Fanny to Reventlow

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Fanny Countess zu Reventlow, around 1900

Fanny Countess zu Reventlow (born May 18, 1871 in Husum , † July 26, 1918 in Locarno , Switzerland ) was a German writer , translator and painter . She became famous as the “Scandal Countess ” or “ Schwabinger Countess” of the Munich bohemian family and as the author of the key novel, Mr Dames Notes (1913).

Her full name is Fanny Liane Wilhelmine Sophie Auguste Adrienne Countess zu Reventlow . During her lifetime she published under the responsibility of F. Countess zu Reventlow . Today she is also known as Franziska Countess zu Reventlow .


The castle in front of Husum, view of the garden-side facades of the southern side and middle wing

Fanny zu Reventlow was the fifth of six children of the Prussian district administrator Ludwig Graf zu Reventlow (1824-1893) and his wife Emilie, née Countess zu Rantzau (1834-1905), born in the castle in front of Husum . Her brother Ernst Reventlow (1869–1943) was a naval officer, writer, journalist as well as a German national and later a National Socialist politician. The family maintained friendly relations with the writer Theodor Storm and the family of Ferdinand Tönnies, who later co-founded sociology in Germany .

In her autobiographical novel Ellen Olestjerne (1903), Fanny zu Reventlow describes the strict upbringing of the “ senior daughter ” and the young “ Fräulein ” by the family and the Altenburger Magdalenenstift , a boarding school for girls in Thuringia, from which she left in 1887 after only one school year because of “ unrestrained stubbornness ”was excluded. After the father's retirement, the family moved to Lübeck in 1889 .

In 1890 she defied her parents from attending Roquette's private teachers ' seminar, which she completed in 1892 with the "qualification for teaching at higher and middle girls' schools". Pre-employment training was extremely unusual for a noble young woman at the time.

Through her circle of friends, who came together as the “ Ibsen Club” and who “had an aura of mystery and scandalousness”, she became familiar with modern, socially critical literature and the writings of Nietzsche at an early age . When her parents discovered the secret exchange of love letters with their Luebian friend Emanuel Fehling (1873–1932) in 1892 , she was put up with a pastor's family in the countryside in Adelby near Flensburg . From there she fled to friends in Wandsbek in 1893 and fell out with her family forever. She was not allowed to visit her father, who died that same year. In Wandsbek she met her future fiancé, the Hamburg court assessor Walter Luebke , know that their stay in the summer of that year in Munich as a student at the art school of Anton Ažbe funded. They married in 1894.

The "Madonna with the Child" - Countess Fanny zu Reventlow with son Rolf, 1898

For Reventlow, marriage proved to be a stepping stone to freedom. When she returned to Munich in 1895 to continue her painting studies, the marriage broke up (separation in 1895, divorce in 1897), and Reventlow led an independent bohemian life, albeit one characterized by constant financial hardship and illness as well as several miscarriages. She despised the military, bureaucracy, aristocracy, the nationalist Wilhelminian founding spirit, believing in money and progress, to which her brother Ernst clung, as well as the education of young women to be so-called “higher daughters”.

On September 1, 1897, their son Rolf († January 12, 1981 in Munich) was born; She withheld her father's name all her life. Reventlow earned her living in part with literary translations for Albert Langen Verlag and with smaller literary works for magazines and daily newspapers (e.g. for Die Gesellschaft , Simplicissimus , Neue Deutsche Rundschau , Frankfurter Zeitung , Münchner Latest News ). In addition, after some acting lessons in 1898, she had a short engagement at the Theater am Gärtnerplatz and played temporarily in the Academic-Dramatic Association of the young Otto Falckenberg . In addition, she struggled with odd jobs as a prostitute, secretary, assistant cook, insurance agent, fair hostess, glass painter and others. by. After all , she owed quite a lot of income to the scroungers and donations of her male acquaintances.

