Joachim Ringelnatz

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Joachim Ringelnatz (around 1930). Photo by Hugo Erfurth

Joachim Ringelnatz (born August 7, 1883 in Wurzen as Hans Gustav Bötticher; †  November 17, 1934 in Berlin ) was a German writer , cabaret artist and painter who is best known for humorous poems about the fictional character Kuttel Daddeldu . He was known during the Weimar Republic and counted actors such as Asta Nielsen and Paul Wegener among his close friends and companions. His sometimes bizarre, expressionistic , witty and witty work is still known today.


Childhood and Adolescence (1883–1901)

The birthplace of Joachim Ringelnatz Wurzen

Joachim Ringelnatz was born as the youngest of three siblings in a residential and commercial building at Crostigall 14 in Wurzen near Leipzig at 11 ¾ o'clock in a room above the hall, as the midwife's birth certificate shows. His parents were both artistically active. His father Georg Bötticher , who came from a family of scholars in Thuringia, was a draftsman and later a full-time writer of humorous verses and children's books. He published forty books, including in Reclam's Universal Library . The mother Rosa Marie, daughter of a sawmill owner, also drew, designed patterns for beadwork and made dolls' clothing. Ringelnatz grew up in modest prosperity: the family employed two maids.

Georg Bötticher was the son of pastor Hans Adam Bötticher, who died in March 1849 in Görmar near Mühlhausen in Thuringia. Georg Bötticher's maternal grandfather was the Privy Councilor Professor Ferdinand Gotthelf Hand , who became known as a philologist and musicologist. Hand had taught the Weimar princesses Augusta and Maria, headed a singing club and wrote an “Aesthetics of Music Art”. As a young professor in Weimar, he still served under Goethe.

The father had a far greater influence on Joachim Ringelnatz than the mother in every respect. The boy clearly emulated his father in his first literary productions and felt intimidated and challenged throughout his life by the father's academic background and his extensive contacts. The father corresponded with Emanuel Geibel , Gustav Freytag , Conrad Ferdinand Meyer , Wilhelm Raabe and Adolph von Menzel , and Theodor Fontane praised his works as "homely". Georg Bötticher was clearly more interested in politics than the rather apolitical son. He celebrated the memory of Ferdinand Freiligrath with friends , was an ardent admirer of Otto von Bismarck and wrote biting satires on the Wilhelmine era . Ringelnatz had bigger problems with his mother than with his forbearance and kindness father. Ringelnatz wrote to his fiancée Alma in 1914: "We both lack motherly love."

In 1886 the family moved to Leipzig , where the father was a member of the artist and scholarly scene. From 1900 he devoted himself full-time to his writing and published Auerbach's German Children's Calendar from 1901 , in which he helped Ringelnatz to get his first publications: Easter fairy tales and two stories from the old Fritz .

The school days were difficult for Ringelnatz: He saw the teachers as "respectful dark people" and was teased by the classmates for his strange appearance (girlish hairstyle, unusually long bird nose, protruding chin, small stature). Even later, Ringelnatz attributed many difficulties to his unusual appearance: “I am convinced that my face determines my fate. If I had a different face, my life would have been completely different, at least it would have been quieter. ”The boy took refuge in defiance, ruffle and lonely drawing and writing. In 1892, Joachim Ringelnatz wrote and illustrated his earliest surviving work: Die Landpartie der Tiere, an animal acrostic in the style of Wilhelm Busch .

As a quintan, Ringelnatz did one trick too many: During the break, he left the school grounds of the König-Albert-Gymnasium , went to a people show in the zoo next to the school and had a Samoan tattoo on his forearm. At school he also bragged about the incident to his teacher. The reaction was the expulsion from high school. Years at a private secondary school followed. In 1901, Ringelnatz ended his school days, which were not very successful there either, with the one-year volunteer examination ( upper secondary qualification ). A teacher noted on the leaving certificate of the two times he was not sitting, that the graduate had been “a school bully of the first order”.

Seafaring and wandering years (1901–1908)

Kuttel Daddeldu is a caricature fictional character by Joachim Ringelnatz.

Ringelnatz had made it into his head to become a seaman. From April to September 1901 he worked as a cabin boy on the sailing ship Elli . His experiences were sobering: the saxon, small Ringelnatz was the target of insults (the captain called him "Nose King"), harassment and physical violence. He ran away in British Honduras , got lost in the jungle and was finally caught to endure even more on the way back. Back in Hamburg he was unemployed and hungry. At the end of the year he was a temporary worker in Malferteiner's snake shack on Hamburg Cathedral (he helped to carry the giant snakes).

This was just one of the more than thirty sideline jobs that Ringelnatz exercised during his time as a seaman. Wages as ordinary seaman on all the world's seas alternated again and again with phases of unemployment, for example in Hull , where he lived homeless on food donations. In a seaman's home he finally helped out as a “girl for everything”, lived into the day and enjoyed drinking parties with his new friends. After a while, however, he got tired of partying and was hired on ships again until 1903 he was forbidden to continue working as a sailor due to poor visual acuity. Nevertheless, he completed the qualification run for military service in the Navy and in 1904 served as a one-year volunteer with the Imperial Navy in Kiel .

At the beginning of 1905 he joined a Hamburg roofing felt company as an unpaid apprentice, but at the same time enrolled at the University of Leipzig for commercial studies. To his great disappointment, his father, who could not or did not want to finance his studies, got the Rector, a friend, to have Ringelnatz 'enrollment canceled. On the other hand, the father helped his son to publish it again in Auerbach's Deutscher Kinderkalender (the poem Downfall of Jeanette ). In 1905 he also painted the first known oil paintings ( warship and roof panorama ).

From 1907–1908 Ringelnatz worked as a clerk in Leipzig and Frankfurt am Main , but he was not yet ready for a regular everyday life. In make-up he played to the people of Eltville , who tended to childish pranks all his life , that the fairytale "Caliph of Baghdad" was visiting. A short time later he left for Hull overnight to see his old buddies again. He earned the money for the trip as a traveling singer and casual worker. The arrival was a great disappointment: the completely shabby friends no longer recognized him. On his next stop, Amsterdam , the efforts of the journey took their toll: Ringelnatz, vegetated from hunger, was exhausted from hunger in a floor chamber with a box as a bed. The German pastor of Amsterdam thought Ringelnatz was a fraud and had him put in prison. After a few weeks the adventurer was deported to Germany.

