Ludwig Klages

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The "cosmists" (from left to right) Karl Wolfskehl , Alfred Schuler , Ludwig Klages , Stefan George , Albert Verwey

Friedrich Konrad Eduard Wilhelm Ludwig Klages (born December 10, 1872 in Hanover ; died July 29, 1956 in Kilchberg , Switzerland ) was a German philosopher and psychologist as well as the founder of expressive graphology . He was a representative of a special lore of character and biocentric metaphysics . To this day he is known for his greetings that are critical of civilization at the First Freideutschen Jugendtag , which took place in 1913 on the Hoher Meissner .


Ludwig Klages parents were the cloth merchant and merchant Friedrich Ferdinand Louis Klages and his wife Marie Helene, née Kolster († 1882). His sister was the graphologist Helene Klages (1878–1947).

Klages attended the Ratsgymnasium Hannover until 1891 . One of his childhood friends was the later cultural philosopher Theodor Lessing , with whom he became enthusiastic about the stick-rhyming poet Wilhelm Jordan . Klages ended the friendship in 1899. The extent to which Klages' anti-Semitism was the reason for this has not been finally clarified. Both later emphasized that their youth together shaped their future ideological thinking.

To study chemistry, he went to Leipzig, Hanover and, from 1893, Munich. He graduated with a doctorate and decided never to work as a chemist. In Munich, Klages met the sculptor and graphologist Hans Hinrich Busse , who had opened a graphological institute there in 1894. Klages also turned to graphology, which he developed into a science of expression (which Heinz Friedrich saw as an anticipation of the ethology of Konrad Lorenz ).

In Munich, Klages also met the poet Stefan George , the writer Karl Wolfskehl and the cosmologist and mystagogue Alfred Schuler . They formed a group (together with Fanny zu Reventlow , whose lover he became in 1901/02) and called themselves cosmists . He was the guardian of Reventlow's illegitimate child. She separated from him, inter alia. because he asked to quit smoking. During this time Klages worked inter alia. on Walter Benjamin , who visited him in Munich and whom he encouraged to use the term "aura". The cosmologist Wolfskehl drew Klages' attention to Johann Jakob Bachofen and his matriarchal theory , which deeply impressed him, who had lost his mother at an early age. Klages also attended the lectures of the psychologist Theodor Lipps , who was one of the founders of phenomenology .

In 1907 Klages met the artist Maria Gundrum . For many years she was the link between Klages and Alfred Schuler.

When in 1914 many German intellectuals fell into enthusiasm for the war (see August experience ), Klages remained sober. In 1915 he moved to Kilchberg in Switzerland. There he spent labor-intensive years and earned his living from book and lecture fees. He was friends with Menyhért Palágyi (1859-1924), who strongly influenced him and determined as his administrator.

As a public award, Klages received the Goethe Medal for Art and Science from Reich President Paul von Hindenburg in 1932 . Already anti-Semitic , Klages published further racist and anti-Semitic articles during the Nazi era . From 1936 onwards he met with increasing criticism from German party officials, in particular through Alfred Rosenberg's rejection of Klages' philosophy (while Baldur von Schirach was at times positive). On his 70th birthday in 1942 there were derogatory articles in many German newspapers. On the other hand, there was a large number of positive appreciations and congratulations on his 80th birthday in 1952, among others. by Federal President Theodor Heuss (see Hammer 1992, Hönel 1947, Schröder 1992).

Because of the low book fees during the war and post-war years, Klages took over graphological reports again from 1948, and from 1949 onwards he occasionally gave lectures in Germany. Later his friends gave him financial support.

Klages' estate is now managed in the German Literature Archive in the Schiller National Museum ( Marbach am Neckar ), where his study was also reconstructed.

Klages had widespread influence beyond psychology in the first half of the 20th century through his widely published books on expression psychology , character studies, and graphology . This work was guided by his philosophical convictions, the basic idea of ​​which is expressed in the book title "The Spirit as Adversary of the Soul" (1929). His philosophy of life turned against one-sided rationalism , against mechanization and reductionism . Because of his radical criticism of civilization and belief in progress as well as the destruction of natural life, he is considered one of the forefathers of the modern ecological movement .

