Erich Mühsam

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Erich Mühsam (photograph from 1928, shortly before his 50th birthday)

Erich Kurt Mühsam (born April 6, 1878 in Berlin ; died July 10, 1934 in Oranienburg concentration camp ) was an anarchist German writer , publicist and anti-militarist . As a political activist , he was instrumental in 1919 the proclamation of the Bavarian Soviet Republic involved, for which he to 15 years imprisonment was condemned from which it as part of a 5 years amnesty was released. In the Weimar Republic he worked temporarily in the Red Aid for the release of political prisoners. He found his political home in the "Anarchist Association" since the mid-1920s.

On the night of the Reichstag fire , he was arrested by the National Socialists and murdered on July 10, 1934 by the SS guards of the Oranienburg concentration camp .


Youth and Education (1878 to 1900)

As a young man, mid-1890s

Erich Mühsam was born in Berlin to Jewish parents and grew up in Lübeck . He had two sisters, Margarethe and Charlotte , and a brother, Hans . He was a cousin of the SPD politician Ernst Heilmann and the writer and translator Paul Mühsam . His father Siegfried Mühsam was a pharmacist and from 1887 to 1915 a member of the Lübeck citizenship. He and his wife Rosalie nee Cohn sent their son Erich to the Katharineum high school in Lübeck . There he was in the same year, but not in the same class as Gustav Radbruch , who later visited him as a member of the Reichstag in prison.

Laborious literary inclination was already apparent in his early youth when he began to write animal fables at the age of 11. This first literary engagement intensified when the 15-year-old Mühsam made his first satirical contributions for the performances of the clowns of the local circus.

On January 11, 1896, Erich was expelled from school for " social democratic activities". He had passed reports on internal school events to the Lübecker Volksbote . He left the Friedrich-Franz-Gymnasium in Parchim in 1896 after graduating from secondary school with a secondary school leaving certificate . In Lübeck he completed an apprenticeship as a pharmacist in the Adler pharmacy.

Years of traveling, time in Munich, November Revolution, Soviet Republic (1901 to 1919)

Peter Hille and Erich Mühsam

In 1901 Mühsam moved to Berlin, where he initially worked in the profession he had learned. Here he lived in a boarding house on Augsburger Strasse directly behind Kurfürstendamm in the heart of the New West, together with his partner Johannes Nohl . Here he met John Henry Mackay , Johannes Schlaf and Hanns Heinz Ewers, among others .

In 1902 he became editor of the anarchist magazine Der arme Teufel , in 1905 of Der Weckruf . During this time he was in contact with the New Community ; later he was introduced by Margarete Beutler to the artists' association Die Kommenden . From 1904 to 1908 years of traveling followed with stays in Zurich, Ascona, northern Italy, Munich, Vienna and Paris, together with Johannes Nohl. On Monte Verità he made friends with the settler Karl Gräser , based on whose example he wanted to build a “collection center” for people “for whom people rose up against bondage and rape in real fury”. A corresponding community and hostel for those outlawed by society - tramps, beggars, whores and criminals - he then tried to create in the city of Munich.

Title page Cain - Journal for Humanity , first edition April 1911

From 1909 he lived in Munich- Schwabing . Here he founded the groups "Tat" and "Anarchist", which belong to the Socialist League , with the aim of agitating the lumpen proletariat for anarchism. In 1910, Mühsam was arrested, charged with secret association and finally acquitted. As the central figure of the Schwabing bohemian, he was friends with Heinrich Mann , Frank Wedekind , Lion Feuchtwanger , Fanny zu Reventlow , Max Nonnenbruch and many others. The writer Oskar Maria Graf and the painter Georg Schrimpf also joined his group “Tat” and followed him to Ascona to Monte Verità. Hardly was an employee of the Munich cabaret and various satirical magazines such as Simplicissimus and the youth . From 1911 to 1919 he published the magazine Kain - Zeitschrift für Menschlichkeit in Munich , but not during the First World War. Mühsam wrote: "In this hour, when it comes to the fate of everyone, there is also nothing essential and nothing that could concern a magazine for humanity."

