53 inhabitants / km²
Hiddensee is a German island in the Baltic Sea . It is located immediately west of Rügen . The area of the island, together with some uninhabited neighboring islands, forms the municipality of Insel Hiddensee and belongs to the district of Vorpommern-Rügen in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern .
The island name appears as "Heðinsey" in the Prose Edda and as "Hithinsö" in the Gesta Danorum of the Saxo Grammaticus . Both mean something like "Island of Hedin" or "Hedin's Island". The legendary Norwegian king Hedin is said to have fought for a wife or even for gold. Under Danish rule, "Hedins-Oe" was officially in use. Until 1880 the island was still called "Hiddensjö" in German maps, and in 1929 "Hiddensöe" in German travel guides. The complete Germanization and reinterpretation to "Hiddensee" is relatively new.
Hiddensee, off the island of Rügen to the west, is the largest island within the Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park . Its main axis is in a north-south direction. It is about 16.8 kilometers long, at the narrowest point about 250 meters and at the widest about 3.7 kilometers wide. The island is divided into a hilly north part over 70 meters high ( Dornbusch , the highest point is the Bakenberg at ), a dune and heath landscape in the central section ( dune heather ) and a flat, only a few meters high Southern part, the Gellen . In the northeast are the two three-kilometer-long sand hooks Altbessin and Neubessin . The island is bounded by the Schaproder Bodden and Vitter Bodden in the east, the Gellenstrom (the fairway to Stralsund) in the south and the open Baltic Sea to the west and north.
The following places are on the island:
Greaves is the northernmost place on the island. Its name is derived from the Slavic word for mushroom . Greaves was one of the two settlements on the island that already existed in Slavic times before the arrival of the German monks in the 13th century. In the 14th century eight katen are documented for greaves . The number of houses has hardly changed since then.
The place originated around the end of the 13th century founded monastery Hiddensee . At the end of the 19th century there was only one church , a manor house, a parish and school house and two workers' houses. Only then did the place gradually grow to its present size. A number of artists, writers and scientists have settled in the village or on the outskirts; The monastery has become known as the home of Gerhart Hauptmann , who was buried in the island cemetery there.
Vitte was first mentioned in a document in 1513. The name comes from Low German and means settlement of herring fishermen . Due to its central location on the narrow island, Vitte soon developed into the largest town on the island.
In addition to greaves, Glambeck was one of the two settlements on the island that existed in Slavic times, the name means deep place . The place was already deserted before 1700 . In the 21st century, a field name one kilometer north of Neuendorf reminds of the former place.
The place was created around 1700, probably as a replacement for the abandoned village of Glambeck. This is where the character of the old fishing village has been preserved most strongly on the island. Its building structure with houses on communally used meadow areas without laid paths is considered unique, the place as a whole is a listed building.
Plogshagen is a foundation from times of colonization by German settlers after the monastery was founded. The name should be derived from the personal name Plog. Today Plogshagen has largely grown together with Neuendorf.
From a geological point of view, the island of Hiddensee is a very young landscape and was formed during the last ice age around 12,000 years ago. This left a young moraine landscape here . The thawing inland ice lifted the land below and the depressions were filled with water, creating the predecessor of the later Baltic Sea, the Ancylus Sea . So only the protruding ridges like the Dornbusch remained as islands. The large forms of the coasts in the southern part of the Baltic Sea were formed by the Littorina transgression about 7000 to 2500 years ago. About 5000 years ago the sea level reached its present level and the thorn bush and two other island cores became islands. 4,500 years ago, the saltwater influx from the North Sea began to decrease sharply. The Baltic Sea has been slowly sweetening since then. Due to coastal erosion (land erosion , drifting and sedimentation), the islands of that time acquired their present shape over time. The former three island cores were connected to each other by alluvial deposits. This process is still removing sand in the north of the Dornbusch. In 2000, on the northern tip of Hiddensee, in the area of the Toten Kerls, 60,000 m³ of till clay broke off twice and slid into the sea. On average, the cliff edge of the Dornbusch loses about 30 cm annually. In mid-March 2004 another 10,000 m³ slipped into the sea.
From a geological point of view, Hiddensee is an area that is constantly changing. The land masses removed at the northern tip are washed up again at the southern tip and on the east side towards the Schaproder Bodden . This is how the two geologically very young sand hooks (headlands) Altbessin and Neubessin were created on the southern tip of the island of Gellen and on the eastern side of the northern tip . Altbessin began to develop around 300 to 400 years ago and was already over three kilometers long by the middle of the 19th century. It has barely grown since then. In contrast, the neighboring Neubessin , which was built around 1900, grows by 30 to 60 meters annually and already reaches a length of three kilometers. Meanwhile a third Bessin is in the making. The southern tip also continues to grow in the Bodden as a so-called windwatt .
Hills, gorges and other natural forms
From the highlands in the north to the lowlands in the south there are the following mountains, gorges and shapes (the height above sea level in brackets, rounded):
On Hiddensee there is a macroclimatic Baltic Sea coast climate with frequent changes between maritime and continental influences. Frequent, lively and changing winds and long periods of sunshine are characteristic. It averages 1,850 hours per year. This means that Hiddensee has a top position in Germany. A special feature in weak, offshore wind conditions is the so-called transperiodic wind circulation, which is caused by the different temperatures over the sea and the land. A sea wind sets in in the late morning, which subsides in the afternoon or evening.
The long-term annual mean temperature on the island is 8 ° C. The mean wind speed in the village of Kloster is 7 m / s. Compared to the nearby island of Rügen, the annual rainfall on Hiddensee is significantly lower and is 540 millimeters.
