Nature Conservation Association Germany

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Nature Conservation Association Germany
legal form registered association
founding 1899
Founder Lina Hähnle
Seat Berlin ( coordinates: 52 ° 31 ′ 22.4 ″  N , 13 ° 22 ′ 43 ″  E )
precursor Federation for Bird Protection (BfV)
motto For people and nature
purpose Environment and nature protection
Chair Jörg-Andreas Krüger
Managing directors Leif Miller
sales 55,666,269 euros (2019)
Employees 244 (2019)
Volunteers 70,000 (2020)
Members 720,000 (2019)

The Naturschutzbund Deutschland e. V. ( NABU ) is a German non-governmental organization with the aim of protecting nature and the environment . NABU implements specific nature conservation at home and abroad. This includes the preservation of rivers , seas , forests and many other ecosystems as well as the protection of individual animal and plant groups and species . As one of the large, recognized nature conservation associations in Germany, it advocates good interaction between people and nature and is the national partner organization ofBirdLife International .

The organization was founded in 1899 as the "Bund für Vogelschutz" (Federation for Bird Protection), renamed itself after the merger with the sister association of the GDR into Naturschutzbund Deutschland and expanded its nature conservation goals. The organization carries out specific nature conservation projects, maintains its own research institutes, conducts environmental education and informs the media and citizens about important issues in environmental and nature conservation. The NABU and all its branches are a state-recognized environmental and nature conservation association (within the meaning of the Federal Nature Conservation Act ) and must therefore be heard when interfering with the natural balance . In addition, he has the right to class action under the Environmental Remedies Act .

Together with the Bavarian partner LBV, the organization has 720,000 members and 50,000 sponsors (as of 2019). They are organized in around 2000 local groups across Germany. Jörg-Andreas Krüger has been President since November 9, 2019 , and Leif Miller is the Managing Director .

tasks and goals

One of the approximately 100 nature conservation centers of NABU, the Blumberger Mühle in the Schorfheide-Chorin biosphere reserve

The tasks include non-partisan political work. The guiding principle is an environment worth living in. The organization “interferes” on a legal basis, is involved in official nature conservation procedures and assesses interventions in nature. The main aim is to avoid environmental damage and to propose constructive, practicable solutions.

One of the goals is to create awareness for nature and to provide information about it. In addition to maintaining individual protected areas , long-term solutions and consistent rethinking are also required. That is why the organization brings the environment into the media - for example with campaigns for near-natural forest management, ecological agriculture or for ecological tax reform . Spread across Germany, around a hundred nature conservation centers also offer information and environmental education . Practical nature conservation work is often done there at the same time by protecting and caring for a certain area.

Some members often practice practical nature conservation on site: They plant hedges, set up toad fences ( amphibian protection ) and thus protect endangered species. In addition, they look after more than 5000 protected areas. The organization is also internationally active and helps, for example, to save Russia's world natural heritage or to save the last snow leopards in Kyrgyzstan from extinction.

The company's own research institutes, scientific committees and working groups do basic work. You will develop concepts and publish specialist publications. The fields of work range from special natural science topics to transport and energy policy to ecological agriculture and forestry.

The organization is a recognized association according to Sections 58, 59 of the Federal Nature Conservation Act (BNatSchG). The recognition continues to apply in accordance with Section 5 (2) old of the Environmental Legal Remedies Act and Section 74 (3) BNatSchG. In accordance with Section 63 of the BNatSchG, NABU is involved in the federal and state governments in the preparation of ordinances on nature conservation and landscape management, in plan approval procedures that involve interventions in nature and the landscape , and in planning approvals for which public participation is intended.