On September 15, 1915, Mühsam married Kreszentia Elfinger , called Zenzl, who brought their son Siegfried into the marriage. In addition, the marriage remained childless.

In 1918 Mühsam was arrested for violating the political prohibition and refusing to take part in the "Patriotic Aid Service" and sentenced to six months imprisonment in Traunstein.

Erich Mühsam with members of the Munich council government in custody, around 1920 (front row, in the middle)

In the course of the November Revolution he became a member of the Revolutionary Workers' Council in Munich at the end of 1918 and, after the deposition of the king and the proclamation of the Free State of Bavaria as a democratic republic , advocated a Bavarian council republic . After the assassination of the Bavarian Prime Minister Kurt Eisner by Anton Graf von Arco auf Valley , Mühsam, along with Ernst Toller and Gustav Landauer, was one of the initiators and leaders of the first phase of the Munich Soviet Republic from April 7, 1919. During the so-called Palm Sunday coup carried out by the republican protection force on On April 13, 1919 Erich Mühsam was one of the arrested members of the Central Council of the Soviet Republic and was initially detained in the Ebrach prison. The attempted coup was thwarted by soldiers of the Bavarian Red Army under the command of Rudolf Egelhofer , but Mühsam remained in custody because he was imprisoned outside the power of access of the council government. The Soviet Republic continued to exist for about three weeks under communist leadership, now largely dominated by Eugen Leviné and Max Levien . After she was put down on May 2, 1919 by the Reichswehr and right-wing nationalist free corps units, where Mühsam's friend Gustav Landauer was murdered, Mühsam was sentenced to 15 years imprisonment as a “driving force”.

Years of imprisonment and time in Berlin in the Weimar Republic (1920 to 1933)

In the Ansbach Fortress Detention Center (1919)

Inspired by the Soviet Republic, Mühsam briefly joined the KPD from the Ansbach Fortress in 1919 , which he left again in 1920. From prison he campaigned for understanding and a common revolutionary approach by anarchists and communists and called for solidarity with the Russian Revolution. After his release from prison, Wilhelm Pieck held a welcoming speech for him as a representative of the Communist Youth Association KVJD. A letter from Mühsams to the writer and anti-militarist Kurt Tucholsky (dated January 18, 1922) has been preserved from this period . Mühsam was still planning a trip to the Soviet Union in 1925, but the KPD leadership prevented it. After five years in prison, Mühsam was given an amnesty in 1924.

Title page of the first Fanal edition from 1926

He spent most of his imprisonment, namely from October 15, 1920, in the Niederschönenfeld prison , where from that time almost all prisoners from the time of the Soviet Republic were housed. After his release on December 20, 1924, he moved to Berlin and published the anarchist magazine Fanal . He was a tireless activist against the impending danger of war, along with others with his friend, the anti-militarist Ernst Friedrich . There was also a special closeness to Silvio Gesell , the founder of free economics . Mühsam published in his magazine Fanal (7/1930) in an obituary an extremely positive appreciation of Gesell's life achievement.

From 1925 to 1929 he was involved in the KPD- affiliated prisoners' aid organization Rote Hilfe Deutschland , because at the time of the Weimar Republic he considered the justice system to be class justice . For this reason, the FKAD excluded him from their organization after only a short membership, on the charge of being “close to the KPD”. In 1929 he resigned from the Red Aid because of political differences. In 1926 he had already formally resigned from Judaism. In the years 1931 to 1933 he published political-satirical contributions under the pseudonym "Tobias" for the Ulk , the weekly supplement of the Berliner Tageblatt . In the early 1930s he became a member of the anarcho-syndicalist FAUD , in which his friend and comrade-in-arms Rudolf Rocker had a decisive influence. Both were leaders in the "Anarchist Association", whose field of activity was largely limited to Berlin. As a special edition of his magazine Fanal , which he made available to the “Anarchist Association”, shortly before the “ seizure of power ” by the National Socialists, his programmatic work The Liberation of Society from the State with the subtitle What is communist anarchism?