Graphology (font interpretation) and expression studies

Klages is considered to be the most important pioneer of graphology, because he developed a scientific basis for the psychological interpretation of handwriting ( expression psychology ). The traditional graphology was in the second half of the 19th century mainly through the French school of Jean Hippolyte Michon , Jules Crépieux-Jamin and others. coined: certain font features were assigned relatively fixed psychological (character) meanings. The graphologist translated these signs (signe fix) into psychological terms. Klages has significantly expanded this approach by distinguishing more precisely between writing as expression and writing as representation. The principle of expression reads: "every expressive body movement realizes the driving experience of the feeling expressed in it" ... "the expression realizes the shape of a mental impulse according to strength, duration and directional sequence." (Grundl. Wiss. Vom Expression, 1950, pp. 148, 157 ) the applicable only to human expressions representation principle is: "[...] the willkürbare movement can only be modeled by the impulse representation insofar as it is accompanied by unconscious anticipation of its ideological success. [...] every arbitrary movement of a person is co-determined by his personal model. "(Grundl. Wiss. Vom Expression, 1950, pp. 272–273)

Klages went from these two principles to derive the psychological meaning of individual writing characteristics. Some characteristics arise primarily as a spontaneous expression. In other characteristics, a representation intent or a guiding principle appears. There are noticeable font features, e.g. B. characteristic forms of rare loops, foreshortening and emphasized "original" signatures, which are to be seen as self-portrayals. Nevertheless, these signs are also to be interpreted in the context of the largely involuntary expressive movement of writing. Many features, for example the swing in the signature of a spirited person, contain both origins. The psychological meaning of a writing feature is derived from analogy conclusions:

“In order to create an angle, the movement of the pen tip has to be slowed down to the zero point of the speed and then immediately bend over in the new direction. The braking required from point to point requires a constant readiness for tension in the author, and so the positive meaning of the angle is: Resistance. ”(Handschrift and Character, 1971, p. 115). Klages interprets the pressure of writing as an expression of willpower: "The purpose of every emphatic movement is evidently to overcome any resistance." Resistance tendency without pronounced energy. In this way, the numerous individual features in the graphological combinatorics are to be weighted. Instead of the schematic interpretation tables of earlier graphology, there is an interpretation based on expression psychology. Before an exact record of features is recorded, Klages gains a general impression of the "level of form" of the script, i. H. their rhythm, balance, regularity, skill, independence and characteristic training. This assessment of the level of form can be confirmed or modified in the course of the interpretation, but it always provides the general framework. For the interpretation, especially the conspicuous, i.e. H. to record the characteristic values ​​that deviate from the school template. The individual font features are ambiguous and must be interpreted according to an extensive system of principles and rules (e.g., Heiß 1943).

Graphology is a sub-area of ​​expression psychology alongside the interpretation of facial expressions, gestures, and voices, and alongside the psychology of visual and musical representation. The handwriting occupies an exceptional position here because it represents a "congealed" expression. It is a self-recorded behavior with the intention to form a text content and to design a given space with a flow of movement. Klages describes in detail the human expressive movements and the vegetative expressive phenomena, i. H. the involuntary physiological processes accompanying an emotion , e.g. B. the blushing. When he describes the expressive images of joy or anger, emotional psychological principles and the beginnings of an ethological (behavioral) view can already be recognized. - The broad influence of Klage's graphology is mainly explained by the expected practical use for character studies, i.e. H. for a better understanding of human nature and for psychological reports for various purposes. Klages developed the science of expression as the theoretical foundation of his graphology, which in turn becomes the most important auxiliary science of character studies. He thereby created a coherent system in which the diagnostic procedure and the theory of character (personality) are closely related. Klages was described as the innovator of character studies and the founder of German characterology (Heiss 1936, Fisseni 1998).