He took up a job as an accountant in a Munich travel agency, but lost the job when his boss noticed that Ringelnatz did not speak five foreign languages. In the undemanding satirical weekly Grobian , Ringelnatz published poems, jokes, anecdotes and the fairy tale The Honest Sailor .

Began a career as a cabaret artist and writer (1909–1914)

Joachim Ringelnatz, before 1925

A decisive event in Joachim Ringelnatz's life was the beginning of his appearances in the Munich artists' pub Simplicissimus in 1909 . The stranger quickly became the house poet and thus quasi an employee of the enterprising landlady Kathi Kobus and friend and colleague of the artists performing and frequenting there such as Carl Georg von Maassen , Erich Mühsam , Frank Wedekind , Max Dauthendey , Julius Beck , Ludwig Thoma , Emmy Hennings , Roda Roda , Bruno Frank and Max Reinhardt . However, the performances were very poorly paid. Ringelnatz hoped to be able to earn money with advertising verses and the tobacco shop Tabakhaus Zum Haus Dichter , but the original business (adorned with a human skeleton) went bankrupt after a few months.

Ringelnatz published poems and the autobiographical essay Viellieber Freund under various pseudonyms in the respected satirical journal Simplicissimus . In 1910 he finally published his first books: two children's books and a volume of serious poems that he dedicated to his father. His novella The Wild Miss of Ohio was published in the magazine Die Jugend .

In the new environment and through the new acquaintances, Ringelnatz became aware of his lack of education. So he was admitted to the burlesque secret society Hermetic Society , but only as a "smaller, middle-sized side father appendix" because he had failed the academically demanding entrance examination. He therefore took private lessons from Baron Thilo von Seebach in Latin, history, literary history and other subjects in order to make up for the gap and studied works of world literature.

Ringelnatz's enthusiasm for bohemian life was quickly exhausted, especially since he felt that Kathi Kobus had taken advantage of him: his fee was initially only one beer, then one beer and two marks. In 1911 he fled and traveled to Tyrol and Riga and spent the summer in Courland . He was quickly penniless again and earned something in brothels, where he disguised as a fortune teller predicted the future of prostitutes. At an exhibition in Friedrichstadt ( Jaunjelgava ) he sold two landscape paintings, but his material situation remained catastrophic: he spent the winter under the harshest conditions (13 degrees below zero) in a beach house near Riga. In the same year the first volume of his autobiographical books ( What a cabin boy diary tells ) was published.

In 1912 Ringelnatz found employment as a private librarian with Count Heinrich Yorck von Wartenburg at Schloss Klein-Öls , where he primarily organized the estate of Wilhelm Dilthey and in his free time with the Count's children - including those who were later involved in the preparation of the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944 involved brothers Peter and Paul Yorck - played. The following year he worked again as a librarian, this time with Chamberlain Börries Freiherr von Münchhausen-Moringen (1845–1931) in Hanover , then he was a tour guide at Lauenstein Castle and finally completed a course as a window dresser. He decorated a single shop window and it was so unorthodox that he immediately gave up the job. It was this aimlessness, documented in the mismatched professions, that motivated Alma Baumgarten's parents (whom he called a mole because of her short-sightedness and her black velvet coat ) to refuse to consent to his engagement to their daughter.

His collection of poems, The Snuffbox , was published, which contains some of his best-known verses to this day, and the volume of novels, Everyone Lives . But Ringelnatz had hardly any significant income from his writing. In 1910 he received a one-time fee of 200 marks for small beings , hardly any more for the snuff box . In 1913 and 1914, all of his submissions to newspapers and magazines were also rejected.

War and post-war period (1914-1919)

Memorial plaque on the old town hall in Leipzig, donated by the artists' association The Leonids , of which Georg Bötticher was a founding member.

Right at the start of the war, Ringelnatz volunteered for the Navy. Like the majority of German intellectuals (such as Arno Holz , Gerhart Hauptmann , Thomas Mann and Klabund ) he was enthusiastic about the war: "I thought of war romance and heroic death, and my chest was filled to the brim with enthusiasm and a thirst for adventure." To his disappointment, he was allowed to he did not take part in battles, although he volunteered several times, once even in a letter directly to Kaiser Wilhelm II , reported to the front. At first he served on blockships, then voluntarily on a mine-laying ship - a thankless and dangerous job. Ringelnatz only managed to get promoted to reserve officer with great effort , since the head of the training company did not want to allow the "Kröpel" (Low German for cripple) to be promoted.

Gradually his enthusiasm waned. He wrote in a letter: "The war seems to me only as a complicated, more and more tragic development of intrigues and powers of all nations." From 1917 Ringelnatz was lieutenant at sea and commander of a minesweeper in Seeheim near Cuxhaven , where he was at leisure had to devote himself to a terrarium full of snakes and lizards. His collection of war novels, Die Woge , banned censorship despite the general tendency toward war. However, Ringelnatz published some of the novellas in various magazines.

In 1918, the beloved father died. A memorial plaque on the old town hall in Leipzig reminds of him , to which Ringelnatz doffed his hat every time he passed by. The son, then a naval lieutenant, was on vacation in Berlin. He forged his vacation ticket to Leipzig and hurried home. He was deeply shaken: "At that time I couldn't imagine that I would one day overcome his death." In 1924 Rosa Marie Bötticher followed her husband.

Ringelnatz briefly sympathized with the November Revolution and wanted to speak to the Workers 'and Soldiers' Council, but he refused to take off his officer's cap and demanded an immediate promotion to a management position for his cooperation. The revolutionaries renounced his assistance. Ringelnatz withdrew insulted and ended a drama enthusiastic about war ( Der Flieger ), which, however, remained unpublished and was not accepted by any theater, as it no longer suited the general mood of the time. Two other plays ( Die Bolsheviks. No Serious Play and Fäkalie ) suffered the same fate. Ringelnatz experienced a first post-war year full of privation, full of coldness and hunger, and he also went blind from the late effects of a fight in one eye.