In 2008, as the weather service Meteomedia announced , Hiddensee-Dornbusch was the sunniest place in Germany with 2168 hours of sunshine . The data were collected by Meteomedia's own weather station ( ; ).
- Storm flood
Hiddensee was repeatedly hit by storm floods. The island is said to have been separated from the island of Rügen by the All Saints flood in 1304 , but this has not been proven with certainty. In the years 1864 and 1865, Hiddensee was breached three times by storm floods between Hohen Dünsch Garn and Peterbergschen Garn , a very flat and thin place. The 12th to 13th November 1872 flooded the island again near Plogshagen. There is still a threat of the island being divided into a southern and a northern part, which so far could only be prevented by extensive coastal protection measures.
Flora and fauna
Hiddensee is the largest island in the Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park and combines an old cultural landscape with the hats of the originally existing dune heath. The large new land formations in the northeast (Alter and Neuer Bessin) and south (on the Gellen) Hiddensee provide a habitat for numerous invertebrates such as worms and mussels. These then serve as food for many migratory birds. The island environment is one of the most important crane resting places in Germany. The southern tip of the island and the Neue Bessin were therefore assigned to protection zone I of the Western Pomerania Lagoon Area National Park and may not be entered. There are two nature reserves on the island, the NSG Dünenheide between Neuendorf and Vitte and the NSG Dornbusch and Schwedenhagener Ufer in the north.
In 1924, wild rabbits were released at the Dornbusch to enrich the hunt, which turned out to be a serious mistake. After just a few years, the animals had reproduced extraordinarily and the damage caused by game is still considerable today. In 1962, deer were also released on the island. Wild boars come regularly from Rügen to the island. A moose was also spotted in the mid-1970s.
The nature conservation society Hiddensee und Boddenlandschaft maintains a permanent exhibition on fauna and flora in the National Park House in Vitte.
The Hiddensee ornithological station worked on the island from 1936 to around 2018, and there has been no observation station here since then.
From the Stone Age to the end of the 17th century
The island was first settled in the Middle and Early Stone Age. After the Germanic population had left the southern Baltic region in the 6th century AD, the Ranen ( Slavs ), who had been defeated by King Waldemar I of Denmark in 1168 by conquering the Jaromarsburg fortress on the Arkona on the island of Rügen , Christianized and took them under Danish rule Fiefdom had been brought to possession of the island. Hiddensee was thus under Danish sovereignty . On April 13, 1296, the Rügen prince Wizlaw II gave the island of Hiddensee "as it was surrounded by the salt seas" to the Neuenkamp monastery . A Cistercian abbey called Nikolaikamp was built there , named after Saint Nicholas as the patron saint of seafarers. In fact, the monastery was called Kloster Hiddensee throughout its existence . In autumn 2008, archaeologists discovered ten burials during excavations under the direction of medieval archaeologist Felix Biermann on the site of the former Cistercian monastery. Nine graves were found north of the monastery church and one in the cloister east of the west wing of the enclosure . Bettina Jungklaus anthropologically examined the skeletons of the seven male and two female adults as well as one young girl . A 20 to 30-year-old man had a healed blow injury to his right frontal bone. There was a joint burial of a 50–60 year old man with a 14–15 year old girl, in which the man held the young people's left arm with his right hand. The disease burden was remarkably low. Tartar and periodontal disease were the most common . Tooth decay was only found in one set of teeth, which was unusually small for medieval populations.
Simultaneously with the construction of the monastery, the Gellenkirche , a small beacon, called Luchte , and the first port were built on the Gellen in the south of the island between 1302 and 1306 . The foundations of these structures are (today) west of the Gellens in the Baltic Sea.
In 1332 which took place consecration of the island church , intended for the farmers and fishermen of the island, in what is now the district monastery outside the monastery walls. With the transfer of the baptismal font from the Gellenkirche to the new church, pastoral tasks have been carried out from there since then. The barrel vault, which was built in around 1781, was painted with rose decorations in 1922 by the Berlin painter Nikolaus Niemeier.
In the course of the Reformation , the monastery was dissolved in 1536. During the Thirty Years' War from 1618 to 1648 soldiers burned down the mixed oak forest on the Dornbusch on the orders of Wallenstein in 1628 , which wanted to deprive the Danes of the island as a possibility for timber production. Even in the 21st century, the layer of ash from that time can still be seen on the roadsides near the lighthouse a few centimeters below the sward. In the years from 1648 to 1815, Hiddensee was, like all of Western Pomerania, under Swedish administration. Joachim Ulrich Giese was the owner of the island from 1754 to 1780 and began mining clay for the Stralsund faience factory he founded .
From the 19th century to the end of World War II
From 1800 to 1836 was a particularly sad time for the Hiddenseer, when the island belonged to captain and knight Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig von Bagewitz (1777-1835) on Ralow . He increased the taxes to the point of unbearable, drove the Hiddenseer to 104 days of forced labor on his property every year and prevented a school for the children. Under him the free peasants in Greaves became serfs. Even when the abolition of serfdom by King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden was enacted in 1806, nothing changed on Hiddensee.
From 1815, Hiddensee and Western Pomerania belonged to Prussia until the end of World War II and was assigned to the Rügen district ( Rügen district until 1939). In 1836 the Stralsund monastery of the Holy Spirit acquired the island, and in 1837 and 1840 the first schools on the island were built in Plogshagen and Kloster. In the years between 1854 and 1864 there was a reorganization of the property conditions on Hiddensee as part of the replacement of the real burdens (farmers exemption).