Character lore

Klages defines: “The personality is not only a vital unity, but also an I; shorter, it is the individual self and character studies is the science that deals with it. ”(Grundl. Character studies, 1936, p. 16). It describes the characteristics and the structure of the character very differentiated in a phenomenological-psychological way, i.e. H. on the basis of one's own experience, through introspection and reflection , but also on observation of expression, as well as literary, etc. cultural phenomena supported. Klages repeatedly emphasizes the psychological meaning of the words and the wealth of linguistic psychological knowledge. It is, as it were, precipitates of consciousness on which the study of character can be based (cf. his book: The language as the source of the study of the soul ). Later psychologists such as Raymond B. Cattell adopted this approach as the so-called lexical direction of personality research in order to arrive at the basic property dimensions by systematically ascertaining the multiplicity of adjectives and by using suitable, also statistical reduction methods (see Angleitner et al. 1990, Amelang et al. 2006).

Klages differentiates between the abilities (talents) and the character in the narrower sense and describes in detail the individual characteristics and the structure of the character. The set properties (skills, talents) are to be determined by comparing people. The directional properties or interests (driving forces) are more likely to be judged by comparing the characteristics of the various interests of a single person. The proportional properties, on the other hand, basically represent the result of two tendencies and are therefore to be represented as a proportion. The current excitability of the will to carry out an action results from the (changing) ratio of the driving force of an impulse and the existing internal resistance (inhibition). Important structural properties are also personal emotional excitability (affectivity) and personal expressiveness. The structure of the character results from the inner connection of these groups of properties. In addition, Klages defines postures in which the effects of character on community life appear. The elementary impulses give the personal interests and the character as a whole the vital energy.

Klages surpasses traditional character studies, which Julius Bahnsen (1867) in particular had shaped in his characterology . It differs from the assumption of largely rigid, incised character traits and from the old doctrine of the four temperaments in that it describes the characteristics in a more differentiated manner, not only structurally oriented, but also in the dynamic course, i.e. H. like an interplay of forces. From this point of view, there is a new understanding of the ambiguity of a behavioral expression. Practical examples contain his theory of motivation and his description of interests and modes of drive, and important theoretical concepts are the relative properties and the progressive properties of temperament. Of his thoughts, e.g. Today's psychologists could, for example, draw on the personal model, the facets of self-assertion and self-confidence, the gift of expression and creative power, the unity of drive experience and expressed feeling. Instead of the seldom used term character studies (characterology), personality psychology is mostly used today.

The earlier characterologists still lacked a special diagnostic method, as developed by Klages in graphology as an auxiliary science of character studies. The handwriting and character had a total of 29 editions between 1917 and 1989. Later studies on the empirical validity of graphological reports have mostly turned out negative ( graphology ) and today other methods of psychological diagnosis are common. Nevertheless, the achievement of combining character studies and expression studies and giving both a philosophical basis remains to be recognized. From Klages' point of view, the decisive factor is the philosophical foundation of character studies as a metaphysics of personality differences.

Philosophical anthropology

"The beat repeated, the rhythm renewed."

This short sentence from the book Vom Wesen des Rhythmus sums up Klages' central concern: The "spirit", by which is meant the so-called scientific reason, responsible here for the mechanically perceived rhythm, is a power hostile to life and opposed to rhythmic life.

Klages claims a fundamental opposition between soul and spirit (in contrast to the widespread dualism of soul and body). On the one hand, he sees soul and body as a polar unity: "The soul is the meaning of the body, the image of the body is the appearance of the soul." To be alive means being able to experience Klages. Life urges expression, creates expression and therefore the interpretation of expression is to be understood as a finding of being. ( Body-soul problem , image of man )

On the other hand, there is the life-remote, insofar “otherworldly” mind with the rationalistic thinking, which isolates elements of the reality of experience, grasps them abstractly as well as arithmetically, and has a potentially life-destroying effect. Man should not be seen one-sidedly as a rational being. When the spirit becomes independent, if it wants to dominate, assert itself and subjugate other things, it becomes “will to power”. A biocentric view must be opposed to the anthropocentric one. Klages' thinking is here inter alia. influenced by Friedrich Nietzsche's teaching about the hostility of the spirit to life. Some autobiographical evidence suggests that the inner contradiction of abstract-isolating spirit and lively-expressive soul has preoccupied him in his own development (Hammer, 1992). This life dichotomy, which differs significantly from Sigmund Freud's conception of instinctual life and the conscious, gives rise to tensions that appear in the character of a person and have an effect in dealing with living nature. The work “The Spirit as Adversary of the Soul” was published in 1929, followed by two additional volumes in 1932.