In December 1919 he wrote the first poems under the pseudonym Joachim Ringelnatz. He himself said that this pseudonym has no meaning, but there are theories that the surname either refers to the grass snake, "because it feels comfortable on water and on land," or to the seahorse called Ringelnass by seafarers , which Ringelnatz often drew and to which he dedicated a poem. The first name Joachim is associated with Ringelnatz 'lifelong piety (the name means "God lifts up").

Cabaret artist, writer and painter (1920–1932)

Joachim Ringelnatz giving a lecture on the Hellerau open-air theater in 1926, photograph by Genja Jonas

In 1920 Ringelnatz married the 15 years younger teacher Leonharda Pieper (1898–1977), whom he called Muschelkalk . This nickname appeared for the first time in a letter poem in which Ringelnatz called the fiancée "shell-calcified pearl". His wife became an indispensable assistant for all of his publications. The two moved into an apartment in Munich as black tenants. They lived there for ten years until they moved to Berlin in February 1930. Ringelnatz's poem “Angstgebet in Wohnungsnot” (1923) bears testimony to their fear of eviction from their apartment. The couple was in constant financial need. Ringelnatz finally worked temporarily as an auditor for the postal surveillance office in Munich and appeared again in the Simplicissimus .

From autumn 1920 he had his first successful appearances in the Berlin cabaret Schall und Rauch . This started his life as a traveling lecturer, which took him to stages throughout the German-speaking area for several months a year. As a member of the International Artist Lodge , he gave the job title "Artist" in hotels. Ringelnatz, who always appeared in a sailor's suit, quickly became known and soon had to refuse orders. In 1925 he traveled to Paris for three weeks, where he made the acquaintance of Jean Cocteau and Jules Pascin , whose later suicide shocked him. A stay in London in 1928 disappointed him.

Memorial plaque for Joachim Ringelnatz, Große Steinstrasse, Halle (Saale)
Handwritten note to Otto Linnemann from 1929

Film projects failed or were disappointingly unsuccessful. However, 16 recordings were made, and from 1927 Ringelnatz made appearances on the radio. His two most successful poetry collections were published: Kuttel Daddeldu or the slippery suffering and gymnastics poems by the publisher Alfred Richard Meyer alias Munkepunke in Berlin-Wilmersdorf . Ringelnatz now published books almost every year, with more or less great success. The need to live frugally remained, however. Ringelnatz and his wife could never live without financial worries. The constant travel necessary for survival became increasingly exhausting for Ringelnatz, who was in danger of health for life. However, he developed a great love for flying (however, he was not a pilot, as is often written).

He devoted himself intensively to painting, especially in watercolor and opaque colors . In 1923 he had his first successful auction in the Flechtheim Gallery, directed by Carl Einstein . Further exhibitions at home and abroad followed. In 1925, the self-taught artist's pictures were exhibited at the Academy of Arts exhibition, and two paintings were sold.

Ringelnatz moved away from Munich, he felt badly treated by the local press and hoped Berlin would give himself greater professional opportunities. He was already established in Berlin's cabaret and artist circles: his friends and acquaintances now included Renée Sintenis , Karl Hofer , Kurt Tucholsky , Claire Waldoff , Otto Dix , Otto Linnemann and Alfred Flechtheim . In 1929 he rented an apartment in Berlin, from 1930 Ringelnatz only lived there. In 1932 he made his last guest appearance at Simplicissimus . In the same year he went as an actor in his own play The Bottle with an ensemble from the Stadttheater Nordhausen on a tour of Germany.

During his time in Berlin, he was also a member of the Berlin football club Hertha BSC . He met regularly with the captain of Hertha's championship team Johannes "Hanne" Sobek and Hans Albers in the Westendklause at Steubenplatz, where he drank and wrote poetry with them.

See also: Corps Palatia (1927)

Performance bans, illness and death (1933–1934)

Woodcut board at the Ringelnatz birthplace from 1945.
Memorial plaque at the house at Brixplatz 11

Ringelnatz had not taken the rise of the NSDAP seriously for too long. As late as 1930 he wrote in a letter: "The Hitler-hype leaves me cold." 1933 grant had come to power Nazis Ringelnatz appearance bans in Hamburg and Munich. In Dresden he was even taken off the stage. Most of his books were confiscated or burned .

The honorary grave of Joachim Ringelnatz on the forest cemetery Heerstrasse in Berlin-Westend

Ringelnatz and his wife became impoverished because stage performances were the couple's main source of income. The first symptoms of tuberculosis , from which Ringelnatz ultimately died, appeared. One last happy event was the celebration of his 50th birthday, at which his long-time friends Asta Nielsen and Paul Wegener and his publisher (from 1927) Ernst Rowohlt gave speeches.

In 1934 Ringelnatz, who had received a passport with great difficulty, was still able to make guest appearances in Basel and Zurich, then his illness finally broke out. Friends helped the now almost completely destitute couple through public calls and private fundraising campaigns to pay for their stays in the sanatorium. Ringelnatz began another prose work ( The Last Roman ), which only appeared as a fragment from the estate. His diary entries from the tuberculosis hospital Waldhaus Charlottenburg , since 1964 Hellmuth-Ulrici-Klinik , also appeared posthumously. On October 3, he was released at his own request.

Joachim Ringelnatz died on November 17, 1934 at the age of 51 in his apartment on Sachsenplatz (today Brixplatz ). He was buried in the Heerstrasse forest cemetery in Berlin . Nine people accompanied the coffin; they played their favorite song, La Paloma . On the preserved, simply designed grave site (grave location: 12-D-21) lies a grave slab made of shell limestone, the inscription of which was designed by Renée Sintenis in bronze letters .

Afterlife and honors

Even before 1945, despite censorship, the estate and individual, privately edited collections could be published. Ringelnatz's fame as a poet, and not just as a writer of humorous verses, has grown steadily since 1945. Numerous reprints of his works were published, settings were produced, well-known actors such as Otto Sander traveled and traveled with Ringelnatz programs through German-speaking countries.