The cosmists (from left to right): Karl Wolfskehl, Alfred Schuler, Ludwig Klages, Stefan George, Albert Verwey

Her experiences with the Munich art scene - especially with the " Kosmiker " group around Karl Wolfskehl , Ludwig Klages and Alfred Schuler , to whom she was considered a "pagan Madonna" and "rebirth of the ancient hetaires " because of her illegitimate child and her erotic permissiveness - she processed Mr. Dames' notes in her humorous key novel . She was also in contact with Oscar AH Schmitz , Theodor Lessing , Friedrich Huch , Erich Mühsam , Oskar Panizza , Rainer Maria Rilke , Marianne von Werefkin , Alexej von Jawlensky (whose painting school she attended in 1906), Frank Wedekind and numerous other exponents of “ Munich Modernism ". With her son Rolf, she traveled to Samos (1900 with Albert Hentschel ), Italy (1904, 1907) and Corfu (1906/1907), among others .

Gravestone of Fanny Reventlow as Contessa Francesca Reventlow in Locarno

In October 1910 she left Munich and lived for the following years in Ascona on Lake Maggiore , where her “Schwabinger Novels” were written. In 1911 she entered into a sham marriage with the Kurland Baron Alexander von Rechenberg-Linten (* 1868), whose inheritance depended on a marriage befitting his status; However, it lost the assets of 20,000 marks it had acquired in 1914 to a bank crash . In this context, she was in 1914 in correspondence with the couple Friedel and Friedrich Kitzinger , who was a lawyer. In 1916 she moved to Muralto on Lake Maggiore, just a few kilometers from Ascona.

On July 26, 1918, Fanny zu Reventlow died at the age of forty-seven in a clinic in Locarno as a result of a bicycle fall. The funeral oration was given by the writer Emil Ludwig . Her grave is in the cemetery of the Santa Maria in Selva church in Locarno.

“ Countess F. zu Reventlow died in Locarno on Lake Maggiore , a well-known figure in Munich's young literary world. In her first (and best) novel, 'Ellen Olestjerne', she illustrated her ancestral milieu of the old Holstein family, her restricted youth and her longing for the free life. Having become free, she then shaped her life in Munich in her own free way, regardless of origin and tradition. Always mindful of your own note and the attitude of personal responsibility. She has recovered from the translations from French through very cheeky, lively books, subject: Munich bohemian world and love adventures - the form: most graceful homegrown. She parodied her own half misery in an amusing way in the 'money complex'. In the Café Stephanie in Munich, the cocky countess helped think up some funny pranks. But her most beautiful was when she, the graceful one, appeared in a women's book that collected pictures and signatures from contemporaries, as a corpulent milkwoman with the appropriate handwriting. She had simply sent in the picture of her milkwoman and attached it to explain that the misery of writing forced her to pursue this more nourishing sideline. "

- Obituary in the New Vienna Journal of August 6, 1918

Work and reception


Fanny zu Reventlow, portrayed by Marie von Geysow in 1901/02

While Reventlow's actual artistic ambitions in painting did not lead to an oeuvre worth mentioning , she left behind a unique example of humorous-satirical literature and a valuable cultural-historical testimony of the Schwabing bohemian through her secondary writing activities. Her novels and short stories are published and read to this day.

Her autobiographical first novel, Ellen Olestjerne (1903), can still be regarded as a confession and self-discovery book based on a typical pattern of the time (cf. for example Gabriele Reuters Aus gute Familie from 1895). She wrote it at the suggestion (and one could almost say: under supervision) by Ludwig Klages as a kind of ticket to the circle of the "liberated" (as the Bohémiens in Munich were called at the time) and used authentic diary entries and the exchange of love letters with Fehling her youth in Lübeck. Later, however, she distanced herself from her first work - and as early as 1904 from the Kosmiker circle in her Schwabinger Beobachter .