The perception of the totality of the organism precedes the exploration of the parts. The holistic experience cannot simply be broken down into its components. In his critique of contemporary school psychology, i. H. the predominantly experimental psychological direction at the universities, Klages stated that from a general psychology of elementary functions, such as sensations , perceptions , ideas , etc., no picture of a real character could be put together. Even in the investigations into differential psychology that began at that time, he saw no way that leads to an understanding of a personality, no bond or law that could bring these details together. In contrast to his scientific training, Klages increasingly began to criticize the predominance of rational-analytical thinking, to claim that experimental methods were unsuccessful and that school science, which was far from life, had failed. In principle, the character cannot be investigated experimentally. A classification based on these statements by Klages as “only” phenomenological or as irrationalistic, however, is opposed to other statements. Klages is convinced that any property occurs in a graduated manner; H. can be recorded in their quantitative expression, at least in a larger-smaller relation. In this context it is also relevant how he tries to define ratio properties almost mathematically as quotients. However, the interpretation of expression and language in the tradition of humanities hermeneutics and the reality of experience in the sense of the phenomenological approach of Theodor Lipps have absolute priority .

This intention to understand a personality as a whole is expressed in his graphological reports. In doing so, he created psychological role models, which, however, had not yet been developed into a more comprehensive psychological biography that also included other sources of information .

Ludwig Klages campaigned intensively for ecological issues in the broadest sense in the sense of the nature and homeland protection movement at the beginning of the 20th century. Early on, he specifically denounced the consequences of modern civilization, such as the extinction of numerous animal and plant species. He himself explicitly described his holistic understanding of life and nature as the “ metaphysics of paganism”. His paganism does not include belief in concrete deities, but a view in which the cosmos appears to be animated and alive. Looking at the whole of life leads to an understanding of the world as animated.

In 1913, in the appeal Mensch und Erde , the greeting to the First Freideutschen Jugendtag , Klages formulated a sharp criticism of the destruction of nature and the transfer of Darwinism to human society: “Nature does not know a 'struggle for existence', only that caring for life. "..." But where the progressive man came to power, of which he boasts, he has sown murder and the horror of death all around. "This made him a pioneer of the ecological movement , which goes beyond mere environmental protection :

“Under the pretexts of 'benefit', 'economic development', 'culture', [progress] is really aimed at the annihilation of life. He hits it in all its manifestations, clears forests, deletes the animal sexes, erases the original peoples, pastes over and defaces the landscape with the varnish of industry and degrades what he leaves of living beings, like 'slaughter cattle' to mere goods, to an outlaw object of an unlimited hunger for prey. In his service, however, is the entire technology and in its service again by far the largest domain of science. "

He calculated the psychoanalysis of his contemporary Sigmund Freud - without naming him - because of its alleged derivation of tenderness, intimacy and motherliness, in short the “unification drive par excellence”, from the sex drive to “bungling psychology”, the effect of which it is, “... it does to make the dulled sense of the 'educated' completely blind to the essence of - eros. "

From cosmogonic eros

In his first non-graphological work, Klages laid out the metaphysical foundations of his conception. He differentiated between Eros and Sexus. While eros in the language of the educated people of his time denotes the upward effect of love, as opposed to the downward effect of sex, Klages draws the difference more sharply through his view of love from abundance as opposed to love from lack and love for the distant, the most distant in contrast to love as closeness.


