farge
- Motzen - Bremen-Blumenthal
- Lemwerder - Bremen-Vegesack
The former ferry connection Kleinensiel –Dedesdorf was abandoned in the course of the construction of the Weser tunnel in 2004. From Eckwarderhörne there is temporarily a passenger ferry connection to Wilhelmshaven .
In the Wesermarsch district, the Hunte can only be crossed by motor vehicle at Huntebrück. There is a lift bridge there .
The number of inhabitants on December 31, 2019 in brackets.
- Bern (6889)
- Brake (Unterweser) , district town (14,860)
- Butjadingen [seat: Burhave] (6049)
- Elsfleth , City (9114)
- Jade (5830)
- Lemwerder (7122)
- Nordenham , city, independent municipality (26,139)
- Ovelgönne [seat: Oldenbrok-Mittelort] (5176)
- Stadland [seat: Rodenkirchen] (7404)
Until the territorial reform of 1974, the places of the then municipality Landwürden on the eastern side of the Weser belonged to the district, as well as Germany's largest river island , the Harriersand , which served as an interim storage facility for US resettlers (via Bremerhaven ). The territorial reform separated the centuries-old joint affiliation of this island and the municipality of land dignity to the former Grand Duchy of Oldenburg and later the administrative district of Oldenburg .
- Naturschutzverein Nordenham and northern Wesermarsch from 1978 as a district group of the Biological Protection Association Hunte-Weser-Ems based in Wardenburg
- Wesermarsch district group of the Federation for the Environment and Nature Conservation Germany (BUND) from 1985 with its seat in the Iffens ecological station ( Butjadingen )
- Wesermarsch district group of the German Nature Conservation Union (NABU) in Brake
- Schützenbund Wesermarsch as an umbrella organization of 20 shooting clubs
- Rüstringer Heimatbund (RHB) in Nordenham
- Stork care station Wesermarsch , species protection, nature protection, meadow habitats
- Partnership agreement from 1989 with the Russian city of Voronezh, 600 km south of Moscow, including a youth exchange program
- List of nature reserves in the Wesermarsch district
- List of landscape protection areas in the Wesermarsch district
- List of natural monuments in the Wesermarsch district
- List of protected landscape components in the Wesermarsch district
On July 1, 1956, the district was assigned the distinguishing mark BRA (Brake) when the vehicle registration number that is still valid today was introduced . It is still issued today.
- Klaus Dede: Wesermarsch. Verlag Atelier im Bauernhaus, Fischerhude 1982, ISBN 3-88132-122-5 .
- Ingo Hashagen, Gerd Müller (texts): The Wesermarsch looking back on old postcards. Verlag Atelier im Bauernhaus, Fischerhude, ISBN 3-88132-113-6 .
- Rudolf Bernhardt : 50 years of the Wesermarsch district 1933–1983. A time-critical consideration. Holzberg, 1986, ISBN 3-87358-270-8 .
- Ingo Hashagen: When the wings were still turning ... The history of the former windmills and the only water mill in the Wesermarsch. Verlag Atelier im Bauernhaus, Fischerhude 1986, ISBN 3-88132-112-8 .
- Wendula Dahle (Ed.): In the land of moors and dykes. Excursions left and right of the Weser. A travel and reading book. Bremen 1998, ISBN 3-86108-466-X (352 pages with numerous illustrations).
- Uta Theilen, Photography: Helmut Behrends: The Wesermarsch - A journey through Butjadingen and along the Weser . Soltau-Kurier-Norden, 2007, ISBN 978-3-939870-43-2 .
- Literature from and about the Wesermarsch district in the catalog of the German National Library
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Leenert Cornelius: Coastal Protection and Water Management in the Wesermarsch ( Memento of the original from August 25, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Kulturportal Nordwest: Churches in the Oldenburg Wesermarsch
- Förderverein Bronzezeithaus Hahnenknoop eV Bronzezeithaus Hanenknoop. The discovery of the oldest settlement in the march on the German North Sea coast from around 900 BC ( Memento of the original from August 25, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Geodata portal Lower Saxony: Wurten and dykes
- Dietrich Hagen: Der Naturraum ( Memento of the original dated February 22, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (PDF; 725 kB). In: Dietrich Hagen / Heinrich Schmidt / Günter König: Oldenburg. Land between the North Sea and Dammer Mountains . Hanover. Lower Saxony State Center for Political Education 1999, p. 30
- Ludwig Kohli: Handbook of a historical-statistical-geographical description of the Duchy of Oldenburg together with the inheritance of Jever, and the two principalities of Lübeck and Birkenfeld . Bremen, Wilhelm Kaiser 1823, pp. 59–77
- Ulf Neundorfer: Stedingen in the mirror of history
- Landkreis Wesermarsch: The Wesermarsch ( Memento of the original from May 14, 2009 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Oldenburg law for the simplification and cheaper administration of April 27, 1933
- Law on the formation of new communities in the Lower Saxony administrative district of Oldenburg of April 26, 1948
- Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. wesermarsch.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
- Municipality of Lemwerder: Development of Lemwerder development ( Memento of the original from August 12, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1972
- Statistical Yearbook for the Federal Republic of Germany 1981
- Result of the 2016 local elections
- Preliminary results of district elections ( Memento of September 3, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Result of the 2011 local elections
-  Result of the local election 2006
-  Result of the 2001 local elections
- Debt ranking of the 295 districts in Germany, report from August 3, 2014
- Freilichtspektakel Stadland eV: The battle of the Hartwarde Landwehr ( Memento of the original from October 21, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- The big city festival with a fair
- Fonsstock e. V .: Fonsstock Festival on the Weserstrand ( memento of the original from August 11, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link has been inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- State Office for Statistics Lower Saxony, LSN-Online regional database, Table 12411: Update of the population, as of December 31, 2019 ( help ).
- Stork care station Wesermarsch: Welcome to the stork station
- Landkreis Wesermarsch: partnership between the Wesermarsch and Voronezh. Retrieved October 5, 2017 .