Photograph from 1905

With her novellist novels and stories from the 1910s she entered completely new territory. The humorous, artificially easy chatting style used here was prepared by hand by her translation of over forty mostly French social novels (including by Marcel Prévost ) and by the jokes that she wrote for five marks a piece for the satirical paper Simplicissimus . In the "Amouresken" Von Paul zu Pedro (1912) she set up a type of typology of erotic encounters in bohemia in the form of a letter novel à la Liaisons Dangereuses . Her most famous book is the key novel Herr Dames Notes or Incidents from a Strange District (1913), in which the disputes between the disintegrating "factions" of the cosmic circle are ironically counteracted with the pathos of a revolutionary report. The novel draws its humorous potential primarily from the artificially naive speaker position of the neutral observer “Herr Dame” (behind this hides the future Heidelberg psychiatrist Hans Walter Gruhle ), who can measure up to that of a cat Murr . Finally, in Der Geldkomplex (1916) - according to the title page “Dedicated to my creditors” - Reventlow provided (again in letter form) a vacillating and comical reflection on the pecuniary dimension of bohemian life and at the same time a parody of psychoanalysis. Smaller stories of the Schwabing genre were published in 1917 under the title Das Logierhaus zur Schwankenden Weltkugel and other short stories in the series “Langen's Mark books”.

In Reventlow's last novel The Suicide Association , despite all the irony, a melancholy trait is noticeable, which corresponded to a more general mood in the time before the First World War , when the former bohemian circles of Munich and Berlin increasingly turned into reformatory sectarian circles in retreat areas ( Monte Verità ) or known for political action ( Räterepublik ). The novel remained unfinished (edited as a fragment in 1925).

In her book Zarastro (1921), Annette Kolb tells of an encounter with Fanny Reventlow a year before her death in May 1917:

“Her cynicism knew no bounds, but always everything with grace. She didn't want to know anything more about writing [...]. I spoke of her writings, and that no books of this light caliber had been written in a similar quality, so pale, so mocking, so witty. But she shook her head: it was too heavy. "

Impact history

Not only in Ellen Olestjerne , but also in her later works Reventlow processed a lot of autobiographical material, and this led to the fact that from time to time everything that appears in her literary texts was also transferred to her biography. For example, based on the story The Count's Milk Shop, it was assumed that she had also worked as a milk seller for a time - but there is no evidence for this. An anecdote about Reventlow's "investment" in a dairy business and her failure as a milk merchant after just a few weeks can be found in Korfiz Holm's autobiography.

Kitchen in the corner house on Kaulbachstrasse, Munich, approx. 1903/1904
Bohdan von Suchocki, portrayed by Fanny zu Reventlow

The continuing interest in Fanny Reventlow was accordingly not only in her literary work, but also to a large extent in her person and biography, especially her various love relationships (among many others with Ludwig Klages , Karl Wolfskehl , Alfred Frieß , Walter Strich , the brother of the German- Swiss Germanists Fritz Strich , and Günther von Pechmann ). As the "Schwabinger Countess" she went down in the history of Munich modernism . Her shared apartment with her friend Bohdan von Suchocki and Franz Hessel , the “financier” of the whole thing, became famous in 1903–1906 in the “Eckhaus” at Kaulbachstrasse 63 (the house is no longer there).

In the 1970s / 1980s, Reventlow was stylized as an icon of the sexual revolution and women's emancipation because of her unconventional life . Reventlow herself expressed herself rather distantly to cynical about the women's movement of her time, although she maintained friendly relations with some of its representatives (such as Anita Augspurg and Helene Böhlau ).

Only recently has there been a renewed interest in Reventlow's literary works and in a real biography of the "Schwabing Countess" that has now almost been buried behind the hagiographically processed history of the impact , in the course of a cultural-scientific research into literary modernism and the bohemian societies in Munich and Berlin .

