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Psychologist is the non-protected job title of people who normally the study of psychology completed at a university (university or technical college) successfully and as diploma -Psychologe (Dipl.-Psych., Germany), Master of Science (M.Sc. Psychology), Master of Arts (MA Psychology) or as a qualified psychologist (Dipl.-Psych. FH, Switzerland). Associated with this is the specialist knowledge of the description, explanation, modification and prediction of human experience and behavior. According to the law, the profession of psychologist is a free profession . To work as a psychological psychotherapist , after completing the university diploma / master’s degree, additional multi-year training is required.

Psychologists work in many different fields of application (health care, education, business, research and development, law, transport, administration, etc.).

job profile

Scientific basis

The training in psychology is based on today's understanding of psychology as an empirical science that deals with human experience and behavior and contains a large proportion of scientific methodology and statistics .

Professional Practice

Psychological fields of work are broad: the focus is on the development, implementation and evaluation of diagnostic and intervention procedures, v. a. psychological counseling and training, both in clinical and other areas of applied psychology , as well as basic scientific research .

The basis of the psychological activities are scientifically founded knowledge and an ethically impeccable, trustworthy work design and treatment of clients. All work areas are offered by both self-employed and employees .

Fields of activity

The professional field includes numerous specializations, which may also require special training and further education in order to be allowed to work there (e.g. in the field of psychotherapy or traffic psychology).

Typical work areas are:

  • Business consulting and personnel management : personnel selection (development, implementation, evaluation and evaluation of specific instruments, such as assessment centers ) and personnel development ; Organizational development , occasionally also strategic consulting
  • Market and opinion research
  • in the police , military and similar (state) institutions in the development of personnel selection procedures, the evaluation of education and training measures and training.
  • Psychologists in prison are z. B. responsible for the assessment of the risk of suicide, the risk of escape and violence, expert opinions on relaxation decisions, cooperation in the planning of prison sentences and support up to the therapy of offenders (the latter only by psychological psychotherapists). Occasionally they are involved in the selection of staff and the training of prison officers . Additional training as a psychological psychotherapist makes sense, but is not a prerequisite for employment. The same applies to additional legal psychology training.
  • Education , youth counseling and family counseling centers
  • School psychological advice centers
  • Youth welfare offices, social welfare offices
  • Labor market and educational advice: testing and advice
  • traffic psychological institutions or as a resident traffic psychologist
  • Institutions of Behindertenhilfe
  • Childcare advice
  • Teaching at schools, technical colleges and technical schools (psychology lessons, often in the vocational field; e.g. educator training)
  • Psychotherapeutic practices (after training as a psychological psychotherapist ),
  • psychotherapeutic , psychiatric or psychosomatic departments in clinics (as part of or after training as a psychological psychotherapist)
  • neurological clinics (mostly with further training as clinical neuropsychologist)
  • Institutions of prevention and health psychology
  • Universities (research and teaching): as (pure) scientists at universities and other research institutions, i.e. mostly long-term in the form of an academic career, i. H. Usually through a doctorate , then postdoc / assistantship and habilitation or junior professorship, then limited teaching positions up to a professorship

For basic and applied research ( research and development ) are approximately:

  • Development of (aptitude) tests
  • together with / in competition with engineers and computer scientists, partly also business economists as industrial psychologists e.g. B. in occupational and operational safety (human-machine interaction), in product development (e.g. ergonomic design), in quality assurance and evaluation, in safety, risk and crisis management, etc. a. in the analysis of decision-making processes

Typical expert activities include:

  • as a court expert z. B. in custody decisions, on questions of credibility of witness statements, for assessing the assessment of the risk of relapse in decisions by the penal enforcement chambers of the regional courts and in assessments of culpability as a supplement to the psychiatric report.
  • as an expert in other official procedures, such as determination of fitness to drive , special educational assessment, determination of legal age, etc.
  • As clinical neuropsychologists on behalf of doctors, performance and functional diagnostics to better assess z. B. the rehabilitation potential (after a brain operation, a stroke, etc.).

The first two activities mentioned do not necessarily, but make sense, require additional training as a forensic psychologist .

Public image

Kanning (2014) reports that there is a distorted public image of the psychologist's job. Psychologists are generally inadmissibly equated with psychotherapists or generally with advisors and helpers in health care and education. In terms of qualifications and activities, they are confused with other professional groups (e.g. doctors, psychotherapists).

In contrast to the often distorted public image, the term psychologist describes a person with a university degree, but not a medical profession, even if medical knowledge (e.g. clinical psychology, basics of psychotherapy, psychopathology) is definitely part of the degree further activity and training of a large number of psychologists. For this reason, psychologists can work in an institutional setting (e.g. in the psychiatric field) or outside of psychotherapy (e.g. in assessment or in psychosocial support institutions) in a clinical-diagnostic or therapeutic manner (e.g. family therapy) , however, a psychologist without specialized training in a recognized therapeutic procedure may not be independently active as a healing agent (see also differences between psychotherapist - psychiatrist - psychologist ). That the independent practice of the therapy of mental disorders including therapeutic diagnostics requires a license to practice medicine with appropriate further training, such as B. Physicians with specialists or psychologists with several years of further training in psychotherapy is largely unknown.

Today psychologists also work in research, development, evaluation, assessment, training and business-related scientific services.

Initial and continuing education

At the various universities, psychology studies are facultatively assigned to the humanities or natural sciences and in some cases are very pragmatically linked to other subjects. While psychology in some other countries (e.g. France, Argentina) has a stronger humanities stance, a predominantly natural science orientation can be observed at many German universities. In today's teaching, neuroscientific perspectives are increasingly taken into account.