Style and pose

As an obstacle to Klages' reception, his followers see his posing in the role of the steadfast seer who utters whispering, pastoral sentences in pulpit style. The legibility of his writings, whose style is comparable to those of Rudolf Steiner , is made more difficult by the quirk of obstinately Germanizing even the most common foreign words; so the microscope becomes a near tube. (So ​​Kunz and Falter)

Anti-Semitism and proximity to National Socialist ideology

As a new pagan, Klages was a vehement opponent of monotheism and thus also of the Jewish religion , which he sometimes interprets as anti-Semitism . Klages' anti-Semitic attacks against Karl Wolfskehl led to the Great Schwabing Crash and the end of the cosmics. His hatred of his childhood friend Theodor Lessing as well as other anti-Semitic remarks, especially in correspondence and documented by friends, blur the line between philosophical anti-Judaism and racist anti-Semitism in Klages. In 1918, for example, he wrote in a letter about Nietzsche's slave man : “He arose and is always and everywhere through racial mixing and blood deterioration; and his necessary complement is the criminal. - The life researcher sees only one thing in the phenomenon of morality: the spiritual expression of bad blood ”. The confidence that Menyhért Palágyi placed in him speaks against this. In addition, Klages' supporters tried to stylize the "fashion philosopher" of the 1930s, who was especially courted by the National Socialists from 1933 to 1938, to become the leading philosopher of the Third Reich, which - despite prominent advocacy from among others. Baldur von Schirach - failed because of the intervention of Alfred Rosenberg and Alfred Baeumler . Undoubtedly, the high point of reception of Klages' philosophy and psychology lies in the Third Reich, as can be seen in countless dissertations on Klages, massive journalistic presence in newspapers and magazines, as well as the circulation and sales figures of his books. In 1944 Klages still believed in the racial superiority of the Germanic peoples when he wrote in rhythms and runes : "The Germanic being was designed as the perfect mixture of all earth elements."

Political criticism is directed against Klages' thinking both from the “left” (for example by Georg Lukács ) and from the “right”. From the “left” his thinking - as well as the entire philosophy of life - is accused of “irrationalism” or a certain “hostility to spirit”. Historically, it was at least rejected by the technocratic-progressive (but not by the völkisch-regressive) wing of the National Socialists because of its rejection of the state and technical civilization as well as its anti-militarism . Today's “ right-wing conservative ” camp is indecisive about Klages. The conservation movement is in the process of rediscovering him as an ancestor.

Walter Laqueur judged Klages: "His biting criticism of morality and conscience and his attacks on the spirit, the adversary of the soul , paved the way for the fascist philosophy not insignificantly. The National Socialists finally rejected Klages because of his softness and his pacifism. That changed but nothing about the fact that he has to be regarded as the spiritual trailblazer of the Third Reich. "


Philipp Lersch is influenced by Klages , who in his phenomenological psychology of the person also presented a system of characteristics, drives and interests, sensitivities, affects and feelings in a highly differentiated manner. He also made use of the phenomenologically reducing self-observation of modes of experience and included literary and philosophical sources, observations of behavior and expression psychology. His book Construction of the Character , published in 1938 and later published under the title Construction of the Person , had a total of 11 editions by 1970. It was thus one of the most widely used psychological textbooks in Germany. However, there was a lack of a new methodology that was accessible to critical empirical examination in individual cases, and the steps for practical application were lacking.

There are also many references to Ludwig Klages in Robert Heiss ' Doctrine of Character (1936), but here the arc is drawn from character studies to biological constitution theory, to medical questions and to depth psychology and psychotherapy. Graphology is still the most important auxiliary science for Heiß, but the methodological horizon opens up for the new psychological test procedures for examining intelligence and abilities as well as for personality diagnostics by means of projective tests. In addition to graphology, principles and precise sets of rules were developed here for how ambiguous signs are to be interpreted in a compound. Regardless of the specific area of ​​application, these strategies are to be regarded as an important and lasting contribution to the methodology of psychological interpretation.

In the present, the philosopher Hermann Schmitz has given similar phenomenological-psychological interpretations of everyday experiences, physicality, mentality and other immediate experiences, attitudes, etc. in his books ( New Phenomenology ). He continued this approach of body-soul unity to an independent system. Ludwig Klages' thinking also left its mark on other psychologists and philosophers; to be mentioned are Gordon Allport and Walter Benjamin , the doctor Hans Prinzhorn and the neurologist Ernst Frauchiger.