Joachim Ringelnatz Museum, Cuxhaven

As early as 1945, in the presence of Ringelnatz 'sister Ottilie Mitter, a woodcut board was attached to the birthplace in Wurzen. In 1948 the Wurzen Municipal Museum opened a permanent Ringelnatz collection. For the 100th birthday, the restored birthplace of the poet was renamed the Ringelnatzhaus . In 1992, the Joachim Ringelnatz Association was founded in Ringelnatz's birthplace . It promotes the publicity of the life and work of Hans Gustav Bötticher alias Joachim Ringelnatz in the entire German-speaking area. From 1986 to 1991 the city of Cuxhaven awarded the Joachim Ringelnatz Prize for poetry, endowed with 10,000 DM, every two years . From 2001 the price was revived. In the same year, the Joachim Ringelnatz Foundation was established , which took over the administration and care of the estate and in 2002 the Joachim Ringelnatz Museum in Cuxhaven opened. Since 2004 there has also been the nationwide Ringelnatz Society that cooperates with the foundation.

In 1953 the catalog for the traveling exhibition Ringelnatz was published as a painter by the Galerie Springer Berlin. In 1961 the first monograph on Ringelnatz as a visual artist was published (author: Werner Schumann). In 1959 Werner Kayser and Hans Peter de Courdres published the first Ringelnatz bibliography . The first comprehensive exhibition of his visual artistic works accompanied by a scientific catalog was opened in 2000 under the title “Ringelnatz! A poet paints his world ”shown in Göttingen, Wurzen and Cuxhaven, among others. On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Hellmuth-Ulrici-Klinik , in which Ringelnatz had spent the last months of his life, the historian Stefan Wolter took up the poet's posthumous diary notes in order to make his story of hope and anxiety in the forgotten authentic rooms transparent again and to make it tangible.

By resolution of the Berlin Senate , the final resting place of Joachim Ringelnatz in the Waldfriedhof Heerstraße has been dedicated to the State of Berlin as an honorary grave since 1984 . The dedication was extended in 2005 by the usual period of twenty years.

Several streets were named after Ringelnatz, including two in Berlin districts (Joachim-Ringelnatz-Strasse in Marzahn-Hellersdorf and Ringelnatzstrasse in Tempelhof-Schöneberg in the Lichtenrade district ). There are also Ringelnatz streets in Cuxhaven, Cologne-Rodenkirchen , Schweinfurt and Wiesbaden-Schierstein . In September 2012, the city of Steinfurt decided to rename the Stehrstraße located there - due to the Nazi past of the namesake Hermann Stehr  - in Ringelnatzstraße. On his 125th birthday, his hometown Wurzen fulfilled the poet's wish (expressed in his poem “Ambition”) that a small alley should be named after him after his death. The Ringelnatzgässchen appears as Ringelnatz explicitly wanted it to be:


carved merit crosses into my lead soldier as a child.
I myself passed all honor,
except for two medals that everyone has.

And I don't give a damn about honor.
On the contrary. My ideal would be
that after my death (grano salis)
little alley would be named after me, a very narrow and crooked alley, with low doors,
with steep steps and filing picks,
with shadows and crooked window hatches .

I would haunt there.

85 cent - special stamp of the Federal Republic of Germany (2008) for Ringelnatz's 125th birthday

For the poet's 125th birthday on August 7, 2008, Deutsche Post issued a special postage stamp worth € 0.85. The postage stamp shows the silhouette 'Ringelnatz' by Ernst Moritz Engert and the poem: A male stamp experienced something beautiful before it was stuck . The Federal Ministry of Finance presented the stamp in the Joachim Ringelnatz Museum in Cuxhaven. A so-called hand stamp imprint of the Deutsche Post with the stamp number 12/232 was offered on the date of issue in the birthplace of the poet in the museum in Wurzen , Domgasse 2. After that, stamps are only possible through the Weiden Philatelic Center in the Upper Palatinate . Furthermore, on August 7, 2008 , the Deutsche Post AG issued a special edition Joachim Ringelnatz book with the title Have you already been on the sun (item no. 000758), which is a block of four of the aforementioned stamp with the Berliner Includes first day stamp. For the 100th birthday was a 50 Pf -Sonderbriefmarke ( Mi -No. 701) by the Federal Post Office Berlin issued.

Literary work


Title page of an early edition of Kuttel Daddeldu , 1920

Joachim Ringelnatz 'first volume of poems for adults, Gedichte (1910), was viewed critically by himself in retrospect: “Poems as they are composed by thousands of young enthusiasts”. They are serious, sentimental poems in the romantic tradition , especially Heinrich Heine .

In his collection The Snuff Box , which appeared two years later, the tone has changed completely: Ringelnatz writes grotesque nonsense poetry . Some of the poems are among his most famous to this day: The snuff box , A male stamp experienced , The ants and logic . In the mostly short, consistently rhyming poems, things are animated (stamps, buttons, glasses) and animals can speak like in the fable (ants, jellyfish, elephants). Even contemporary reviewers noticed the similarity with the poems of Christian Morgenstern . Ringelnatz asserted that when he was writing his verses, he had not yet known Morgenstern's poetry. Even here, Ringelnatz uses a laconic, unaffected everyday language; he will keep this style until the end.

In 1920 Ringelnatz published his most important poetry collections: Joachim Ringelnatzen's gymnastic poems and Kuttel Daddeldu or slippery suffering . The gymnastics poems , which actually mainly deal with the topic of sport (gymnastics with and without equipment, wrestling, running, football, boxing), parody and caricature in virtuoso verse in various rhyme forms and meters , with neologisms and intentionally incorrectly applied grammar the ideological-folkish Orientation of the sport after gymnastics father Jahn . The ironic poems were (also thanks to an apparently serious foreword) taken at face value by the "monthly for gymnastics, sport and games" and sharply condemned: "Be warned against buying the presumptuous work."

In Kuttel Daddeldu or the slippery sorrow and the following volume of poetry The Tie-Dyed Shoemaker's Pate , Ringelnatz introduced the character Kuttel Daddeldu : In long narrative poems with very freely handled verse, the hair-raising adventures of this sailor who has no manners, uninhibitedly indulging in his obscene lust for the moment are presented Is a brothel guest and uses violence indiscriminately. The Kuttel-Daddeldu texts were a great success, also because they were part of Ringelnatz's constant cabaret repertoire.