Until 1861, Hiddensee was practically treeless for decades, with the exception of the barren willow avenue between Kloster and Grieben and a few pines there that were planted around 1770, as well as a few trees on Schwedenhagen and Rübenberg . The dense oak tree population on Hiddensee that still existed in the 13th century was almost completely decimated by the beginning of the 17th century for firewood, house and ship building. It is unlikely that the clearing by fire by Wallenstein in 1628 would have destroyed the forest, as the legend would have it, because already on the Rügen map by Eilhard Lubin from 1602 there is no longer a tree symbol on Hiddensee and the thorn bush is depicted as bare hill country. First the Dornbusch between Bakenberg and Hucke was planted with pines in 1861, around 1900 also the Dornbusch north of the Bakenberg, the coastal section from the Hucke to the local history museum and from there along the coast to the Gellen ( Karkensee ). The stretch of coast in front of Vitte was excluded from this, because the Vitter rejected the government's offer of afforestation on the grounds that it would then make it more difficult for tourists to access the beach.
In the years 1864 and 1872, the island was hit by severe storm floods. During the first flood, Hiddensee broke into two parts due to a complete flooding at the narrowest part of the island, south of Neuendorf, which could only be reversed six years later through extensive reconstruction measures. After the second storm flood, the Hiddenseer gold jewelry , a Viking work from the 10th century, is said to have been found. A replica of it can be viewed in the Hiddensee Local History Museum , the original is kept in the Stralsund Cultural History Museum .
In 1874 the Hiddensee district was formed in the German Empire . In 1875 the painter Gustav Schönleber “discovered” the hard-to-reach Hiddensee. In 1888 the lighthouse on the Dornbusch, the harbor and the sea rescue station were completed in Kloster. In 1887 the bulwark was built in Kloster, in 1905 and 1907 the steamboat landing stages in Vitte and Neuendorf. From this point on, larger ships could dock directly on Hiddensee and the adventurous embarkation or disembarkation at the ferry island was no longer necessary. Starting in 1892, steamers ran regularly between Stralsund and the monastery for the first time . From 1905, with the establishment of the Medical Association, the first doctor on Hiddensee received his license.
With the almost simultaneous construction of five large hotels in Kloster, Haus Hitthim in 1909, Zum Klausner in 1911, Wieseneck and Haus am Meer (the later bird observatory) both in 1913 and in the same year Dornbusch , which was expanded from an inn to a hotel , the number of tourists rose by leaps and bounds and the monastery became the main tourist town on the island.
When the Hiddensee Nature Conservation Union was founded, the Fährinsel was declared a nature reserve by the Prussian government in 1910 and the Gellen and Gänsewerder in 1922 . The Dornbusch, Schwedenhagener Ufer and Altbessin were given the status of a nature reserve in 1937 .
From 1916 to 1921, the photographer Elfriede Reichelt visited the island several times. Between 1922 and 1925 Max Taut built a house on Hiddensee every year. The most famous is the Karusel in Vitte, built in 1922 , which the silent film actress Asta Nielsen bought as a residence in 1928 and for which Bruno Taut designed the color scheme for the house. Right near the Karusel is another house by Max Taut, Haus Weidermann built in 1923 for the Berlin merchant Karl Weidermann. In the monastery are the house Pingel , for interior architects Walter Pingel built in 1924 (in the sixties structurally changed considerably), and next to the 1925 built house for the Berlin publisher Max Gehlen , which on the grounds of since 1930 Biological Station Hiddensee lies and is used as a doctoral house.
In 1927 a police ordinance was issued that prohibited the use of motor vehicles on the island. Only the island doctor and the local police were allowed to use a motorcycle. In the same year, the island was connected to the power grid and three years later the Biological Research Station was founded by Erich Leick from the University of Greifswald, from which the Biological Research Institute Hiddensee (now Biological Station Hiddensee ) emerged in 1936 together with an ornithological station .
In 1937, work began on the large stone wall with stone groynes in front of the Hucke . It was planned to protect the entire four-kilometer-long bank of the Dornbusch with a wall. In addition to protecting the island, the aim was to limit the sand drift in order to save the costs of constant dredging on the Gellen channel and in the Stralsund fairway. The outbreak of the Second World War ended the construction work, only four hundred meters were completed and remain so to this day. After the pig wall was erected, the beach at Kloster und Vitte deteriorated and suffered from a lack of sand.
Between 1937 and 1939 the three municipalities on the island merged to form the municipality of Hiddensee .
At the end of the thirties, bunkers and flak positions for air defense during World War II were built on the Enddorn , as well as a pier on Schwedenhagen for the transport of materials. The bunkers were blown up in 1945 by the Soviet Army (the remains of the rubble were only removed in the 2000s) and the pier was expanded by VEB Erdöl-Erdgas Grimmen for the oil test wells in the 1960s. The pier was then used from 1974 by a push convoy for island supply and demolished in 2010.
1945 to 1989
In 1952 the second ferry connection between Seehof on Rügen and the ferry island had to be closed.
Between 1958 and 1959 the VEB vehicle and hunting weapons factory "Ernst Thälmann" built a holiday village for its employees in the Dünenheide. Right next to it, in 1980/81, the construction and assembly combine for industrial and port construction in Stralsund built another holiday resort for its employees.