Klages had many followers in his time, but others strictly rejected his conception of man and his guiding principle of the metaphysical dichotomy. Today the perspectives of the philosophy of life are attracting more interest again. The temporarily high reputation of Ludwig Klages may have been based on the popular evidence of handwriting and character. In addition, his teaching achieved an impressive cohesion of empirical expression studies and theoretical character studies, both of which are based on his philosophical conception of man. Aligning character studies so emphatically with a philosophical conviction - in addition to the methodological problems and his self-confident, often intolerant and occasionally prophetic style - probably contributed to the fact that Klages' teaching in psychology is almost forgotten today and no longer appears in textbooks. He was an outsider to academic psychology from the start. In Japan his philosophy was able to find some echo, for which the literary scholar Yukio Kotani , among others, advocated.

The film director Sergej Eisenstein took a critical look at Klages' expressive lore. In the Iconic Turn , without reference to Klages, comparable questions about the reality of the images are taken up.

The fragmented youth design with the title Hestia , “a metaphysics of paganism”, gave the name to the yearbooks published by the “Klages Society” in Marbach am Neckar .

Works (selection)

  • Principles of Characterology (1910, since 1926 The Basics of Character Studies . 14th ed.). Bouvier, Bonn 1969.
  • Mensch und Erde (1913; with other treatises 5th edition) Diederichs, Jena 1937.
  • Bachofen as an innovator of symbolic thinking. In: Corolla L. Curtius offered for his 60th birthday. Stuttgart 1937, pp. 177-179.
  • Expressive movement and creative power . (1913; later foundation of the science of expression . 7th edition Engelmann, Leipzig 1950).
  • Handwriting and character . Common outline of graphological technology. (1917; 29th edition edited and supplemented by Bernhard Wittlich for interpretation practice.) Bouvier, Bonn 1989, ISBN 3-416-00312-8 .
  • From the cosmogonic Eros (1922; quoted from the 9th edition) Bouvier, Bonn 1988, ISBN 3-416-00272-5 .
  • The psychological achievements of Nietzsche . Barth, Leipzig 1926.
  • For the teaching of expression and character studies. Collected Treatises . N. Kampmann, Heidelberg 1926 [1]
  • The spirit as adversary of the soul (1929–32, main work in 3 volumes). 5th edition. Bouvier, Bonn 1972. Online
  • The essence of rhythm . Kampmann, Kampen on Sylt 1934.
  • Language as the source of the science of the soul . Hirzel, Zurich 1948.
  • Ludwig Klages and Ernst Frauchiger (eds.): Ludwig Klages. All works . 16 volumes. Bouvier, Bonn 1964-1996.

Original sound

  • The human problem , original sound recordings of the two radio essays Fundamentals of Character Studies (1949) and The Human Problem (1952). Audio CD. Cologne: Supposé-Verlag, 2004. ISBN 3-932513-37-1