Publication history

Diary page 1902

The personality cult around Reventlow was prepared and shaped primarily through the editing work of her daughter-in-law Else Reventlow . In 1925 she published a one-volume work edition which - in an abbreviated, anonymised and literary form, but unfortunately also with numerous omissions, misreadings and falsifications - contained Fanny Reventlow's diaries. An edition of the letters followed in 1928, and Else Reventlow also had to struggle with some difficulties. For example, the letters to Ludwig Klages to the editor were not made available by the addressee in the original, but only in a selection made by himself, radically shortened and made available in a new fair copy.

These first publications of the autobiographical writings were reissued in 1971-80 in versions 1971–80, although they were revised and supplemented, but still not true to the original. Some considerations for people still living around 1925/28 were no longer applicable, and anonymizations could therefore be reversed. The fictionalized design of the diary (for example by means of chapter headings) and its inadequate text design (omissions, etc.) were retained.

Again without a comparison with the manuscripts, this version of the diary was finally included in the 2004 edition of the work in five volumes. Even the letters were only partially reread for this edition and their text was revised. The most important autobiographical work, Reventlow's Diary, was only authentically edited in 2006.

Reventlow's estate is in the “ Monacensia ” literary archive of the Munich City Library.

Name issues

The name in the birth register is clearly Fanny . Her essays for the Zurich Discussions in 1898 and 1899 were published by Panizza under the correct name "Fanny Countess zu Reventlow". Her books, including her translations, were all published from 1897 to 1917 with the author's name “F. Countess zu Reventlow ”, which is to be regarded as the author's name actually intended by her.

Thanks to Else Reventlows and the posthumous editions that followed her, the name "Franziska Countess zu Reventlow", which is most commonly used today, has established itself, although its status is extremely precarious. The circulating anecdote that she hated her baptismal name “Fanny” and therefore called herself “Franziska” all her life cannot be confirmed with the existing documents. There are only indications of a temporary name game that she (or people who were friends with her) organized in her early days in Munich. The first name " Fanny ", which is used mainly in North German and English, is fully valid and also occurs more frequently in the aristocracy, converges in the Bavarian-speaking area with the abbreviation "Fanny" for Franziska; however, both names probably have nothing to do with each other. Caught up in this misunderstanding, Rilke and Klages called her “Francisca” or “Franciska” in letters, and she herself played in her diary and in the letters to Klages with the distinction of two first-person roles: “Little Fanny” and the "great Franziska".

Possibly in this sense the "adult" Reventlow was entered in 1898 as "Franziska Countess zu Reventlow" in Kürschner's literary calendar. However, this was a one-time process because in the following years she no longer took care of an entry at Kürschner and the annual questionnaires. Even in her attempts to gain a foothold in the theater, according to documents, she seems to have given herself the stage name "Franziska Countess zu Reventlow".


Original editions

Ellen Olestjerne , first edition 1903
Herr Dames Notes - Original Edition, Albert Langen, Munich 1913
  • Together with Otto Eugen Thossan : Klosterjungen. Humoresques. Two stories. Wigand, Leipzig 1897.
  • The male phantom of the woman. Essay. In: Zurich Discussions . Zurich 1.1898.
  • What befits women. Essay. Under the title Viragines or Hetaera? in: Zurich Discussions. Zurich 2.1899.
  • Upbringing and morality. Essay. In: Otto Falckenberg : The book of the Lex Heinze . A cultural document from the beginning of the 20th century. Leipzig 1900.
  • Ellen Olestjerne. J. Marchlewski , Munich 1903; numerous reprints, recently reissued with a detailed afterword by Arno Bammé and Thomas Steensen , Husum 2014. ISBN 978-3-89876-721-7 .
  • Together with Franz Hessel , Oscar AH Schmitz , Roderich Huch : Schwabinger Beobachter. 1904 (Anonymous pamphlet on the "Kosmiker", hectographed and secretly put in the mailboxes).
    • ed. by Rolf von Hoerschelmann, Munich 1941, also in: Richard Faber: Men’s Round with Countess. The "cosmists" Derleth, George, Klages, Schuler, Wolfskehl and Franziska zu Reventlow. With a reprint by the “Schwabinger Beobachter”. Lang, Frankfurt am Main 1994. ISBN 3-631-46554-8 (incompletely reprinted in the Complete Works of 2004)
  • From Paul to Pedro. Amouresques. Langen, Munich 1912.
  • Mr. Dames notes or incidents from a strange part of town . Langen, Munich 1913.
  • The money complex. Novel. Langen, Munich 1916.
  • The lodging house for the swaying globe and other novellas. Langen, Munich 1917.