The following volumes of poetry depart more and more from the grotesque, anarchist nonsense poetry of the first books. Ringelnatz writes parabolic occasional poems from his many tours, philosophical thought poetry, sometimes with melancholy tones, with advice on how to cope with life (if too serious, Ringelnatz destroys with often surprisingly inappropriate comic endings). These volumes of poetry, for which Karl Arnold produced the covers and illustrations, had great success and received positive reviews from Kurt Tucholsky and Kurt Pinthus . Kuttel Daddeldu is reprinted in this issue to this day.

Prose and drama

Ringelnatz 'volume of novels, Everyone Lives, (1913) brings together 12 narratives that often present sentimental excerpts from the lives of different people in traditional, sometimes impressionistically influenced language. The heroes are lonely, eccentric people, fallen out of bourgeois life, especially dreamers. His collection of 12 war stories ( Die Woge , 1922) uses the same language, but the tone fluctuates between unreflected patriotic enthusiasm to the edge of the gossip and a disillusioned description of the war.

In 1924 Ringelnatz published two books in a radically different style: one is a short city novel ( ... liner Roma ... ), the other a collection of eleven grotesques ( Nervosipopel ), some of which are very intentional and reminiscent of Dadaism , traditional literary forms such as the fairy tale grotesque and alienate absurdly. ... liner Roma ... works five years before Alfred Döblin's novel Berlin Alexanderplatz with assembly technology, presents the city as the real main character of the book, who moves and guides people, conveys the hectic and disturbing aspects of the metropolis by refusing a linear, comprehensible narrative flow. Like the title ( [Ber] liner Roma [ne] ), the whole book is only an excerpt, since the whole can no longer be represented.

Ringelnatz has written five autobiographical books. In them he describes his life and especially his errors in a very factual and artless way, often in a diary style and ruthlessly towards himself. The hard life of the sailors is portrayed just as realistically as the often dull, inscrutable everyday life in war.

Ringelnatz 'dramatic works did not bring luck. Unsure of the form ( Ringelnatz wrote the Flieger in verse), often sentimental and constructed, almost all of them were rejected by theaters and publishers. Alfred Kerr's verdict on Ringelnatz's play The Bottle : “Dear Joachim Ringelnatz, inventing a film fable is not enough for a drama. And an outline is not enough for a film. "

Children's books

Cover illustration by Joachim Ringelnatz for the secret children's playbook

Ringelnatz, who was a great friend of children, has published five children's books. The early ones are friendly, rhyming fables and nonsense verses in the tradition of his father, for example. In contrast, the two volumes Secret Children's Play Book with Many Pictures (1924) and Secret Children's Confusion Book with Many Pictures (1931) are unique to children's literature . In the form of a poem, Ringelnatz gives the children instructions for completely non-educational games: They should torture animals, dirty the apartment and destroy furniture, knead dumplings from excrement and then catch them with their mouths, build bombs (with gasoline and fire!), Spit at other children, with Experiment with hydrochloric acid and frighten parents with alleged mental illnesses. If the parents then confront the children, Ringelnatz recommends lies and excuses.

The Secret Children's Confusion Book is milder, but here too, in addition to harmless nonsense, there are unusual verses: Ringelnatz tells the children that the stork does not bring the children, tells them that flatulence in the bathtub is a pleasure when the blisters rise, tells ballads of creepy witch children and child-eating cannibals, advises children to defend themselves against adult violence (“Five children are enough / To beat up a grandmother”) and tells them what their parents are doing in the bedroom.

The first book was the subject of a decree by the Berlin police chief: Since the book "influences the moral conceptions of children in a sense that must be described as thoroughly pernicious", the publisher has to mark the book as intended for adults. To this day, questions about the addressees (really children or rather adults?) And the intention (serious anarchy or irony?) Of the books are controversially discussed in German studies. The Children's Confusion Book 02 project with stories by contemporary authors has been cultivating the sensible approach since September 2011 that Ringelnatz advocates a child's fundamental right in satirical form. Children would be enabled to take a critical stance towards the trivialization and sentimentalization of certain "narratives", educational stereotypes and outdated children's literature. Although the main effect of the poems is based on the fact that their images and contents are grotesquely exaggerated, they are so much so that even children do not take them literally.


Parts of the estate are in the possession of the German Literature Archive in Marbach am Neckar . The private estate administration is in the hands of Norbert Gescher , the son of Leonharda Ringelnatz in his second marriage.

Ringelnatz as a visual artist

Joachim Ringelnatz: Hafenkneipe , 1933

Ringelnatz attached great importance to his work as a painter and in 1934, after the National Socialists had burned his books and made literary work almost impossible for him, he was listed in the Berlin telephone directory under the professional title “painter”. As a child he painted and drew almost continuously. He decorated letters with drawings all his life and was eventually asked by his publishers to add his own quirky illustrations to his books.

His paintings prove on the one hand that Ringelnatz was not a trained painter, on the other hand the best examples (at night by the water , harbor bar , escape ) show a convincingly presented mixture of realistic representation and ambiguously legible, tending to eerie statements in the tradition of New Objectivity and Surrealism .

A number of Ringelnatz 'mostly small-format paintings were removed from German museums as “ degenerate art ”. Many were lost in the war, most of them now belong to private individuals. Pictures by Joachim Ringelnatz can be seen in the Joachim Ringelnatz Museum Cuxhaven, the Wurzen Museum of Cultural History and the Kunsthaus Zürich . The Center for Persecuted Arts in Solingen presented a comprehensive exhibition of his pictures in the special exhibition "Once upon a time there was a boomerang. Joachim Ringelnatz - The Painter Returns" from April 29 to July 17, 2016.

Quotes from Joachim Ringelnatz

A quote from Ringelnatz on a house wall in Wurzen

“My long nose and jagged profile attracted caricatures. But it seems to me that most painters forgot the portrait because of the caricature. "

"Humor is the button that keeps us from bursting."

"If all else fails, I'll hang myself."