Federation for bird protection

On February 1, 1899, Lina Hähnle founded the Federation for Bird Protection (BfV) in Stuttgart. The purpose of the society was to protect the native bird life by creating nesting aids , feeding in winter and educating the population, for example by banning the bird's feather hat fashion at the time. Lina Hähnle herself strived for a broader nature protection and agreed to the name and purpose of the association on the condition that the whole nature would be taken care of under the flag of bird protection. She was chairman until 1938 and won with her concept of a particularly low annual fee of 50 pfennigs for adults and 10 pfennigs for children up to over 41,000 members. The first protected area was the bird island near Giengen an der Brenz .

time of the nationalsocialism

The takeover of power by National Socialism was officially welcomed by the Federation for Bird Protection. In the official structure, bird protection was initially assigned to the nature conservation department of the newly created Reichsbund Volkstum und Heimat in 1933 . Every BfV member was also a member of the Reichsbund. During the National Socialist era, the Federation for Bird Protection was not only loyal to the state, its organizational integration into the structures of the state and the party even gave the Federation an almost official, semi-state character. The federal government remained legally an independent registered association.

The nature conservation work continued unchanged on site. The federal headquarters supplied the groups with planting material for new bird protection trees, lectures were given, exhibitions were organized, and bird food and nesting boxes were sold. Small-format nature conservation calendars appeared in large numbers from 1930 onwards, which were then also sold through schools from 1934 to 1941 under the title Des Deutschen Heimat . In the large protected areas such as Federsee , Steckby , Hiddensee and Trischen , the focus was on guarding the breeding birds and in Mecklenburg the BfV contributed half of the lease of the 700-acre Nonnenhof near Neubrandenburg . The federal government only gave up the Deep Protected Area on the Baltic Sea because of the construction of a seaplane base, and the lease for the Knechtsand was not renewed in 1934 due to lack of funds.

At the end of 1934 the Reichsbund für Volkstum und Heimat (Reichsbund für Volkstum und Heimat) was dissolved again, and bird protection was subordinated to the Reich Ministry for Science, Education and National Education . At the same time, however, the Nazi cultural community introduced a “Ethnicity and Homeland” department, again including the bird protection department. By order of the Reich Forestry Office , it was renamed the Reichsbund für Vogelschutz (RfV). The state bird protection, including the bird protection stations, was integrated as part of nature protection into the Reich Forestry Office Hermann Görings as the highest nature conservation authority.

In 1936, the RfV concluded a working agreement with the NS cultural community, members were recruited and the RfV was able to publish articles and communications in the cultural community organ Volkstum und Heimat . There was also cooperation with the Reichsheimstättenamt of the NSDAP, for which bird protection training weeks were carried out and bird protection-friendly gardens were designed in the new settlements. Other partners were the German Settlers Association, the German Labor Front (DAF), the NS Teachers Association and the NS People's Welfare , many lecture events were held with the NS community “ Strength through Joy ”. The Reich Nature Conservation Act of June 26, 1935, which was prepared in Weimar times and which formed the basis for state nature conservation activities in Germany until the Federal Nature Conservation Act came into force at the end of 1976 , brought significant progress in terms of content .

Synchronization from 1938

Due to a decree of the Reichsforstmeister Hermann Göring from September 24, 1938, no other bird protection associations besides this unitary association were permitted. Also only "German citizens of German or related blood" were allowed to become members. The magazine Deutsche Vogelwelt was taken over , this replaced the ornithological monthly of the dissolved German Association for the Protection of the Bird World.

At the end of 1938 the presidency of the previous Vice Reinhard Wendehorst, which lasted until the end of the war, began. Lina Hähnle became honorary chairwoman of the federal government and finally died two days before her 90th birthday on February 1, 1941, exactly 42 years after the association was founded. Since Wendehorst could not take care of the daily work for professional reasons, Hermann Hähnle de facto took over the management of the association. In the course of this, new regional associations were founded: in Lower Silesia with up to 14,500 members, in Saxony-Anhalt - there together with the Reichsnährstand, i.e. the farmers' association - and in Mecklenburg with the support of the Heimatbund. In the German Empire, separate departments were added in "Sudetengau", "Ostmark" and "Südmark". After the annexation of Austria , the BfV set up an office in Vienna, and in 1940 also in Graz. At the end of 1942, the number of members reached its highest level of 55,000.

After 1945

After 1945 the starting position of the national nature conservation association in the area of ​​the FRG changed again seriously. The offices of the bird protection association in Stuttgart , Munich and Berlin were completely destroyed. From 1946 onwards, under the presidency of Hermann Hähnle, the association was rebuilt, and under the old name Bund für Vogelschutz the first groups became active again on site. In the course of 1946 the occupying powers allowed regional associations again.