From 1952 to 1955, Hiddensee belonged administratively to the Bergen district . In 1953, some hoteliers fled to the West during Aktion Rose , while others were arrested. After this action, all hotels on the island were expropriated and handed over to the FDGB . The Heimatmuseum and the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Haus opened in the 1950s; the LPG Dornbusch was founded.
In 1962, the construction of the dike began between Kloster and Vitte. The biggest redesign of Hiddensee began with the dike in the meadows and pastures along the Bodden coast. In Vitte the Boddenwasser went up to the streets Wiesenweg , Norderende and Zum Seglerhafen . Large parts of today's port of Vitte as well as the entire area with today's sports field, the helicopter landing pad and the sailing port of Lange Ort were artificially washed up or drained. In monasteries, too, parts of the Bodden were drained, which before the dyke was built from the harbor to far beyond the Postweg .
On April 10, 1967 seeseismischer investigations began as a result, in the north of the island of Hiddensee with the research drilling E Rügen 2/67 , the oil exploration . This 4,602 m deep well, like wells E Hiddensee 3/67, 4/68 and 5/68 that followed until December 1968 , did not produce any usable oil deposits. The already prepared 5th borehole was canceled and all boreholes were filled in the summer of 1971. The oil that had been extracted up to that point was shipped by tanker from a temporary port near the monastery to the Soviet Union for examination and processing.
By 1971 the location of the 5th technical observation company Dornbusch of the NVA was built between the Pension Zum Klausner and the Dornbusch lighthouse . Behind a double fence, with a dog running in between, was an ammunition bunker and other buildings. The facility was dismantled in 1993 and the bunker was covered with earth. Since then, the former access road, the slab path from Kloster, which forks just before Klausner, has turned right into "nowhere".
In 1972/73 the connecting roads between the towns were paved with concrete slabs, except for a gap of around 500 m between Vitte and Kloster, which had existed for years, due to the onset of a lack of building material, and which is still recognizable today as the only paved road section. In 1974, the household waste dumps on the edge of all local locations were covered and a central waste dump was set up near the Swantiberges . This was exhausted in the early 1990s. Since 1993 all garbage has been collected in the port of Vitte and transported to Rügen.
On May 7, 1989, there were 4.7 percent against in the GDR local elections in Hiddensee. Hiddensee was considered a niche for those who think differently and dropouts who often worked in hotels, restaurants or as lifeguards in the summer. They were easy to control on the small island, and despite some open Stasi observation, some incidents and meetings were accepted. There was an intellectual climate on Hiddensee, and artists, writers, actors, musicians and scientists retired there, such as Jo Harbort , Christine Harbort , Günter Kunert , Kurt Böwe , Harry Kupfer , Inge Keller , Günther Fischer , Armin Mueller-Stahl , Christoph Hein , Robert Rompe or members of the punk band feeling B .
The corpses of people who were shot while attempting to escape across the Baltic Sea, mostly in a folding boat , or who perished without outside interference, were also found again and again on the beaches of Hiddensee, such as those of 18-year-old Friedrich Klein and Ernst August Utpaddel (both in February 1962) and the 21-year-old Uwe Richter (in August 1987). But one of the most spectacular escapes from the GDR and the only one with a surfboard succeeded from Hiddensee in November 1986, by the 30-year-old Karsten Klündner and the 22-year-old Dirk Deckert a day later. In the early mornings, both of them drove with self-made surfboards and sail from Gellen to the Danish island of Møn, 70 kilometers away, in a good four hours.
After the fall of the Wall , a new pier for the cargo ferry was completed in Vitte. Some sailors then used the old concrete pier of the push boat in Kloster as a sailing port. From the 2010s onwards, the largest port renewal project in Kloster became a real sailing port with sanitary facilities.
In 1992 the research facilities Versuchsstelle Schwedenhagen of the Berlin Central Institute for Electron Physics and the Fährinsel research facility of the Jena Central Institute for Microbiology and Experimental Therapy were given up.
The large-scale electric vehicle test started in 1992 was also carried out on Hiddensee by the Federal Ministry of Research and the automotive industry. In the course of the test, a large solar system was installed on a building roof at the port of Vitte, which still exists today.
In May 2010 the tent cinema in Vitte had to be closed after 46 years. After a transition period at different locations, a new tent cinema opened at the port of Vitte in 2012.
Between 2010 and 2014, some streets were newly paved or paved at all, and the connecting streets were widened by a good 50 percent (Vitte-Neuendorf 2010 and Kloster-Vitte 2014). In 2012, a helicopter landing pad for emergency patients and in the event of a disaster went into operation in Vitte.
In October 2019, a new island bus with an electric drive went into operation. The predecessor drove with diesel and was therefore still one of the few combustion vehicles on the island after the police switched to an electric car in September 2015.
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic , Hiddensee was closed to tourists from March 16, 2020. Tourists who were on the island had to leave the island by March 19. The day before, an emergency schedule from the Hiddensee shipping company started , in which only the Vitte ferry between Schaprode and Vitte operates until further notice. Since May 18th, tourists from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania have been allowed to visit Hiddensee again, and from May 25th from all over Germany.
The inhabitants of the island live mainly from tourism . The majority of the visitors are day tourists. Every year Hiddensee has around 50,000 overnight guests, compared to around 250,000 day visitors.
Even before 1990, Hiddensee was a popular vacation spot. In the 1970s, there were up to 4,000 holidaymakers and 3,000 day-trippers on the island every day during the main season. By the mid-1980s, the number of day visitors rose to almost 250,000 visitors a year. Due to the desired naturalness, the tourism sector has hardly been expanded, and the number of visitors has hardly changed since then.