Concentration camp imprisonment and death (1933 and 1934)

Die Ratte , sarcastic poem Labor on one's (own) physical death, published in the satirical magazine Simplicissimus , December 19, 1905
Gravestone at the Dahlem forest cemetery
Stumbling stone in front of the Buddenbrookhaus . A small documentation in the vaulted cellar of the house is also painstakingly dedicated.

Shortly after the National Socialist seizure of power in 1933, he was arrested by the SA and murdered in 1934 in Oranienburg concentration camp after more than 16 months of “ protective custody ” by SS members. He should kill himself, otherwise the SS would do that. Labor said the night before his death that he would never take his own life. The report in the National Socialist press read: “The Jew Erich Mühsam hanged himself in protective custody.” His fellow inmates later opposed this depiction and reported about the murder of Mühsam in the camp commandant's room. The international press reported the death of Mühsams as a murder of the Nazi regime. His wife Zenzl Mühsam reported on the handover of Mühsam's body:

“The coffin was opened. My husband lay in front of me. The face was pale, but very, very calm. A stripe on the neck showed me the marks of the rope. […] My brother-in-law Hans said: 'Excuse me, my brother, I'm an old doctor', took off his shirt, his back was completely beaten, and he was killed by a poison injection and hung up dead in the toilet. "

Hans Mühsam himself explained:

“The deep strangulation marks on the neck, which were very bloodshot [!], Proved that the death was caused by strangulation or hanging and that the corpse was not hung after the previous death. When I was on the phone in the restaurant above, an SA man came up to me and said, 'It wasn't us, the Bavarian SS did that'. "


Burial was laboriously in the forest cemetery Dahlem . His widow Zenzl Mühsam handed the estate over to a Moscow archive after extensive promises had been made, hardly any of which were kept. She herself came to the Gulag and was only released to the GDR after Stalin's death, where she died in 1962.

The grave, which was later laid out as an honorary grave for the city of Berlin , is located in field 015-479 / department 2A, no. 144. The grave is actually not a temporary "honorary grave", but against the background of Mühsam's murder in Oranienburg concentration camp as a "victim of war." and tyranny "a grave with a perpetual rest period (comparable to the grave of Count Schwerin von Schwanenfeld , who was executed in 1944 ). The tombstone has been changed or replaced since 1987 when the wife Zenzl Mühsam was later moved to another bed. The extensive correspondence of the journalist Thea Struchtemeier, which was published by Karin Kramer Verlag in Berlin , clarified the grave of Mühsam and in 1987 saved it from the threat of leveling.


Literary studies

Since Erich Mühsam's 111th birthday on April 6, 1989, the Erich Mühsam Society in Lübeck has been working and researching in memory of him. It publishes two series of publications, the Mühsam magazine ( ISSN  0938-3778 , eleven issues up to 2006) and the publications of the Erich Mühsam Society ( ISSN  0940-8975 , 28 issues up to 2007). In 2011, the Berliner Verbrecher Verlag published a three-volume edition of Mühsam's diaries 1911–1914.


  • The New Stage Beverstedt played the piece Einsam errend nach dem Glück in February 2013 . The director Lutz Hoepper wrote a play in six scenes from texts by Erich Mühsam.
    • Risen ... Munich 1909.
    • Up, damned of this earth… Munich 1909–1913.
    • Völker, hear the signals ... Munich 1914–1919.
    • The ranks firmly closed ... Bavaria 1919–1924.
    • The new era moves with us ... Berlin 1928.
    • Farewells ... Berlin, February 27, 1933.

Epic works

In chapter 1934 of his collection of short stories, My Century, Günter Grass offers the inner monologue of SS man Ehardt, adjutant to Oranienburg camp commandant Theodor Eicke . There Ehardt reluctantly reports of his involvement in the murder of Erich Mühsam, whereby something like “involuntary respect” for “this Jew” appears.

radio play

Irina Liebmann , GDR , 1982: You have to go now, Ms. Mühsam. Directed by Barbara Plensat , composition by Rolf Zimmermann . With Thomas Kästner , Katja Paryla , Franziska Troegner , Gabriele Zion .