Posthumous publications

  • Collected works in one volume. Ed. And incorporated. by Else Reventlow . Langen, Munich 1925 (contains the diaries 1897–1910 and the first edition of the fragment of the novel Der Sumordverein ).
  • Letters. Edited by Else Reventlow. A. Langen , Munich 1928 (dated 1929).
  • Diaries 1895–1910. Edited by Else Reventlow. Langen-Müller, Munich 1971.
  • Letters 1890–1917. Edited by Else Reventlow, with an afterword by Wolfdietrich Rasch . Munich 1975. ISBN 3-7844-1526-1 .
  • Autobiographical. Edited by Else Reventlow. Afterword Wolfdietrich Rasch. Langen-Müller, Munich 1980. ISBN 3-7844-1676-4 .
  • The suicide club. Two short novels and three essays. Edited by Ursula Püschel . VDN, Berlin 1991. ISBN 3-373-00471-3 .
  • Youth letters. Edited by Heike Gfrereis. Hatje, Stuttgart 1994. ISBN 3-7757-0507-4 .
  • All works, diaries and letters in five volumes. Edited by Michael Schardt et al. Igel, Oldenburg 2004. ISBN 3-89621-190-0 .
  • "We now practice screaming like donkeys ..." Correspondence with Bohdan von Suchocki 1903–1909. Edited by Irene Weiser, Detlef Seydel and Jürgen Gutsch. Stutz, Passau 2004. ISBN 3-88849-205-X .
  • “We look each other in the eye, life and me”, F. Countess zu Reventlow, Diaries 1895–1910. From the autograph, critically new ed. & commented by Irene Weiser and Jürgen Gutsch. Stutz, Passau 2006, 2011 (3rd edition). ISBN 3-88849-208-4 .
  • Unpublished letters from Franziska Gräfin zu Reventlow to Anna Petersen and Ferdinand Tönnies. Edited by Heide Hollmer and Kornelia Küchmeister. In: Nordelbingen. Volume 77. Boyens, Heide 2008. ISBN 3-8042-0738-3 .
  • The downside of the German miracle. Franziska zu Reventlow and the First World War , edited by Kristina Kargl and Waldemar Fromm, Volk-Verlag Munich 2018, ISBN 978-3-86222-270-4 .

A selection of translations (from French)

  • from Marcel Prévost :
    • Strong women (Les Vierges fortes). Langen, Munich 1900.
    • Between us girls (Lettres de femmes). Langen, Munich 1900.
    • The Princess of Ermingen (La Princesse d'Erminge). Langen 1905.
    • Confession of love (La Confession d'un amant). Langen, Munich 1908.
    • Lea (Léa). Langen, Munich 1909.
    • The young woman (Lettres à Françoise mariée). Langen, Munich 1909.
  • from Guy de Maupassant :
    • The diamond collar and other short stories. Langen, Munich 1898.
    • Black - brown - blonde. Langen, Munich 1898.
  • from Anatole France :
    • The red lily (Le lys rouge). Langen, Munich 1900.
    • The juggler of Our Lady (Le jongleur de Notre-Dame). Langen, Munich 1900.
  • from Jules Case :
    • The seven faces (Les Sept Visages). Langen, Munich 1900.
  • from Georges Ancey :
    • The Venerable (Ces Messieurs). Langen, Munich 1903.