In July 1946, the military government granted the Bird Protection Federation for the American-occupied zone of North Württemberg / North Baden permission to set up association work. The headquarters of the association remained in Stuttgart or Giengen, but cooperation with activities in other zones remained informal. On November 6, 1948, the Federation for Bird Protection was again officially approved as the legal successor to the Reich Federation for Bird Protection and Hermann Hähnle was officially elected as chairman.

Erich Ficker managed the office for the Soviet zone of occupation and was in contact with the association headquarters in Giengen. With the emergence of the two German states, organizational and practical work between East and West broke apart. The nature conservation groups in the east were merged into the Nature and Home Friends section of the Kulturbund founded in July 1945 . It was not until 1980 that the Society for Nature and Environment (GNU) emerged within the Kulturbund , with up to 50,000 members - with 4900 active members in 280 bird protection groups.

Around 1950 the State Association for Bird Protection in Bavaria (LBV) became independent. However, the LBV was still listed as a DBV regional group in 1962, and from 1971 the LBV was briefly a member of the DBV umbrella organization again. The independence of the Bavarian LBV was not binding until 1974. After that, all attempts to reintegrate it into the DBV / NABU failed.

In West Germany, the BfV was renamed the German Association for Bird Protection (DBV) in 1966 and subdivided into regional associations. The white stork became a heraldic bird. In 1971 the peregrine falcon was chosen as the first bird of the year , since then this title has been awarded every year. In 1982 the independent youth department "DBV-Jugend" was founded and later renamed to Naturschutzjugend (NAJU).

In 1990 the GDR Nature Conservation Association was founded from parts of the former Society for Nature and Environment . In the same year the merger with the regional associations newly founded in the GDR and the renaming to Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV (NABU) took place. The then NABU Vice President Michael Succow campaigned strongly for the GDR National Park Program at the time. The current technical committee structure was taken over from the "GDR-NABU", which enables intensive project work in addition to the "vertical structure" of the association.

With the presidency of Jochen Flasbarth , the intensive involvement of NABU in legislative procedures at national and European level increased significantly. Intensive lobbying resulted in the inclusion of a “state goal of environmental protection” in the Basic Law in 1992. In the same year, NABU took part in the UN Conference on Environment and Development and made the implementation of the Rio resolutions (climate convention, convention on biodiversity and Agenda 21) a central component of its association work.

The headquarters of the federal office was initially Kornwestheim , then Bonn until October 2007 . On this date, the entire federal office moved to Charitéstrasse in Berlin .

Olaf Tschimpke - Chairman from 2003 to 2019

DBV / NABU presidents

Organizational structure

The association is federally organized and has regional associations in 15 German federal states. In Bavaria, the state association for bird protection in Bavaria (LBV for short) is the partner association. The organizational structure of NABU extends to around 2000 local, district and specialist groups.

The youth organization, the Nature Conservation Youth NAJU, also works at all levels of the federal government and is one of the children's and youth organizations in Germany with the largest number of members. A NAJU campaign that has been carried out annually since the 1980s is “Spring Experience”.

In addition to the around 30 voluntary federal technical committees and federal working groups, there are also working groups and groups on special topics in the individual regional associations. The spectrum ranges from individual groups of species such as insects and birds to land use issues such as “forest and game” or “orchards” to environmental issues such as “traffic” or “waste”, “energy” and “chemistry”. The Federal Technical Committee “International” also has numerous activities, especially in Central Asia, the Caucasus and Africa, as well as in the protection of migratory birds, e. B. for migrating birds of prey on the Strait of Messina in southern Italy. Special journals and in some cases extensive services are available for the areas of bat protection , orchards, entomology and mycology .

The non-profit NABU Foundation for National Natural Heritage buys conservation areas throughout Germany that are of outstanding importance for the local biodiversity, and also takes care of the professional care, management and maintenance of NABU conservation properties. The foundation now owns over 20,000 hectares in 300 protected areas


At the end of 2019, the NABU federal association - i.e. excluding the state, district and local associations - had income of 55,666,269 euros. The income comes primarily from membership fees (48.9%, about 27.2 million euros), grants (18.8%, about 10.5 million euros), and donations (16.8%, about 9.3 million euros) ) and corporate collaborations (6.8%, around 3.8 million euros).