Streets, squares, plaques

Oranienburg concentration camp: memorial plaque for Erich Mühsam
Memorial plaque for Erich Mühsam in Berlin-Britz

Memorial stones for Mühsam were erected on the site of the former Oranienburg concentration camp , where he was murdered, at the Oranienburg city cemetery and in the Berlin Hufeisensiedlung near his former home (Dörchläuchtingstrasse 48). Memorial plaques for him were put up in Oranienburg in 1994 at Erich-Mühsam-Strasse No. 10 and at Alt-Lietzow 12 in Berlin-Charlottenburg . In Parchim , a plaque on the former grammar school reminds of his school days. In Lübeck, a stumbling block in front of the Buddenbrookhaus points to Erich Mühsam, the first to lay it in Lübeck. Furthermore, a memorial plaque on the historic building of the Löwen-Apotheke on the corner of Königstrasse and Dr.-Julius-Leber-Strasse commemorates him, for whose preservation he campaigned.

In Germany, 32 streets are named after Mühsam (as of January 2018), especially in the new federal states . There is Mühsamstrasse in Berlin-Friedrichshain . There are Erich-Mühsam-Strasse in Magdeburg , as well as in Chemnitz on the Kaßberg, in Reichenbach in the Vogtland, Gera-Bieblach, Zwickau-Niederplanitz, Eberswalde, Neuruppin, Rostock, Arnsdorf and Oranienburg. Erich-Mühsam-Platz can be found in the Holzheim district of Göppingen and in Munich-Schwabing near Münchner Freiheit . There is an Erich-Mühsam-Weg in Leipzig's Meusdorf district .

In the Frankfurt district of Riederwald , the falcons named their club home after Mühsam.

Erich Mühsam Prize

The Erich Mühsam Prize is usually awarded every three years. It is endowed with 3000 € and is intended on the one hand to go to those who promote Mühsams memory by spreading his thoughts and works or scientifically working through life and work.

On the other hand, it can be awarded to people who work in a laborious sense by facing the cultural, political and social challenges of the present, do not take the circumstances for granted, but look for liberating alternatives in the sense of a future worth living in. The founder of the Erich Mühsam Prize is the Lübeck gallery owner Frank-Thomas Gaulin.

The Erich Mühsam Prize has already been awarded to:

  • 1993 The grass roots workshop in Cologne
  • 1995 The total refusal Andreas Speck
  • 1997 The asylum group Ostertor (Bremen) and the Lübeck alliance against racism
  • 1999 The cabaret artist Dietrich Kittner
  • 2001 The African American journalist Mumia Abu-Jamal
  • 2003 The daily newspaper "Junge Welt"
  • 2005 The lawyer and author Felicia Langer
  • 2007 The Committee for Fundamental Rights and Democracy
  • 2009 Gunter Demnig for the STOLPERSTEINE project
  • 2013 Dr. phil. Andreas Hohmann and Jochen Schmück
  • 2016 Konstantin Wecker , sponsorship award: Lübeck Refugee Forum
  • 2019 Chris Hirte and Conrad Piens, the editors of the Mühsam diaries, which he wrote from 1910 to 1924. The literary scholar Chris Hirte and the computer scientist and antiquarian Conrad Piens have been working on the complete edition of the diaries since 2009, the 15th and last volume of which was published this year by Verbrecher-Verlag, Berlin.
    The Erich-Mühsam-Förderpreis goes to the hiking club Bakuninhütte eV Erich Mühsam visited the Bakuninhütte and the local anarcho-syndicalists several times in the early 1930s.


Mühsam published numerous volumes of poetry, stage dramas, non-fiction books (including about homosexuality) and political essays. He was best known as a writer for his satirical articles and poems.