  • Gunnar Alksnis : Ludwig Klages and His Attack on Rationalism . Kansas State University 1970
  • Gunnar Alksnis: Chthonic Gnosis. Ludwig Klages and his Quest for the Pandaemonic . Introduction by Paul Bishop . Appendix by Volker Zotz . Theion Publishing 2015
  • Manfred Amelang, Bartussek, Stemmler, Hagemann: Differential Psychology and Personality Research. (6th edition) Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 2006, ISBN 3-17-018640-X .
  • Alois Angleitner, Fritz Ostendorf and Oliver P. John: Towards a taxonomy of personality descriptors in German . In: European Journal of Personality, 1990, Volume 4, 89-118.
  • Martin ArndtKLAGES, Ludwig. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 3, Bautz, Herzberg 1992, ISBN 3-88309-035-2 , Sp. 1555-1564.
  • Thomas Behnke: Natural hermeneutics and physiognomic worldview. The natural philosophy of Ludwig Klages. Roderer, Regensburg 1999, ISBN 3-89783-105-8 .
  • Paul Bishop . Dream and philosophy of life. Ludwig Klages and another discovery of the dark continent. In: Marie Guthmüller and Hans-Walter Schmidt-Hannisa (eds.): The nocturnal self. Dream knowledge and dream art in the century of psychology. Vol. 1. 1850-1900. Wallenstein, Göttingen 2016, ISBN 978-3-8353-1903-5 . Pp. 374-397.
  • Remo Buser: Expression Psychology: Problem History, Methodology and Systematics of Expression Science . Reinhardt, Munich (inter alia) 1973, ISBN 3-497-00693-9 .
  • Georg Dörr: Mother myth and rule myth: On the dialectic of the Enlightenment at the turn of the century among the cosmists, Stefan George and in the Frankfurt School. Königshausen & Neumann, 2007, ISBN 3-8260-3511-9 .
  • Jochen Fahrenberg: Psychological Interpretation. Biographies, texts, tests . Huber, Bern 2002, ISBN 3-456-83897-2 .
  • Reinhard Falter : Ludwig Klages. Philosophy of life as a criticism of civilization . BooksOnDemand, Norderstedt 2003, ISBN 3-8330-0678-1 .
  • Hermann-Josef Fisseni: Personality psychology: in search of a science - an overview of theories. (4th ed.). Hogrefe, Göttingen 1998, ISBN 3-8017-0981-7 .
  • Ernst Frauchiger: On the trail of the spirit: a neurologist with Ludwig Klages and Teilhard de Chardin . Huber, Bern 1974, ISBN 3-456-80044-4 .
  • Karl Josef Groffmann: Introduction . In: Ludwig Klages: Complete Works. Volume 7, Graphology. Bouvier, Bonn 1968. pp. XI-LXXX.
  • Michael Großheim : Ludwig Klages and phenomenology . Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1994, ISBN 3-05-002496-8 .
  • Michael Großheim: (Ed.): Perspektiven der Lebensphilosophie. For the 125th birthday of Ludwig Klages . Bouvier, Bonn 1999, ISBN 3-416-02852-X .
  • Michael Großheim (ed.): New phenomenology between practice and theory: Festschrift for Hermann Schmitz . Alber, Freiburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-495-48309-1 .
  • Michael Großheim (Hrsg.): Perspektiven der Lebensphilosophie: for the 125th birthday of Ludwig Klages. Bouvier, Bonn 1999, ISBN 3-416-02852-X .
  • Steffi Hammer (Ed.): Adversary or pioneer? Ludwig Klages and the modern age . Hüthig, Heidelberg 1992, ISBN 3-8226-2292-3 .
  • Marie-Luise Heuser : What started out green ended up blood-red. From the romanticism of nature to the plans for reagrarization and depopulation of the SA and SS . In: Dieter Hassenpflug (Ed.): Industrialism and Ecoromantics. History and perspectives of greening, Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden 1991, pp. 43–64. ISBN 978-3-8244-4077-1 .
  • Friedbert Holz:  Klages, Ludwig. In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 11, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1977, ISBN 3-428-00192-3 , pp. 700-702 ( digitized version ).
  • Katja Hürlimann: Klages, Ludwig. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  • Hans Kasdorf: Ludwig Klages. Work and effect. Introduction and annotated bibliography. Bouvier Bonn 1969.
  • Hans Kunz : Martin Heidegger and Ludwig Klages. Analysis of existence and metaphysics . Kindler, Munich, 1976, ISBN 3-463-02162-5 .
  • Nitzan Lebovic: The Beauty and Terror of Philosophy of Life: Ludwig Klages, Walter Benjamin, and Alfred Baeumler. In: South Central Review Vol. 23, No. 1, Spring 2006, pp. 23-39. College Station, Texas: Assoc .; New York, NY: JSTOR.