Dinosaur of the year

Since 1993, the dinosaur of the year has been awarded as a negative prize to public figures who, in the opinion of nature conservationists, represent outdated environmental standards or "have proven to be particularly antiquated both through outstanding individual achievements and the sum total of their work in environmental protection."

Bird watch

Since the late 1990s, the organization has been involved in activities in the international migratory bird watch European Bird Watch and International Bird Watch . Events on the subject of bird migration are offered on the first weekend in October to draw attention to the protection of migratory birds, resting and wintering areas and to arouse enthusiasm for bird watching.

European Bat Night

Late August Europe events on bats instead, as in Germany, " European Bat Night " (English. European Bat Night ), directed by NABU. Are offered z. B. Excursions, lectures or game activities.

The hour of the garden birds and the hour of the winter birds

The Garden Birds Hour is currently Germany's largest bird-watching event . It has been held annually in May by the Naturschutzbund Deutschland since 2005. As a counterpart to the action, in which participation is falling, the Winter Birds Hour was held nationwide for the first time in 2011 . The participation of nature lovers was so strong that the server programmed for data acceptance was at times overwhelmed. The hour of the winter birds already existed in previous years at the state level. B. in Bavaria, supported by the LBV. The model for these actions is the Big Garden Bird Watch , which has been successful in Great Britain for decades . In this public science project, data on the bird world is collected according to a uniform specification. Due to the amount of thousands of data, e.g. For example, individual identification errors do not matter, and regional differences and trend statements can be made on the populations of the common species.

Bird of the year

The turtledove is bird of the year 2020

Since 1971 the organization has chosen the bird of the year to draw attention to the endangerment of animals and their habitats.

Welcome wolf!

The organization accompanied the return and resettlement of the wolf in Germany from the beginning . He promotes concepts for dealing with this animal species in the "wolf regions" and tries to educate the population about wolves and to break down prejudices through various campaigns.


Together with the three water sports associations of the German Olympic Sports Confederation: the German Canoe Association (DKV), the German Sailing Association (DSV) and the Association of German Sports Divers (VDST), the NaBu started the project "Seas without plastic" in 2010 and the campaign extended to rivers and lakes in September 2016. The revised online platform can be used to document water pollution and organize cleaning campaigns.

NABU nature and landscape guide

NABU has been training nature and landscape guides in Baden-Württemberg since 2010.

Campaigns against expansion of the rail network without additional protective structures

The association is suing the reactivation of the Black Forest Railway without additional protective structures because of the strictly protected bats in tunnels. The group participates in lawsuits against the construction of the new Stuttgart central station and is campaigning against the fixed link across the Fehmarnbelt

Political work

While the association was almost exclusively committed to nature conservation during the time of the German Federation for Bird Protection , its work under the presidency of Jochen Flasbarth was increasingly expanded to include environmental issues in the broader sense and involvement in social and political debates. As a large German nature conservation association, the federal association also sees itself as a “lobbyist for nature”.

The association is increasingly occupying other policy areas such as climate protection , international marine policy and organic farming as well as resource policy. In addition to other contributions, he asked for the 2013 federal election that the federal program for biological diversity should be financially strengthened within the framework of the national strategy for biological diversity and increased to a volume of 100 million euros by 2016. A key requirement is also to secure a further 30,000 hectares in federal ownership permanently as a national natural heritage .

The organization was an early actor in the campaign against the planned fixed belt crossing by means of a 19 km cable-stayed bridge from Fehmarn to Denmark .

Renewable energy

The organization combines its commitment to an intact nature and a healthy environment with increased commitment to a sustainable energy policy that minimizes negative effects on biological diversity. According to the company, the use of wind and solar energy, biomass , hydropower and geothermal energy can make a significant contribution to reducing CO 2 emissions - together with energy savings and efficient energy use - and end the environmental destruction caused by the exploitation of coal and oil. The use of renewable energies is also associated with harm to people, nature and the environment. This is why NABU advocates a consistent and at the same time environmentally friendly expansion of renewable energies. An early, intensive discussion with the local people, transparent planning and the involvement of full-time and voluntary expertise should improve the handling of conflicts and develop accepted solutions for the energy transition.