Quotes about Joachim Ringelnatz

“His actual artistic element was the fantasy of language, the inventive play of the word, which he treated with a technical sense of color and power; that could lead to noisy cascades, but the best of his verses should be read quietly and simply, and then they don’t give poetry, but something very old-fashioned: poetry. "

“The achievement of his lived life was actually greater than his narrow poetry. He succeeded in what so few poets do: he knew how to consistently stylize his entire existence. The security and secret melancholy with which he first created the staggering poet figure and then consistently lived it himself is certainly the most amazing thing about this astonishing appearance. "

"Where in this fluidic occupation / everyone inherits each and every one / (so everything is in flux) / I wish for the days after the store closes / no, no star of the order, no train of honor, / but that you maybe go to the lowest level / the Ringelnatz stairs / nicked my name. / […] You should live high, / as long as I'm still alive myself, / big little one, / spider's web-fine man down to the last nerve / untranslatable man! "



The snuffbox. Dullness in verse and pictures , 1912 edition
Poems, poems from then and now , edition from 1934
  • 1909: Simplicissimus artist pub and Kathi Kobus
  • 1910: poems
  • 1912: The snuffbox. Dullness in verses and pictures
  • 1917: HMSD
  • 1920: Joachim Ringelnatzen's gymnastics poems
  • 1920: Tripe Daddeldu or the slippery sorrow
  • 1921: The tie-dyed cobbler pate
  • 1922: Pocket crumbs
  • 1922: Janmaate. Top heavy songs
  • 1922: Driving people
  • 1923: Turngedichte ( new edition with illustrations by Karl Arnold ). Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich
  • 1923: Kuddel Daddeldu ( new edition with 25 drawings by Karl Arnold), Kurt Wolff Verlag, Munich
  • 1923: suburban brothel
  • 1927: Travel letters from an artist. Ernst Rowohlt Verlag Berlin
  • 1928: Yes. Poems ("Gorse dedicated"; cover drawing by Rudolf Grossmann). Ernst Rowohl Verlag Berlin
  • 1928: Some poems by Joachim Ringelnatz
  • 1929: Aircraft thoughts (dedicated to Dr. Ernst Stettenheimer; cover drawing by Olaf Gulbransson ). Ernst Rowohlt Verlag Berlin
  • 1931: Joachim Ringelnatz. Selection from his poems and prose
  • 1932: Poems for three years (dedicated to MH Wilkens). Rowohlt Verlag Berlin
  • 1933: 103 poems (dedicated to Asta Nielsen). Rowohlt Verlag Berlin
  • 1934: Poems, poems from then and now ( dedicated to Paul Wegener ). Rowohlt Verlag Berlin



  • 1921: Mannimmond, a one-act grotesque
  • 1921: Stage star and moon humor. One act grotesque
  • 1927: Engage doctors. Operetta in three acts
  • 1932: The bottle and traveling with it. Rowohlt Verlag Berlin
  • 1932: Letters from Heaven. Chamber play in three acts

Children's books

  • 1910: Small creatures
  • 1910: What pot and pan can tell. A funny fairy tale
  • 1921: The educational, amazing and fun circus Schnipsel! Discovered by Joachim Ringelnatz
  • 1924: Secret children's play book with lots of pictures
  • 1931: Secret children's confusion book with many pictures

Autobiographical books

  • 1911: What a cabin boy diary tells
  • 1928: sailors. Memories, a sketchbook: is about water and blue cloth
  • 1928: As a mariner in the war
  • 1931: My life until the war
  • 1932: The bottle and traveling with it

Posthumous publications (selection)

  • The estate. 1935.
  • “For fashion, not against it is man”. Poems for Venus. 1936.
  • In memoriam Joachim Ringelnatz. 1937.
  • Reflections on fat and thin women. 1937.
  • Punch and Judy Verses. , with drawings by Eugen Schmidt, Die Waage Verlag, Berlin 1939,
  • From the seaman's box. 1940.
  • Wonderland is everywhere. (Illustration: Karl Staudinger ). 1944.
  • Animals. 1949. New edition as Im Aquarium in Berlin. Insel Verlag, Berlin 2011 ( Insel-Bücherei 1341), ISBN 978-3-458-19341-8 .
  • ... and suddenly it stands next to you. Collected poems. 1950.
  • Colorful news. Twenty-three letters from Berlin. 1963.
  • Muschelkalk Ringelnatz (Ed.): Travel letters to M. , Henssel Verlag, Berlin 1964,
  • Helga Bemmann (ed.): The wild Miss from Ohio and other unusual stories with 42 hand drawings by himself . Karl H. Henssel Verlag, 1977, ISBN 3-87329-095-2 .
  • Joachim Ringelnatz. The complete works in seven volumes. 1982-1985
  • Joachim Ringelnatz. Letters. 1988.
  • Once upon a time there was a boomerang. Illustrations by Barbara Schumann. Altberliner Verlag, 2nd edition, Berlin 1990, ISBN 3-357-00034-2
  • The high sea cow weighs 12 tons. • Poems for landlubbers, sailors, children and other adults , by Joachim Ringelnatz & Co., illustrated by Katja Bandlow, Altberliner Verlag in Baumhaus Buchverlag GmbH, Frankfurt, Leipzig, Munich 2004, ISBN 3-8339-6630 -0 .
  • Joachim Ringelnatz. His Berlin printed with rum. accurat Verlag, Hans Peter Heinicke, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-926578-45-9 .
  • If you whack a snail - Ringelnatz for children , selected by Peter Härtling , illustrated by Hans Traxler , Insel Verlag Frankfurt / Main and Leipzig 2006, ISBN 978-3-458-17315-1
  • Frank Möbus (Ed.): To Berlin, to Berlin, to Berlin! Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, 2009, ISBN 978-3-86650-370-0 .
  • Frank Möbus (Ed.): In Memoriam Joachim Ringelnatz, new edition of the original edition from 1937 with audio CD . Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, 2010, ISBN 978-3-86650-371-7 .
  • In the aquarium in Berlin , illustrations by Renée Sintenis . Insel-Verlag volume no .: 1341, Berlin 2011, ISBN 978-3-458-19341-8 .
  • 2011 Ringelnatz for pleasure , Ed .: Günther Baumann , cover illustration: Nikolaus Heidelbach . Philipp Reclam, Stuttgart 2011, ISBN 978-3-15-018804-0 .
  • Advertising. Petits Fours by Collection Book Guild, illustrated by Katja Spitzer . Book Guild Gutenberg, Frankfurt am Main / Vienna / Zurich 2012, ISBN 978-3-86406-018-2 .
  • Even the most obsessed vegetarians don't like to bite the grass - aphorisms and quotations , with illustrations by Harald Larisch, Steffen Verlag, edition federchen, Berlin 2013, ISBN 978-3-941683-40-2 .
  • The big reading book - Joachim Ringelnatz , Ed .: Mirjam Neusius, Fischer Taschenbuch Verlag, Frankfurt / Main 2013, ISBN 978-3-596-51271-3 .
  • I woke up so happy - the best poems. , marixverlag, Wiesbaden, 10th edition 2015, ISBN 978-3-86539-274-9 .
  • How I look forward to you - love poems. 2nd edition, marixverlag Wiesbaden 2015, ISBN 978-3-7374-0955-1 .
  • Christmas with Joachim Ringelnatz. Cover illustration by Hans Traxler . Insel Taschenbuch 4405, Insel Verlag Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-458-36105-3 .
  • Oh how nice that you were born. Coppenrath Verlag, Münster 2016, ISBN 978-3-649-62257-4 .
  • Like a sparrow on Alexanderplatz. Be.bra Verlag , Berlin 2017, ISBN 978-3-89809-141-1 .
  • Joy should last a lifetime - Joachim Ringelnatz for happiness. Coppenrath Verlag, Münster 2018, ISBN 978-3-649-63019-7
  • Children's confusion book and secret children's game book new edition united in one volume, Nikol Verlagsgesellschaft, Hamburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-86820-450-6 .
  • My real heart. That is elsewhere! Poems for your pocket, the most beautiful poems by Joachim Ringelnatz, compiled by Frank Suchland , ContraPunkt, Bückeburg 2018, ISBN 978-3-96111-398-9
  • Joachim Ringelnatz - Feliks Büttner , Hinstorff Verlag, Rostock 2018, ISBN 978-3-356-02218-6 .