Original editions

  • The own. A trend novel for free spirits. By Emil F. Ruedebusch . Räde Verlag, Berlin 1903.
  • The homosexuality. A contribution to the moral history of our time. (Polemic). Lilienthal, Berlin 1903; Belleville, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-923646-17-8 .
  • The desert. Poems 1898–1903. Eißelt, Berlin 1904.
  • Billy's path to earth. An elephant story for good children. (With Hanns Heinz Ewers ), ill. v. Paul Haase . Globus, Berlin 1904; Reprint: Faber & Faber, Leipzig 2005, ISBN 3-936618-63-1 .
  • Ascona. A brochure. Carlson, Locarno 1905; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1978.
  • Live love! Aphorisms by Emil F. Ruedebusch and Helmar Lerski. Publishing house "Renaissance", Schmargendorf-Berlin 1905.
  • The psychology of the heirloom. A tanthology of 25 individual representations to solve the immortality question. Schmidt, Zurich 1905; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1980.
  • The impostors. Comedy in four acts. Piper, Munich 1906.
  • The hunt for Harden. NBV, Berlin 1908.
  • The crater. Tomorrow, Berlin 1909.
  • Cain calendar for 1912. Kain, Munich 1912.
  • Cain calendar for 1913. Kain, Munich 1913.
  • Through life in a nightgown. A South German consecration stage festival (with Reinhard Koester and Carl Georg von Maassen ). Manuscript print Munich 1914.
  • Desert - crater - clouds. The poems. Cassirer, Berlin 1914; Digitized edition of the University and State Library Düsseldorf Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1978.
  • The free weds. Polemical drama in three acts. Kain, Munich 1914; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1976.
  • 1919. In memory of Gustav Landauer . Hirsch, Berlin 1919; Reprint (with Von Eisner bis Leviné ): Guhl, Berlin 1978.
  • Burning earth. Verses of a fighter. Wolff, Munich 1920; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1978 ( digitized from Bielefeld University Library ).
  • Judas. Workers' drama in five acts. Malik, Berlin 1921; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1978 (digitized version)
  • The martial law in Bavaria. VIV, Berlin 1923.
  • Revolution. Fighting, marching and mocking songs. The Free Worker , Berlin 1925. (digitized version)
  • Alarm. Manifestos from 20 years. The syndicalist , Berlin 1925.
  • Justice for Max Hoelz ! Red Aid from Germany , Berlin 1926; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1976.
  • Collection 1898–1928. Spaeth, Berlin 1928; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1976.
  • Reason of state. A monument to Sacco and Vanzetti . Guild of Freedom Book Friends , Berlin 1929; Nevertheless publishing house , Grafenau 1992, ISBN 3-922209-39-4 .
  • From Eisner to Leviné. The emergence of the Bavarian Soviet Republic. Personal report on the revolutionary events in Munich from November 7, 1918 to April 13, 1919. Fanal, Berlin 1929; Guhl, Berlin 2005, ISBN 3-88220-464-8 (digitized version )
  • The liberation of society from the state. What is communist anarchism? Fanal, Berlin 1933; WFB, Bad Schwartau 2009, ISBN 978-3-86672-302-3 .