  • Franziska Countess zu Reventlow - Schwabing around the turn of the century was the name of the first exhibition on Fanny Reventlow's life and work. It took place from January to May 1978 in the Schiller National Museum and German Literature Archive in Marbach am Neckar.
  • "I always want everything". Under this title, Fanny Reventlow's person, life and work were first honored in the Buddenbrookhaus Lübeck from September 12 to November 21, 2010. Then the exhibition was shown in the Schleswig-Holstein State Library in Kiel, from March 27, 2011 in the palace in front of Husum, then in the representation of Schleswig-Holstein at the federal government in Berlin; from September 22, 2011 to February 12, 2012 it was on view in the Literaturhaus Munich .

Films and radio plays

  • The Reventlow. Film biography in three parts of 75 minutes each (intoxication and liberation , leap into freedom , living with freedom) , Federal Republic of Germany, 1980, book: Manfred Grunert , director: Rainer Wolffhardt , first broadcast: 25. – 27. December 1980, movie dates from IMDb . See also: Ada Bieber: "I only live when I live erotically." The staging of the intoxicating life of Franziska zu Reventlow in Rainer Wolffhardt's biopic Die Reventlow (1980). In: Günter Helmes (ed.): "Carefully expose layer by layer." Rainer Wolffhardt's directorial work . Igel-Verlag, Hamburg 2012, ISBN 978-3-86815-553-2 , pp. 245-277.
  • Franziska zu Reventlow. Attempt to get closer. Documentary, FRG, 1980, 45 min., Written and directed by Rainer Wolffhardt.
  • Bad Girl Franzi - A survival training around 1900. Radio play, FRG, 1999, 49 min., Book: Mona Winter, director: Alexander Schumacher, production: SFB / ORB , summary .
  • Franziska zu Reventlow. Sex and revolt. Documentary, Germany, 2012, 43:50 min., Script and direction: Tilman Urbach , production: Bayerischer Rundfunk , series: Lido , first broadcast: July 22, 2012 on BR, summary of the BR and beginning of the film .


  • Kerstin Decker : Franziska to Reventlow. A biography . Berlin Verlag, Berlin 2018, ISBN 978-3-8270-1362-0 .
  • Wiebke Eden: "Life is a fool's dance": female narcissism and literary form in the work of Franziska zu Reventlow (= women in literary history , volume 11), Centaurus, Pfaffenweiler 1998, ISBN 978-3-8255-0198-3 (Master's thesis University Oldenburg 1996, 147 pages).
  • Ulla Egbringhoff: Franziska zu Reventlow. rm 614, Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2000, ISBN 3-499-50614-9 .
  • Walter Fromm: Franziska zu Reventlow and the Schwabinger Boheme. In: Simone Hirmer, Marcel Schellong (Ed.): Read Munich. Observations of a narrated city , pp. 47–58. Königshausen & Neumann , Würzburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-8260-3789-4 .
  • Helmut Fritz: The erotic rebellion. The life of Franziska Countess zu Reventlow. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1980. ISBN 3-596-22250-8 .
  • Ralph M. Köhnen:  Reventlow, Franziska Sophie Liane Auguste Adrienne Countess of. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 21, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2003, ISBN 3-428-11202-4 , p. 477 f. ( Digitized version ).
  • Brigitta Kubitschek: Franziska Countess zu Reventlow: 1871–1918; a woman's life in upheaval; Studies for a biography , self-published by Brigitta Kubitschek, Prien am Chiemsee, [Staudenstr. 14] 1994, (Dissertation University of Munich 1993, 624, [41] pages, illustrations).
  • Brigitta Kubitschek: Franziska Countess to Reventlow - life and work. A biography and selection of central texts by and about Franziska Gräfin zu Reventlow. Preface by Arno Bammé, Profil, Munich / Vienna 1998. ISBN 3-89019-437-0 (629 pages).
  • Kornelia Küchmeister, Dörte Nicolaisen, Ulrike Wolff-Thomsen: “I always want everything.” Franziska Countess zu Reventlow 1871–1918. Wallstein, Göttingen 2010, ISBN 978-3-8353-0830-5 . (Catalog for the exhibition “I always want everything.” Franziska Gräfin zu Reventlow 1871–1918 from December 12, 2010 to March 6, 2011 in the Buddenbrookhaus , Lübeck).
  • Johann Albrecht von Rantzau : On the history of the sexual revolution. Countess Franziska zu Reventlow and the Munich cosmists. In: Archiv für Kulturgeschichte 56 (1974), pp. 394–446.
  • Johanna Seegers, Anna K. Geile (Ed.): About Franziska zu Reventlow. Reviews, portraits, essays, obituaries from more than 100 years. With appendix and bibliography. Igel, Oldenburg 2007, ISBN 3-89621-200-1 .
  • Franziska Sperr : "The smallest bondage is unbearable." The life of Franziska zu Reventlov. Goldmann, Munich 2003, ISBN 3-442-73152-6 .
  • Reventlow, Franziska, Countess too . In: Hans Vollmer (Hrsg.): General lexicon of visual artists from antiquity to the present . Founded by Ulrich Thieme and Felix Becker . tape 28 : Ramsden-Pink . EA Seemann, Leipzig 1934, p. 205 .
  • Gunna Wendt: Franziska zu Reventlow. The graceful rebel. Biography. Structure, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-351-02660-8 .