A significant part of the Hiddensee area is used for agricultural purposes.
School children have been taught on the island since 1788. In the beginning, this was done by the sexton . The first school in Vitte was founded on November 2nd, 1887. After the restructuring in connection with German reunification in 1990, the Vitter School became a secondary school . 69 students are currently being taught from the first to tenth grade (as of 2019).
Private motor vehicle traffic is prohibited on the entire island, which has been regulated by law since 1927. In a few exceptions, motor vehicles are permitted, recently increasingly with electric drive. Horse-drawn vehicles are used for passenger traffic as well as part of the goods traffic. An electric bus from Rügener Personennahverkehrs GmbH (RPNV) runs between the northern and southern parts of the municipality from Monday to Friday . However, the most frequently used means of transport is the bicycle .
In contrast to pedelecs / e-bikes, e-scooters on Hiddensee require a special permit, which is only rarely issued, like all motor-driven vehicles.
The island can be reached via several ship connections from both Stralsund and Rügen , operated by the White Fleet "Reederei Hiddensee" . In the summer season there are further connections with Ralswiek , Breege , Wiek and Zingst . There are also water taxi connections with the mainland and the island of Rügen.
Sights and museums
The "biggest" attraction on Hiddensee is the long sandy beach. On the west side it extends practically the entire length of the island. It has therefore been known as a seaside resort since the late 19th century. The swimwear (and also the clothing label in general) was already very revealing in the times of the Belle Époque . Ladies who went barefoot and showed bare calves were possible anywhere on Hiddensee where it would have led to a scandal elsewhere. During the GDR era, because of complaints from indignant tourists, attempts were made to prohibit nude bathing at times , but this was hardly noticed. Today there is no division into textile and nude beach sections in Hiddensee and both are permitted and common on the entire beach.
In the north of the island, on the Schluckswiek in the so-called highlands of Hiddensee, stands the island's landmark, the Hiddensee lighthouse. 102 steps lead to the tower, which has been open to visitors since 1994. So that it doesn't get too tight up there, only 15 visitors can climb the tower at the same time. From wind force 6 the tower remains closed for safety reasons.
Gerhart Hauptmann House
The writer Gerhart Hauptmann was a summer guest in 1926 in the former Landhaus Modler and later Haus Seedorn . Four years later he bought it from the community and added an extension. From 1930 to 1943 he spent the summer months here with his wife. In 1956 it became the Gerhart Hauptmann Museum, which also organizes readings and concerts. The literature pavilion, which was built on the property in a strikingly modern form in 2012, serves as the entrance and houses the ticket office, museum shop (bookstore) and a permanent exhibition of the Hiddensee literature landscape .
Hiddensee island church
The island church of Hiddensee was built in 1332 in front of the monastery , nothing of which has survived today (the so-called monastery gate was only built after the monastery was abandoned). For centuries it served as a parish church for the island's residents. In 1781 it was rebuilt in the Baroque style - the pulpit altar, confessional, baptismal angel and baptismal font date from this period. The painted barrel vault, the so-called Hiddensee rose sky, is only from 1922. Today the island church is the seat of the Protestant parish of Hiddensee.
The Lietzenburg is a listed Art Nouveau villa that the painter Oskar Kruse had built in 1904/1905. It is a brick building with a natural stone foundation on a hill near the Dornbusch. It has served as a guesthouse for artists for many years.
Hiddensee Local History Museum
The Hiddensee Local History Museum is a simple plastered building in a monastery. It offers a permanent exhibition on the island's history with around 450 exhibits, a complete copy of the Hiddensee jewelry found on the island , files, around 2,500 photographs, postcards and slides as well as an extensive library. Some works by well-known representatives of the Hiddensee artists' colony are also in the museum's holdings. The building itself dates from 1890 and was a sea rescue station.
Only a few steps away from the Gerhart-Hauptmann-Museum, in Biologenweg 5, is the doctoral student house built in 1925 by Max Taut for the Berlin publishing director Max Gehlen . In 1930 the island administration bought the building as a summer house for the Biological Station Hiddensee . It has served as a seminar and accommodation building for the University of Greifswald since around 1990 .
Eggert Gustavs Museum
In the Am Bau settlement area , the old forge was converted into a museum and opened in 2019. It pays tribute to the life and work of the artist Eggert Gustavs , who died in 1996 and was the son of long-time island pastor Arnold Gustavs , and is intended to make him known to larger circles.
Hiddensee National Park House
The national park house was opened in 1998. The house in the north of Vitte is a thatched building with a trapezoidal floor plan. It includes a permanent exhibition on the Vorpommersche Boddenlandschaft National Park with a focus on Hiddensee. The motto of the exhibition is “Panta Rhei - Everything flows”.
Asta-Nielsen-Haus and surroundings
The round building, also called Karusel after the Danish word for carousel , was built in 1923 for the Müller family based on plans by Max Taut . In 1928 the daughter of the silent film actress Asta Nielsen bought it and spent the summer months there with her mother and her husband until the 1930s. Frequent visitors were Joachim Ringelnatz with his wife, Heinrich George and Gerhart Hauptmann. In 1975 the municipal administration placed the building under monument protection ; In 1989 the Nielsen heirs sold the house to the community. In 2015 a permanent exhibition about Asta Nielsen opened. The house was right on the Bodden until the 1960s (see history 1945 to 1989 ). Right next to the Asta-Nielsen-Haus is another building by Max Taut, which was built in 1924 for the commercial director Karl Weidermann.