Posthumous publications

  • Names and people. Non-political memories. Edited by Fritz Adolf Hünich. Volk und Buch, Leipzig 1949; Reprint: Guhl, Berlin 1977; Edition Nautilus, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-89401-356-7 .
  • Was once a revolutionary. Bank songs and poems. Henschel, Berlin 1968; Rowohlt, Reinbek 1978, ISBN 3-499-14219-8 .
  • Fanal. Organ of the anarchist association. Reprint: 5 years (in 5 volumes). Auvermann, Glashütten im Taunus 1973.
  • Images and verses for Zenzl. Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 1975 (facsimile edition of the picture book written and drawn by Mühsam in 1924) .
  • “Alle Wetter!” Folk piece with song and dance. Guhl, Berlin 1977.
  • Cain - magazine for humanity. Reprint: 3 volumes. Topos, Vaduz 1978.
  • Ascona. United texts from the years 1905, 1930 and 1931. Ed. Peter Schifferli . Sanssouci, Zurich 1979, ISBN 3-7254-0333-3 .
  • Der Bürgergarten - Zeitgedichte , Aufbau-Verlag , Berlin and Weimar 1982, license number 301.120 / 98/82
  • On the psychology of the heiress. Satirical reader 1900–1933. Eulenspiegel, Berlin 1984.
  • To be human despite everything. Poems and essays. Reclams Universal Library 8238, Stuttgart 1984, ISBN 3-15-008238-2 .
  • “There must be a grain of sand in my trumpet!” Letters 1900–1934. 2 vol., Ed. Gerd W. Jungblut. Topos, Vaduz 1984, ISBN 3-289-00308-6 .
  • Collected Essays: The Bohème. The unification of the revolutionary proletariat in Bolshevism. Anarchism and revolution. Guhl, Berlin 1989, ISBN 3-89771-922-3 .
  • Erich Mühsam. Berlin features section, “Never again 1931”. A poetic commentary on the unsuccessful taming of Adolf Hitler. Edited by Heinz Hug. Boer, Grafrath 1992.
  • Chris Hirte (Ed.): Diaries 1910–1924. dtv, Munich 1994 ( ).
    • Partial preprint from Volume 1: August 22, 1910-27. May 1911 in: Dschungel, supplement to jungle world . # 10, March 10, 2011, pp. 18-23.
  • We will not give up! Texts and poems. Edited by Günther Gerstenberg. Allitera, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-86520-005-2 .
  • You dogs are worth it! Erich Mühsam reading book. Edited by Markus Liske , Manja Präkels . Verbrecher Verlag, Berlin 2014, ISBN 978-3-943167-84-9 .
  • The unification of the revolutionary proletariat in Bolshevism . Unrast, Münster 2015, ISBN 978-3-89771-922-4 .
  • Erich Mühsam - Diaries. (Complete edition in 15 volumes by Chris Hirte and Conrad Piens ), Verbrecher Verlag, Berlin 2011 to 2019; Online Edition (last accessed on July 13, 2019)

Work editions

Audiobooks / scoring

  • Erich Mühsam: I invite you to the requiem. - Audio book with songs based on texts by Erich Mühsam, spoken by Walter Andreas Schwarz with music by Dieter Süverkrüp played by Dieter Süverkrüp. Conträr Musik, 1995, ISBN 3-932219-02-3 .
  • Didn't want spring to come. Lothar von Versen sings texts by Erich Mühsam. Conträr Musik, 2003, ISBN 3-932219-45-7 .
  • The psychology of the heirloom. Audio book based on texts by Erich Mühsam, read by Gerd Wameling with music by Sergej Prokofjew played by Johannes Roloff . Audio book edition Words & Music, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-9811778-8-6 .
  • The psychology of the heirloom. Unabridged audio book, read by Wolfram Huke, 2010,
  • To submit is to lie. Settings of poems by Erich Mühsam by the German punk band Slime . People Like You Records (EMI), 2012.
  • Patscheider sings with difficulty. - CD by the Tyrolean musician Thomas Patscheider with settings of poems by Erich Mühsam. With the musicians Christian Smekal and Thomas Partl. Freewheeler Records 1999.
  • Laborious satirical poem The Lamp Cleaner from 1907 - "dedicated to the German Social Democracy" - was set to music by Béla Reinitz towards the end of the Weimar Republic, performed by Ernst Busch and recorded on record. In 1968 it was set to music again by Werner Haentjes for the WDR television play Rotmord by Tankred Dorst and Peter Zadek ; It was sung by Wolfgang Neuss as the actor of Mühsam, whose interpretation was also published on CD.