Web links

Wikisource: Fanny Countess to Reventlow  - Sources and full texts
Commons : Fanny zu Reventlow  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. The correct middle name is most certainly "Liane". Confusion arose because a backup copy of the Husum church register writes "Liena" instead, an obvious mistake by the copyist.
  2. Alken Bruns: cult figure and citizen fright. Ibsen reception in Lübeck around 1890. In: Wolfgang Butt, Bernhard Glienke (Ed.): The near north: Otto Oberholzer on his 65th birthday; a commemorative publication. Frankfurt am Main; Bern; New York; Nancy: Lang 1985 ISBN 978-3-8204-5349-2 , pp. 125-138, here p. 1125.
  3. Richard Faber, Susanne Lanwerd: Cybele-Prophetin-Hexe: religious images of women and conceptions of femininity. Verlag Königshausen & Neumann, 1997, ISBN 3-8260-1350-6 , see above p. 166.
  4. In the birth document, the painter Stefan Kalinschey is formally named as father, see Sabine Kneib: Else and Rolf Reventlow - two politically committed journalists ; however, there is no official recognition of paternity.
  5. Bernd Fäthke: Jawlensky and his companions in a new light. Munich 2004, p. 86f.
  6. ^ Horst Baier , Mario Rainer Lepsius , Wolfgang Schluchter and Johannes Winckelmann : Max Weber Complete Edition . Department II: Letters. Volume 8. JCB Mohr (Paul Siebeck), Tübingen 2013, background information - digitized , ISBN 3-16-147920-3 , p. 438.
  7. From all over the world. In:  Neues Wiener Journal , August 6, 1918, p. 7 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / nwj
  8. Korfiz Holm: I - lower case. Albert Langen & Georg Müller, Munich 1932, online .
  9. Literature. Allgemeine Sport-Zeitung , year 1900, p. 1283 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / asz
  10. ^ French literature in the German language. In:  Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Viennese weekly for politics, economics, art and literature / Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Deutsches Tagblatt , April 17, 1901, p. 2 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / or
  11. New Books. In:  Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Viennese weekly for politics, economics, art and literature / Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Deutsches Tagblatt , July 19, 1900, p. 16 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / or
  12. LG Ricek-Gerolding:  Georges Ancey, "Die Hochwertigen". In:  Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Viennese weekly for politics, economics, art and literature / Ostdeutsche Rundschau. Deutsches Tagblatt , November 25, 1903, p. 1 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / or
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on January 12, 2006 .