The community uses the house for public events, but it was badly damaged in the meantime and had to be renovated. The Ministry of Agriculture of the State of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and the District of Western Pomerania made around 500,000 euros available for this, and the municipality also had to plan a small contribution. The renovation was completed in 2015, since then weddings can also be carried out in the balcony room. In addition, the house now serves as a museum and artist house , in which, among other things, the filmic work of the silent film actress and the life of Max Taut are shown in a permanent exhibition. There are also special exhibitions and seminars in side rooms.
The original facility of the Blue Barn is a low German hall house from the beginning of the 19th century. It has been home to the owner Günter Fink's gallery since the 1970s . He exhibited his paintings with island motifs here and also sold them.
Henni Lehmann House
The Landhaus Lehmann was used as the summer residence of the Henni Lehmann family from 1907 to 1937 . The building was designed by the Schwerin architect Paul Ehmig . After a renovation, the building served as Vitte's town hall between 1938 and 1991 . The house has been officially called Henni-Lehmann-Haus since June 5, 2000 and is used for events and exhibitions as well as the local library.
Built in 1755 as a fisherman's cottage, it is Vitte's oldest house. The painter Elisabeth Büttner has lived in the house since 1915, and from 1930 it was the summer residence of the Pallat family and the resistance fighter Adolf Reichwein, who was murdered in 1944, and is still owned by the family today. In 1981 the house in Süderende 105 was listed as a historical monument. In front of the house there is a memorial stumbling block. The inside of the building cannot be viewed.
Humunculus figure collection
The collection of figures and props in the functional new building made of larch wood comes mainly from Karl Huck's neighboring Seebühne puppet theater . In addition to theater posters and brochures, you can see, for example, Doctor Faustus , Long John Silver , Ebenezer Scrooge , Hans Christian Andersen , Tolstoi , Kafka , Edgar Allan Poe , William Shakespeare , Goethe , Pinocchio , King Kong , Marilyn Monroe , Helena and an extensive animal kingdom included a Dronte chick.
The 12.30 m high structure (fire height 10 m), a beacon and cross mark fire , is located south of Neuendorf on the northern border of the Gellen. It has the lighthouse number C2586 and the coordinates of . The beacon is officially called "Leuchtfeuer Gellen / Hiddensee". The white steel tower with a red gallery and conical roof stands on a natural stone base. It was built in 1904 by the Julius Pintsch company (Berlin) from cast segments ( tubbings ) and has been in trial operation since 1905 and in continuous operation since 1907. From the same production facility ( Fürstenwalde / Spree branch ) a. the Ranzow and Kolliker Ort (island of Rügen) lighthouse, which were constructed in the same way, and the Norddorf lighthouse (Amrum). The Gellen / Hiddensee beacon marks the northern entrance to the Gellenstrom, in the west the fairway of the Gellenstrom and leads through the Schaproder Bodden in the east. The lighthouse was depicted on a 5 million mark emergency note from the Rügen district from 1923. In the Gellen special stamp series "Leucht-, Leit- und Molenfeuer" from 1975, the Gellen beacon adorned the 10 pfennig stamp as a motif.
Meetinghouse Us Tauflucht
So that services could also be celebrated in Neuendorf , the Uns Tauflucht (Our Refuge) parish hall was built at the end of the 20th century . In addition to ecumenical services, it is also used for community events such as lectures and concerts.
Lütt Partie fishing museum
In 2006/2007, a former net and tool shed built from bricks from 1885 was converted into the Lütt Partie fishing museum (small unit). The name is from the times when it was still in its original purpose. At that time there was a large and a small net or tool shed, one of which was popularly known as Grod Partie , the smaller Lütt Partie . Since 2007, fishermen from the island have been presenting and explaining fishing equipment and telling about fishing history and stories from everyday working life from then and now. The sponsor of the museum is the association “Fischereipartie Neuendorf e. V. “, which is financed solely from donations.
The island of Hiddensee enjoyed the reputation of an artist colony from the beginning of the 20th century . Artists of all kinds spent the summer months there and recorded their impressions in their work.
From 1904 the painter Elisabeth Büchsel spent the summer months in Neuendorf. In the same year, Oskar Kruse built his Lietzenburg in Kloster, which became a meeting point for artists. Later his sister-in-law, the doll maker Käthe Kruse, also lived there . From 1922 to 1933, the Hiddensoer Künstlerinnenbund met in the Blue Barn in Vitte, Henni Lehmann's summer residence . Willy Jaeckel and Joachim Ringelnatz are other artists closely associated with Hiddensee from the period after the First World War .
Even in the GDR era, numerous artists regularly stayed at Hiddensee and reflected on everyday life and the landscape in their paintings, leaves and books, such as the writer Hanns Cibulka . The dancer and dance teacher Gret Palucca spent every summer on Hiddensee from 1948 onwards and was given a piece of land in Vitte by the GDR, on which she had a house built in 1961, which was demolished by an investor in 2009. Palucca was buried in the Inselfriedhof in Kloster, where director Walter Felsenstein is also located, who had a house built across from the Lietzenburg, where he spent the summer months.
Felsenstein's neighbor, the painter Willi Berger (1922–2018), had lived on Hiddensee since 1955. His catalog of works includes more than 4200 pictures, most of them with Hiddensee or people on Hiddensee as a motif. He also restored pictures by the painter Elisabeth Büchsel, but was full-time ornithologist and conservator at the Hiddensee ornithological station from 1955 to 1979. In October 2019, a memorial exhibition took place in his home and studio Schwalbennest on Hügelweg in Kloster. It is still uncertain whether this will become a permanent exhibition.