Audio books

Digital complete edition of his works

Exhibition catalogs

  • The women around Ringelnatz - On the artist's 130th birthday , catalog for the exhibition, publisher Stadt Wurzen / Kulturbetrieb / Museum: Sabine Jung, Kulturhistorisches Museum Wurzen 2013, ISBN 978-3-95488-702-6 .
  • Joachim Ringelnatz - Feliks Büttner , exhibition catalog of the Joachim Ringelnatz Verein Wurzen , Hinstorff Verlag GmbH, Rostock 2018, ISBN 978-3-356-02218-6


(sorted chronologically in ascending order)

  • Manfred Müller: "He emits a silent glow ..." A memory of Joachim Ringelnatz, the wondrous and dreamy sailor joke from Wurzen. In: Wurzen 961–1961. Festschrift for the millennium. Published by the council of the city of Wurzen and the editorial team “Der Rundblick” Wurzen. Wurzen 1961, DNB 576951641 , pp. 145-151.
  • Herbert Günther : Joachim Ringelnatz in personal reports and photo documents. Rowohlt (rm 96), Reinbek 1964; 7th act. A. 2001, ISBN 3-499-50096-5 .
  • Walter Pape : Joachim Ringelnatz. Parody and self-parody in life and work. De Gruyter, Berlin 1974, ISBN 3-11-004483-8 .
  • Helga Bemmann: Daddeldu, ahoy. Life and work of the poet, painter and artist Joachim Ringelnatz. The morning, Berlin 1980; 3rd A. 1988, ISBN 3-371-00182-2 ; Fischer Taschenbuch, Frankfurt am Main 1982, ISBN 3-596-25090-0 .
  • Angelika Wilhelm: Joachim Ringelnatz - A guide through the memorial exhibition in Wurzen with an introductory text by Norbert Gescher. Editor: Kulturgeschichtliches Museum Wurzen, 32 pages, format <A5, Wurzen 1999
  • Frank Möbus , Friederike Schmidt-Möbus, Frank Woesthoff, Indina Woesthoff (eds.): Ringelnatz! A poet paints his world. Wallstein, Göttingen 2000, ISBN 3-89244-337-8 .
  • Heinz Ludwig Arnold (Ed.): Joachim Ringelnatz. Edition text + kritik (Volume 148), Munich 2000, ISBN 3-88377-641-6 .
  • Walter Pape:  Ringelnatz, Joachim. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , pp. 631-633 ( digitized version ).
  • Stephan Huck (ed.): Ringelnatz as a Mariner in the war 1914–1918. Winkler-Verlag, Bochum 2003, ISBN 3-89911-014-5 .
  • Ulf Annel (arr.): Don't let yourself be tempted to laugh. Anecdotes about Ringelnatz. Eulenspiegel, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-359-01320-4 .
  • Franz-Ludwig Bruhns: Ringelnatz as a hermetic mariner. A masonic motivated search for traces (PDF; 9.5 MB). E-book, 2008
  • Network for Democratic Culture eV Wurzen (ed.): A city walk with Ringelnatz (booklet to the thematic walk through Wurzen ), 40 pages, format <A5, print run 10,000 pieces, Wurzen 2008
  • Frank Möbus (Ed.): In Memoriam Joachim Ringelnatz. A bibliography, inserted into biographical notes, unpublished poems and memories of friends, Verlag für Berlin-Brandenburg, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-86650-371-7 .
  • Ute Fritsch: With Ringelnatz on Hiddensee - A poetic walk. Verlag Jena 1800, Jena 2013/2014, ISBN 978-3-931911-39-3 .
  • Hilmar Klute : Once there was a boomerang. The life of Joachim Ringelnatz. Galiani, Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-86971-109-6 .
  • Alexander Kluy: Joachim Ringelnatz. The biography. Osburg, Hamburg 2015, ISBN 978-3-95510-077-3 .
  • Barbara Hartlage-Laufenberg: In love, Muschelkalk - The changeful life of Leonharda Ringelnatz. Edition Karo , Berlin 2015, ISBN 978-3-937881-19-5 .
  • Rolf Jessewitsch, Jürgen Kaumkötter (Ed.): Joachim Ringelnatz. The painter returns . Supplement to Hilmar Klute's Ringelnatz biography: Once upon a time there was a boomerang. The life of Joachim Ringelnatz. Center for Persecuted Arts. Solingen 2016. Sold only through the Center for Persecuted Arts in the Solingen Art Museum.