Journal articles (selection)

In: The Socialist Doctor


Web links

Commons : Erich Mühsam  - Collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Erich Mühsam  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. Gustav Radbruch : The Inner Path. Outline of my life. 2nd Edition. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1961.
  2. a b Jürgen Serke: The burned poets. Beltz, Weinheim 1977, ISBN 3-407-80750-3 , p. 132.
  3. ^ Antjekathrin Graßmann: Lübeckische Geschichte . Schmidt-Römhild 1988, p. 663.
  4. Chris Hirte: Erich Mühsam, a biography. P. 37.
  5. Women around Erich Mühsam: Zenzl Mühsam and Franziska zu Reventlow. Erich-Mühsam-Gesellschaft, 1996, p. 9.
  6. Brief vita at
  7. Difficult, Erich. Short biography. In: History of the Revolution of 1918/19 in Munich , House of Bavarian History .
  8. ↑ Too bad to the Communist Party. Communist Library… . February 17, 2013. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013.
  9. Helmut Herbst: Profiled. To the Marbach Tucholsky exhibition. In: Karl H. Pressler (Ed.): From the Antiquariat. Volume 8, 1990 (= Börsenblatt für den Deutschen Buchhandel - Frankfurter Ausgabe. No. 70, August 31, 1990), pp. A 334 - A 340, here: p. A 336.
  10. Gleb Albert: “It is to be feared that Mühsam will be disappointed in Russia” - On Erich Mühsam's prevented trip to Russia in 1925. In: Year Book for Research on the History of the Labor Movement , Volume III / 2015.
  12. See Erich Mühsam. Berlin features section, “Never again 1931”. A poetic commentary on the unsuccessful taming of Adolf Hitler. Edited by Heinz Hug. Boer Verlag, Grafrath 1992.
  13. a b To submit means to lie ., July 10, 2014.
  14. Anne Kerber, Frank Leimkugel: The dynasty Pappendem-difficulty - to academisation of Jews in the 19th century in the natural sciences and medicine using the example of a family. In: Dominik Groß et al. (Ed.): Medical history in spotlights. Contributions of the "Rheinischer Kreis der Medizinhistoriker". Kassel 2011, pp. 193–203, here p. 197.
  15. Oliver Pfohlmann: Anarchist in Need Erich Mühsams diaries from 1911 to 1914 . In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . March 5, 2013; Review; accessed March 6, 2013.
  16. The New Stage Beverstedt can be reached at the email address
  17. quoted from the program of the performance
  18. Luise Bär: A life against the current . In: Weser courier. (Bremen), February 3, 2013.
  19. The life of Erich Mühsam as a play. ( Memento from November 5, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Report from Radio Bremen
  20. Volker Neuhaus : Günter Grass: My Century - 1934. In: Werner Bellmann , Christine Hummel (Ed.): Interpretations. German short prose of the present. Reclam RUB, Stuttgart 2006, p. 242.
  21. ^ Günter Grass : 1934. In: Werner Bellmann, Christine Hummel (ed.): German short prose of the present. Reclam RUB, Stuttgart 2005, p. 176.
  22. January 27, 2015.
  23. Memorial plaque for Mühsam at
  24. Search for Troublesome. In: Time Online , How Often Is Your Street There?
  26. ^ Paul Raabe: The authors and books of literary expressionism. A bibliographical handbook in collaboration with Ingrid Hannich-Bode . Metzler, Stuttgart 1985, ISBN 3-476-00575-5 , pp. 345 .
  27. With a full-page b / w caricature by Hanns Bolz : M. im Café Stefanie
  28. Tankred Dorst, Peter Zadek, Hartmut Gehrke: Rotmord or I was a German . A television play by Tankred Dorst and Peter Zadek. Based on the play "Toller" by Tankred Dorst. With the collaboration of Wilfried Minks (=  special series dtv . No. 72 ). Deutscher Taschenbuchverlag, Munich 1969, DNB  456482245 .
  29. Christian Dinger: Erich Mühsams Diaries: In the center of the action . In: The daily newspaper: taz . July 16, 2019, ISSN  0931-9085 ( [accessed on September 16, 2019]).