Since 1987 the painter Torsten Schlüter has been celebrating his Hiddensee summer exhibitions in the garden at various locations on the island, such as the Schlieker house in Kloster. He currently owns an exhibition room in Irene Hasenberg's former arts and crafts shop at Hotel Dornbusch and a studio in his house above the cliffs of Kloster (Biologenweg), which he called Anna Hucke and where he also exhibits in the garden in summer.
Traditionally, a lot of carvings are made from driftwood and other deadwood on Hiddensee . In the 1970s and 1980s mainly by the Schierker musician and artist Hanns Mehner (1927–2005), who at that time spent the summer months in his mother-in-law's house in Kloster. Mehner's owls, totem poles and faces adorned the front gardens of monasteries (in some cases to this day). After the turning point, Jo led . Harbort continues this tradition. His wooden sculptures can be found at the playgrounds in Vitte and Neuendorf, at the ports in Kloster and Neuendorf, in the church in Kloster and at Inselblick . Together with the innkeepers Zum Klausner , he opened a sculpture park at the restaurant in 2005, which was created by students of the theater sculpture class at the Dresden University of Fine Arts and which is expanded every year with new works from the respective class.
There is also a tent cinema and the puppet theater Seebühne in Vitte as well as the galleries Am Seglerhafen in Vitte, Am Torbogen , Galerie am Hügel and Hedins Oe in Kloster.
The island of Hiddensee is also called "Sötes Länneken" by the locals.
In 1974 Nina Hagen published the hit You forgot the color film , which says: "The sea buckthorn stood high on the beach of Hiddensee ...". The folk duo De Plattfööt also sang “Hiddensee, Land between Luv un Lee”.
Sea buckthorn grows in abundance on the island . Its fruits become alcoholic (sea buckthorn liqueur and sea buckthorn spirit) and non-alcoholic drinks (cold and hot sea buckthorn juice), vitamin-rich foods (sea buckthorn cake and ice cream) as well as cosmetics and the like. a. processed. In addition, local products are dominated by fish, especially freshly caught and smoked. A specialty is the Hiddenseer Schmoraal , for which every long -established Hiddenseer family and every restaurant has its own recipe. In the meantime, the Boddenzander has also proven its culinary quality. Little known, but all the more admired for its green bones, is garfish , which can be found on some menus.
Their traditional house brands are still attached to many of the houses on Hiddensee .
The island was the setting or location for numerous films:
- The girl from Fanö by Kurt Heuser based on the novel by Günter Weisenborn , music: Alois Melichar , director: Hans Schweikart with Brigitte Horney , Joachim Gottschalk , Gustav Knuth , Paul Bildt u. v. a., 95 minutes, Bavaria-Film 1940/1941
- The wedding of Länneken . Feature film, GDR 1963/64 (director: Heiner Carow , music: Günter Kochan ).
- Lütt Matten and the white shell , children's film based on Benno Pludra , DEFA 1963/64 (director: Herrmann Zschoche , music: Georg Katzer ).
- A little closer to the clouds , two-part television film based on Günter Görlich , director: Christian Steinke, television of the GDR 1972/1973
- Police call 110: Collision , by Claus-Ulrich Wiesner , director: Manfred Mosblech , DDR TV 1976/77
- Police call 110: The Accident , by Eberhard Görner, directed by Manfred Mosblech , DDR TV 1981/82
- Walks through the GDR - Hiddensee , television documentary by Werner Filmer and Dieter Storp, 45 minutes, WDR 1986
- Hiddensee - Insel der Berliner Bohème , television documentary by Dagmar Brendecke, 45 minutes, SFB / MDR 1993
- Hiddensee - Capri der Ostsee , television documentary by Frank Schleinstein, 29 minutes, Otonia / MDR 1994
- "Picture Book Germany" Hiddensee - Beautiful Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania , TV documentary by Karin Reiss, BR / hr / ZDF 1998
Lutz Seiler : Kruso , 2014
The novel is set on the island of Hiddensee in the milieu of seasonal workers and social dropouts at the time of the collapse of the GDR in 1989. Here, Hiddensee is portrayed as a “place of longing for freedom”. In an epilogue, the author tells of his later research with Danish authorities for GDR refugees from Hiddensee, 174 of whom have died since 1961. He found out the identity of one of 15 anonymous victims.
- Ute Fritsch: With Ringelnatz on Hiddensee - A poetic walk , Verlag JENA 1800, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-931911-39-3 .
- Manfred Faust: Hiddensee. The story of an island. Demmler Verlag, Ribnitz-Damgarten 2009, ISBN 978-3-910150-67-6 .
- Adolf von Wilbrandt : Hiddensee , Ed. Ute Fritsch, Verlag Jena 1800, Jena 2009, ISBN 978-3-931911-37-9 (new edition of the oldest Hiddensee novel from 1910 with historical images of the locations).
- Lutz Mohr : Hiddensee - The "Capri" of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. On the history and legends of the island and its lost monastery. In: Bull and Griffin. Sheets on the cultural and regional history in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Vol. 18, Schwerin 2008, pp. 123-141.
- Ruth Negendanck : Hiddensee. The special island for artists. Atelier in the farmhouse, Fischerhude 2005, ISBN 3-88132-288-4 .
- Unda Hörner: Off to Hiddensee! The bohemian is on vacation. Edition Ebersbach, Berlin 2003. ISBN 978-3-934703-60-5 .