Web links

Commons : Joachim Ringelnatz  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Joachim Ringelnatz  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 12.
  2. a b Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and picture documents. P. 16.
  3. ^ Letter of February 15, 1914, in Pape: Joachim Ringelnatz. Parody and self-parody in life and work , 1974, p. 4.
  4. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 23.
  5. ^ Pape: Joachim Ringelnatz. Parody and self-parody in life and work , 1974, p. 103.
  6. He attended grammar school from Easter 1894 (Sexta) to Easter 1897 (Quinta). Compare: König Albert-Gymnasium (Royal High School until 1900) in Leipzig: Student album 1880–1904 / 05 , Friedrich Gröber, Leipzig 1905.
  7. ^ Friederike Schmidt-Möbus: Joachim Ringelnatz - life and work , in Arnold (ed.): Joachim Ringelnatz. 2000, p. 106.
  8. Bemmann: Daddeldu, ahoy. Life and work of the poet, painter and artist Joachim Ringelnatz. P. 26.
  9. Friederike Schmidt-Möbus: Catalog raisonné of the oil paintings, watercolors and colored drawings. there nos. WV 1 and WV 2, In: Möbus u. a. (Ed.): Ringelnatz! A poet paints his world. 2000, p. 283.
  10. ^ Bruhns: Ringelnatz as a hermetic mariner. A masonic motivated search for clues. 2008, p. 10.
  11. Joachim Ringelnatz: My life until the war - Chapter: Klein Öls ( read )
  12. Ringelnatz: As a Mariner in the war . In Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and photo documents. P. 39.
  13. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 40.
  14. Hans Leip , in Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in personal testimonials and picture documents. P. 44.
  15. Ringelnatz: Seahorses . In: Yes. 1928.
  16. ^ Pape: Joachim Ringelnatz. Parody and self-parody in life and work . 1974, p. 292 ( Textarchiv - Internet Archive ).
  17. Time Mosaic, 18 March 1977 (spotted on Nov. 19, 2013)
  18. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 44.
  19. Ha-Ho-He, Hertha BSC! In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung . August 10, 2009, ISSN  0174-4909 ( [accessed August 8, 2016]).
  20. ^ Daniel Koerfer: Hertha under the swastika. A Berlin football club in the Third Reich. Verlag Die Werkstatt, Göttingen 2009, ISBN 978-3-89533-644-7 , p. 288 .
  21. ^ Letter to Leonharda, December 7, 1930, in Bemmann: Daddeldu, ahoi. Life and work of the poet, painter and artist Joachim Ringelnatz. P. 206.
  22. Volker Weidermann : The book of burned books. Kiepenheuer & Witsch, Cologne 2008, ISBN 978-3-462-03962-7 , pp. 89-91.
  23. Stefan Wolter: Future through tradition. The alpine idyll on the edge of Berlin. Medical history walk in the 100th year of the existence of the Sana-Kliniken Sommerfeld. Quedlinburg 2013, ISBN 978-3-938579-28-2 , p. 36 ff.
  24. ^ Hans-Jürgen Mende : Lexicon of Berlin burial places . Pharus-Plan, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-86514-206-1 . P. 493. Birgit Jochens, Herbert May: The cemeteries in Berlin-Charlottenburg. History of the cemetery facilities and their tomb culture . Stapp, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-87776-056-2 . Pp. 224-225.
  25. Möbus u. a. (Ed.): Ringelnatz! A poet paints his world. 2000.
  26. Stefan Wolter: Future through tradition. The alpine idyll on the edge of Berlin. Medical history walk in the 100th year of the existence of the Sana Kliniken Sommerfeld. Letterado-Verlag 2013, ISBN 978-3-938579-28-2 .
  27. Senate Department for the Environment, Transport and Climate Protection: Honorary Graves of the State of Berlin (Status: November 2018) (PDF, 413 kB), p. 72. Accessed on November 13, 2019. For the time limit of 20 years, see: Implementing Regulations for Section 12 Paragraph 6 Cemetery Act (AV Ehrengrabstätten) (PDF, 24 kB) of August 15, 2007, Paragraph 10. Accessed on November 13, 2019.
  28. ( Memento of the original from March 3, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , Website of the Münsterschen Zeitung , accessed on September 29, 2012. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  29. Ringelnatz: Ambition , in: 103 poems , 1933
  30. ^ Postage stamp for the "Briefmark" poet Joachim Ringelnatz on the occasion of his 125th birthday , press release No. 33, Federal Ministry of Finance, August 6, 2008.
  31. Ringelnatz: My life up to the war , in Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 59.
  32. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 62.
  33. Monthly for gymnastics, sports and games. February 1911, in Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in personal reports and photo documents. P. 67.
  34. ^ Alfred Kerr, in Bemmann: Daddeldu, ahoi. Life and work of the poet, painter and artist Joachim Ringelnatz. P. 202.
  35. Ringelnatz: Children, you have to trust yourself more . In: Children's Confusion Book. 1931.
  36. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 83.
  37. , website project KinderVerwirrBuch02 by Dirk Opdenplatz, accessed on November 28, 2014.
  38. ^ Friederike Schmidt-Möbus, Frank Möbus: Böses Ende 34. In: Möbus u. a. (Ed.): Ringelnatz! A poet paints his world. 2000, p. 259.
  39. Joachim Ringelnatz - The painter returns , ed .: Rolf Jessewitsch and Jürgen Kaumkötter, Center for Persecuted Arts, Solingen-Gräfrath 2016, supplement to the work of Hilmar Klute : Was once a boomerang - The life of Joachim Ringelnatz , Verlag Galiani Berlin 2015 , ISBN 978-3-86971-109-6
  40. Ringelnatz: My life up to the war . 1931.
  41. Daily Calendar, February 24, in: Small Astro Messages for Every Day of the Year . Naumann & Göbel 2006, ISBN 3-625-11755-X .
  42. 31 Quotes from Ringelnatz
  43. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 155.
  44. Günther: Joachim Ringelnatz in self-testimonies and image documents. P. 157.
  45. Peter Rühmkorf : Penultimate poems. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1999, p. 20 f.
  46. DNB-Link
  47. YouTube link
  49. April 2016 - Center for Persecuted Arts. (No longer available online.) In: Center for the Persecuted Arts. Archived from the original on April 6, 2016 ; Retrieved April 6, 2016 .