  • Philipp Lersch : Structure of the person . (11th ed.). Johann Ambrosius Barth, Munich 1970.
  • Per Leo: The will to essence: Weltanschauung culture, characterological thinking and hostility to Jews in Germany 1890-1940 . Matthes & Seitz, Berlin 2013, ISBN 3-88221-981-5 .
  • Baal Müller : Cosmics. Process ontology and temporal poetics with Ludwig Klages and Alfred Schuler: On the philosophy and poetry of the Schwabinger Cosmic Round. Telesma, Munich 2007, ISBN 978-3-9810057-3-8 .
  • Dieter Münch: The manifold relationships between philosophy and psychology. The relationship between Edmund Husserl and the Würzburg School from the perspective of philosophy, psychology and the history of institutions . In: Jürgen Jahnke, Jochen Fahrenberg, Reiner Stegie & Eberhard Bauer (eds.): History of psychology - relationships with philosophy and border areas. (Pp. 319-345). Profil, Munich 1998, ISBN 3-89019-461-3 .
  • Hans Prinzhorn (Ed.): Science at the crossroads of life and spirit. Festschrift for Ludwig Klage's 60th birthday, December 10, 1932. Barth, Leipzig 1932.
  • Hans Prinzhorn and Ernst Frauchiger: Personality Psychology: Draft biocentric reality doctrine of man . (2nd ed.). Quelle & Meyer, Heidelberg 1958.
  • Richard Reschika: The deadly arrow - Ludwig Klages' culture and civilization criticism. In: Philosophical Adventurers. Eleven profiles from the Renaissance to the present, Mohr and Siebeck, UTB, Tübingen 2001, pp. 187–212. ISBN 3-8252-2269-1
  • Hermann Schmitz : The person. (Series: System der Philosophie, Volume 4.) Bouvier, Bonn 1980.
  • Hermann Schmitz: The body, the space and the feelings . Edition Tertium, Ostfildern 1998, ISBN 3-930717-60-3 .
  • Tobias Schneider: The philosopher Ludwig Klages and National Socialism 1933–1938 . In: Vierteljahrshefte für Zeitgeschichte (VfZ) 2 (2001) ( article in PDF ).
  • Tobias Schneider: Sectarians or comrades in arms? The Klages-Kreis in the field of tension of Nazi cultural policy . In: Walter Schmitz, Clemens Vollnhals (Hrsg.): Völkische Movement - Conservative Revolution - National Socialism. Aspects of a politicized culture. Dresden 2005.
  • Hans Eggert Schröder : Ludwig Klages; 1872-1956. Centenar exhibition 1972 . Bonn 1972.
  • ders .: The story of his life . In: Franz Tenigl and Hans Eggert Schröder (eds.): Ludwig Klages: Complete works. Volume: Supplement 2.2. Bouvier, Bonn 1992.
  • ders .: Ludwig Klages - The story of his life . Part one: the youth. Second part: The work : first half volume (1905–1920); Second half volume (1920–1956). In: Franz Tenigl (ed.): Ludwig Klages: Complete works. Volume: Supplement 1. Bouvier, Bonn 1966.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Elke Kotowski: Enemy Dioskuren. Theodor Lessing and Ludwig Klages. The failure of a childhood friendship (1885–1899) . Jewish Publishing House, Berlin 2000, p. 7.
  2. ^ Dorothea Roth: Klages-Gundrum-Schuler. In: Basler Zeitschrift für Geschichte und Altertumskunde, Vol. 96, 1966, pp. 180–198. Retrieved November 13, 2019 .
  3. Ludwig Klages: Vom Wesen des Rhythmus , Kampen auf Sylt 1934, p. 32
  4. Ludwig Klages: Vom kosmogonischen Eros , 1921, 9th edition Bonn 1988, p. 61
  5. Ludwig Klages: Vom kosmogonischen Eros , 1921, 9th edition Bonn 1988, p. 23
  6. ^ Quotation from Ernst Klee : Das Kulturlexikon zum Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, ISBN 978-3-10-039326-5 , pp. 309-310.
  7. ^ Quote from Ernst Klee: The cultural lexicon for the Third Reich. Who was what before and after 1945. S. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 2007, p. 310.
  8. ^ Walter Laqueur: The German youth movement. A historical study. Science & Politics, Cologne 1962, p. 47. See also Marie-Luise Heuser : What began green ended blood red. From the romanticism of nature to the plans of regression and depopulation of the SA and SS. Deutscher Universitätsverlag, Wiesbaden 1991.
  9. Fahrenberg, 2002.
  10. See Hammer 1992, Klages-Gesellschaft Marbach eV
  11. Yukio Kotani : “Against nirvana and civilization. Ludwig Klages in contemporary Japan. ” Hestia. Yearbook of the Klages Gesellschaft 1994/95 . Bonn 1995