- Marion Magas (Ed.): Hidden Island in the Lost Land. With texts by G. Kunert, V. Braun and others, self-published, 2001, ISBN 3-00-018132-6 .
- Günter Möbus: How Hiddensee became an island. Thomas Helms Verlag , Schwerin 2001, ISBN 3-931185-87-7 .
- Karin Blase: Hiddensee A – Z. Demmler Verlag, Schwerin 2000, ISBN 3-910150-16-0 .
- Hans-Christof Wächter / Heinz Teufel: Hiddensee. An island for every season , Ellert & Richter Verlag, Hamburg 1992 ISBN 3-89234-309-8 .
- Karl Ebbinghaus: Hiddensee history * home * humor. Ruth Gerig, Königstein / Taunus 1991, ISBN 3-928275-02-X .
- Michael Baade, Wolf-Dietmar Stock: Hiddensee. Island of fishermen, painters and poets. Atelier in the farmhouse, Fischerhude 1992, ISBN 3-88132-248-5 .
- Herbert Ewe : Hiddensee. VEB Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 1983.
- Arved Jürgensohn: Hiddensee, the Capri of Pomerania. Neisse Verlag, Dresden 2013, ISBN 978-3-86276-091-6 . (Based on the original edition of the monastery on Hiddensee / Liegnitz 1924).
- Annelies Schneider-Siemt, Rudolph Gera: Hiddensee - pictures of a summer on the island of fishermen, painters and poets. Sachsenverlag, Dresden 1951, [Textill .: Rudolph Gera. Photos: Max Nowak]. ( Digitalisat SLUB Dresden )
The book already contains a color photo of the port in Vitte . The numerous photographs in the book document the living and working conditions on the island as well as the state of nature in 1951. Several images show agricultural and fishing practices that are rarely used today. It include a timber rent and Schober ( Dieme shown) as well as many work processes of fishermen.
- "22. " Biðið skjótliga til skipa ganga ok ór Brandeyju búna verða. "Þaðan beið þengill, unz þingat kómu halir hundmargir ór Heðinseyju . 22. Brandey (" Brand-Isle "): not mentioned els. Hethinsey (" Hethinsey " ): possibly the island of Hiddensee, east of Rügen. " Poetic Edda Helgakviða Hundingsbana I 21-25 , voluspa.org
- Alexander Ettenburg : The island of Hiddensee near Rügen and western Rügen. Bergen on Rügen 1912. Newly published by Tomas Güttler, Hamburg 2014, p. 5.
- Topographic map 1: 25,000 1444 Vitte
- Arnold Gustavs : The island of Hiddensee. A home book. Carl Hinstorff Verlag , Rostock 1953, pp. 37-39.
- Arnold Gustavs : The island of Hiddensee. A home book. Carl Hinstorff Verlag , Rostock 1953, p. 81.
- boards on the island in the north area, in various places.
- sunshine. Rügen holds the lead . In: Südkurier from January 3, 2009
- Hermann Hoogeweg : History of the Hiddensee Monastery . Ed .: Bookstore Leon Sauniers. Szczecin 1924.
- Bettina Jungklaus : Anthropological investigations on ten skeletons from the grounds of the Cistercian monastery Hiddensee . In: State Office for Land Monument Preservation Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Archaeological State Museum (Hrsg.): Bodendenkmalpflege in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania: Yearbook . tape 57 , 2010, ISSN 0947-3998 , p. 359-368 .
- Project Hiddensee, Cistercian monastery. In: anthropologie-jungklaus.de. Retrieved June 4, 2017 .
- Claudia Hoffmann: The gold jewelry from Hiddensee. In: WORLD-CULTURE-HERITAGE. No. 01/2009, OCLC 265909878
- Herbert Ewe: Hiddensee , VEB Hinstorff Verlag Rostock 1986.
- Treasure hunters. A chronicle of the Grimmen oil company. Reinkenhagen Oil Museum ( Memento from February 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Marion Magas: Hiddensee - Hidden Island in the Lost Land. GDR contemporary testimonies from island friends and bon vivants . 2nd Edition. Berlin 2010, ISBN 3-00-018132-6 , pp. 31–40, 57–59, 171–174.
- Auto Road Traffic Issue 8/1979
- Hiddensee: No place for hectic. In: Spiegel Online . August 10, 2002, accessed June 9, 2018 .
- website , accessed October 17, 2019
- Auto Road Traffic Issue 8/1979
- cf. Representation in the local history museum Hiddensee , last panel on history
- Open Monument Day in Kloster auf Hiddensee. September 10, 2017. Retrieved August 22, 2019 .
- Seen and photographed in June 2019 by user: 44Penguins .
- Information about the planned Gustavs Museum , accessed on June 15, 2019.
- renovated Asta-Nielsen-Haus is back in operation , at www.nordkirche.de; accessed on June 15, 2019.
- Ostsee Zeitung: The old man and his island. Accessed December 30, 2019 .
- Ostsee Zeitung: Hiddenseer Globetrotter back. Accessed December 30, 2019 .
- Sound must have a home - On the death of Hanns Mehner , Neue Wernigeröder Zeitung, 2005/2, p. 7
- Seebad Hiddensee: Student symposium on the Klausner. Accessed December 30, 2019 .
- Georg Zivier: Romanisches Café , Berlin 1965, p. 92.
- Lutz Seiler: "Kruso". MDR Figaro, September 9, 2014, archived from the original on September 15, 2014 ; Retrieved November 8, 2014 .