According to the association, wind energy in particular is the most important and most economical type of regenerative power generation. Repowering has great potential , but offshore wind farms are also seen as important. However, it is emphasized that the locations for wind farms must be selected very carefully and ecologically particularly valuable areas, such as nature reserves and national parks, should remain free from wind energy use. “By choosing locations with little or no conflict”, the energy turnaround can succeed in a way that is both natural and environmentally friendly. In this context, nature conservation should not be used as an argument "to prevent wind power in principle".

The organization is involved in the planning of new power lines , as these change the landscape and the habitats of endangered animal and plant species. New high voltage overhead lines increase the risk of collision, especially for large birds and water birds. The organization wants to limit the expansion requirement for new power lines to what is necessary for the energy transition. For NABU, it is necessary to bring in the knowledge available at the local level on protected areas, species occurrences or other conflicts of use at an early stage in order to find a route that is as environmentally friendly as possible.

The organization is the holder of the Green Gas Label and the Green Electricity Label , which awards the seal of quality of the same name for green electricity offers.

Agricultural Policy and Agriculture

Protest for appropriate agricultural animal husbandry

The organization is responsible for the demonstration together with other organizations. We're sick of it! , which takes place annually in Berlin. Among other things, the event calls for an agricultural turnaround and animal welfare .

Climate protection

In order to avoid the worst effects of climate change, the organization is calling for the rise in global average temperature to be limited to a maximum of two degrees from pre-industrial levels. In order to reduce the emission of climate-damaging greenhouse gases, the organization is committed to the three big "E" - savings, efficiency and the environmentally friendly expansion of renewable energies. From NABU's point of view, the building and transport sectors are particularly important, as they can save a particularly large number of greenhouse gases.

Resource policy

The organization is politically committed to reducing the consumption of natural resources. New business models of the share economy are required as the key to a generation-appropriate way of life and economy , as well as increasing resource efficiency through political measures and economic innovations. Raw materials, water, soil, air, surface, flowing resources and biodiversity should also be protected in the long term through the ecological design of products and a functioning circular economy .

In July 2012, the organization joined forces with various companies, including from the consumer goods , building materials and recycling industries , to form the alliance for resource conservation in order to make clear the need for targeted political framework conditions for resource-efficient production.


In the NDR television program Menschen und Headlines on August 23, 2011 and in the panorama program “Money instead of resistance: How environmental associations can be bought”, which aired the first on March 15, 2012, environmental associations were criticized for their increasing frequency Let helpers of the industry make such. B. by the waiver of lawsuits at Lübeck Airport . In this context, the NABU was also mentioned, which had received 810,000 euros for a foundation. The organization counters this by saying that the money will be used for landscape maintenance and environmental education. This is more effective than years of litigation, which in the case of the lawsuits against Lübeck Airport had little chance of success due to the adjustment of the planning to the judgment.

NABU Hessen was initially right in a lawsuit against the commissioning of wind turbines in an EU bird sanctuary before the Kassel Administrative Court . In order to protect species, five wind turbines had to be switched off, which particularly endangered the red kite due to bird strikes . Later, the organization and the operators agreed to continue operating the plant, with the operators agreeing to pay 500,000 euros into an environmental protection fund, which aims to strengthen biodiversity.

International work

The NABU International work is located as a department of the federal office in Berlin and covers a diverse field of activity on an international level. The international activities of the volunteers at NABU are also summarized under NABU International . Examples of international project work at NABU are:

In November 2009 the NABU International Nature Conservation Foundation was founded for international work. The foundation is based in Munich.


The organization cooperates with political interest groups and commercial companies to promote individual projects or for the political implementation of nature conservation demands. In addition to cooperating with individual companies, NABU founded the NABU entrepreneurship initiative at the beginning of 2007. Some business partnerships are controversial within and outside the nature conservation association.

NABU has been operating the crane information center in Groß Mohrdorf (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania) since 1996, with funding from Lufthansa .

The organization and Volkswagen have been working closely together since 2009 as part of a long-term cooperation. The aim was "to make our own constructive contributions to shaping sustainable development". Specifically, this was to be implemented through joint fuel-saving campaign days with NABU local groups and Volkswagen dealers across Germany. In addition, the lobby event series “Mobil im Dialog” took place regularly on various environmental and transport policy issues. In return, VW sponsored the Wolfs campaign. The cooperation between the Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV and Volkswagen AG expired on December 31, 2015. The reason for this is the VW emissions scandal that became known in 2015.

With there has been cooperation with individual regional associations since 2009, with the federal association since 2012.

Web links

Commons : Naturschutzbund Deutschland  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Associations, associations and associations recognized by the federal government in accordance with the Federal Nature Conservation Act. UBA , November 27, 2017, accessed December 22, 2017 .
  2. a b c Belinda Bindig, Hannes Huber, Hanna Pfüller: Annual Report 2019. In: NABU-Bundesverband, September 10, 2020, accessed on September 10, 2020 .
  3. Jörg-Andreas Krüger is the new NABU President. In: Retrieved November 10, 2019 .
  4. The Bird Protection Association under National Socialism. In: NABU, accessed July 3, 2016 .
  5. a b 111 years for man and nature. NABU, February 1, 2010, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  6. Chronicle 1946 to 1998. In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  7. Directions to the Berlin office. In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  10. National Natural Heritage Foundation: Annual Report 2018 , accessed on October 7, 2019.
  11. Dinosaur of the Year. In: NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on July 3, 2016 .
  12. Background - How it all began , gewä
  13. Gewässerretter - new online portal launched , NaBu, September 17, 2016
  15. Tent in the tunnel
  16. Is there a risk of a four-year delay? , Leonberger Kreiszeitung, September 27, 2018
  17. Four revisions against the S-21 judgment , Stuttgarter Zeitung, February 20, 2019
  18. Fehmarnbelt: Environmentalists want to stop the construction of the mega-tunnel , Lübecker Nachrichten, February 11, 2019
  19. ↑ Key demands for the 2013 federal election - Protecting biological diversity effectively. In: NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on July 3, 2016 .
  20. Fixed link across the Fehmarnbelt. ( Memento of 29 May 2010 at the Internet Archive ) In: . NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on January 10, 2015.
  21. Public participation in planning and approval procedures. (PDF; 135 kB) In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  22. Nature-friendly expansion of wind energy. (PDF; 113 kB) In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  23. New power grids for the energy transition - what do we need to know about them? (PDF; 727 kB) In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  24. We're fed up with it !: Porters. (No longer available online.) In: Aktion Meine Landwirtschaft, archived from the original on July 8, 2016 ; accessed on May 3, 2019 .
  25. Energy efficiency & building renovation. In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  26. ↑ Conserve resources - secure the future. (PDF; 1.2 MB) In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  27. Just as Panorama is wrong. , In: NABU Schleswig-Holstein, accessed on December 28, 2015.
  28. Money instead of resistance: How environmental organizations can be bought. In: Panorama from March 15, 2012.
  29. ^ Vogelsberg: Nabu forces shutdown of wind turbines Frankfurter Rundschau, June 5, 2012.
  30. ↑ Wind turbines are running again: NABU, OVAG and BürgerWind agree . In: Osthessen-News , December 4, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  31. ^ Hunting and migratory bird protection in Cyprus. In: NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on July 3, 2016 .
  32. About us - NABU International. In: NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on July 3, 2016 .
  33. Overview of NABU business partners. In: NABU, accessed November 8, 2018 .
  34. ^ Günter Nowald: The crane information center in Groß Mohrdorf. In: Kranichschutz Deutschland GmbH, accessed on November 8, 2018 .
  35. NABU & Volkswagen in dialogue. In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .
  36. VW and NABU: What's next? In: NABU - Naturschutzbund Deutschland eV, accessed on July 3, 2016 .
  37. Watching nature is fun! NABU nature observer on the Internet. Hessen, of course , issue 2/09, Hessian regional section of Nature Conservation Today , the member magazine of the Nature Conservation Union Germany (NABU)
  38. Naturgucker: Observing nature is fun. In: NABU, accessed December 13, 2016 .