For some professional activities, in addition to university studies, specialized training or further education is necessary (e.g. psychological psychotherapist or traffic psychologist ). Such mostly postgraduate training courses can entitle the holder to use specialist titles that express the particular qualification. Regular in-service training can exist as a requirement of the relevant professional associations as a prerequisite for the continuation of specialist titles and be controlled by them.

There is a need to clarify which professional activities can be carried out by people who have obtained a B.Sc. degree but not a Master’s degree. On the one hand, it is stated that a full degree in psychology can only be achieved with a completed master’s degree and that this remains the prerequisite for access to specializations and further training. On the other hand, psychology has to face the requirement that the B.Sc. should also be a professional qualification.

EU level

At the European level, a harmonization of the professional profile is being prepared as part of the Bologna Process and the freedom of establishment ( EuroPsy ). A minimum qualification is envisaged in the form of a completed academic university degree of at least five years, in which a scientifically oriented minimum curriculum was completed. Since the job here belongs to the scientific professions, a Bachelor of Science (B.Sc.) or Master of Science (M.Sc.) is required for the profession of psychologist.

For specializations going beyond the Bologna Declaration, after completing the M.Sc. In addition, a full-time, one-year internship, supervised by a psychologist and positively evaluated, must be completed.


Psychologists carry out their professional activity as employees or as self-employed . The activity of self-employed psychologists in Germany has been recognized as a freelance profession since 1995, regardless of the specific area of ​​activity (catalog profession according to § 18 EStG or § 1 PartGG ).

Professional psychologists with a state-recognized final academic examination are bound to secrecy according to § 203 StGB , which does not only apply to the clinical area.

For reasons of competition law ( § 3 UWG) it is not permitted to use the designation psychologist in connection with a business transaction without having the appropriate academic qualification, because this is viewed as misleading the consumer.

In the opinion of the Professional Association of German Psychologists (BDP), a bachelor's degree should not qualify for the professional title of psychologist, since the minimum qualification required in the legal comments is not achieved. In addition, the BDP takes the view that the use of the professional title psychologist without having a corresponding academic training is punishable under Section 132a (2) of the Criminal Code.

Legal regulation of university education in Germany

The study of psychology leading to a diploma has been regulated by law in Germany since 1941 and has been regularly revised by the German Society for Psychology (DGPs) and the Conference of Ministers of Education (KMK) since the re-establishment of university teaching after the end of National Socialism . The aim of the training organization was the professionalization of the graduates, i.e. the standardization and quality assurance of the professional practice of psychology. For the new courses with degrees as Bachelor and Master, there are only recommendations from the DGPs, which are based on the previous diploma course. A legal regulation and thus the binding of universities to certain scientific standards and (certain) contents of a course called psychology no longer exist for the new courses.

With at least three years of self-financed full-time additional training / postgraduate studies, an academically trained graduate psychologist can acquire the legally protected title of psychotherapist by receiving the license to practice as a psychological psychotherapist after passing the state examination , with which he then receives within the framework of the needs-based legal provisions can apply for a health insurance license.

Change of training: conversion to Bachelor and Master courses

Originally, the DGPs demanded that actually not the Bachelor, but the Master should be the standard qualification. “Psychology is a complex course of study, as complex as its subject, human behavior and experience. The transfer of knowledge and skills takes more than three years, ”says Hannelore Weber , professor at the University of Greifswald since 1994 and president of the German Society for Psychology from 2004 to 2006. However, this demand could not be implemented against the educational demands of politics.

When converting from a diploma to a bachelor's and master's degree, the departments also encounter educational and university policy hurdles in implementing the DGPs recommendations. On the one hand, too little time is given for studying, which in initial experience could only be compensated for by reducing the requirements (level) and the examinations to be performed (communicated at the symposium on new courses at the DGPs Congress 2006 in Nuremberg). On the other hand, the standard curriculum value was significantly reduced from 4.0 (diploma psychology) to values ​​between 2.2 and 3.4 (Bachelor of Science) or between 1.1 and 1.7 (Master of Science) (ibid.) . Losses are to be compensated by establishing postgraduate courses ( graduate schools ). This means that the path that is taken with comparable study systems abroad also seems to be necessary in Germany.

Aims of the training to become a qualified psychologist

The guideline-oriented university diploma training for psychologists in Germany actually takes six to seven years, regardless of the standard period of study. The aim is for a practically professional psychologist to fall back on scientific methodology and empirical findings when making practical decisions, to only use scientifically valid methods, instruments and techniques in the context of his work, so that he, as far as possible, his customers, clients, patients and members of other professional groups Informed about empirical findings and scientifically justified analysis, clarification and solution options for your problems and questions and questions yourself using applied research and development and implementing the findings for yourself and others in an application-oriented manner. Further goals are the use of specialist knowledge to establish and maintain effective cooperation and teamwork with members of other professional groups and to make the know-how acquired through training in scientific methods and in the implementation of empirical research available to other professional groups that do not have a have such training to e.g. B. to scientifically secure team and other decisions, to improve the quality of work, etc. Furthermore, a psychologist should make his own actions transparent for others , reflect critically and above all scientifically evaluate, and continuously train himself.

Job opportunities in Germany

The job opportunity check lists 206 jobs that scientifically trained psychologists can practice. There is a continuation of the trend that psychosocial and clinical areas and activities are declining sharply in training in the Bachelor-Master system as well as in professional practice, in favor of business-related and new fields of work, in which, however, the scientific-methodological skills are stronger be asked by psychologists. There is still a strong trend away from traditional salaried employees towards self-employment.


Legal basis: The Psychologists Act

Basic data
Title: Psychologist Act
Long title: Federal Act of June 7, 1990 on the use of the professional title “psychologist” and on the exercise of the psychological profession in the health care sector
Type: Federal law
Scope: Republic of Austria
Reference: StF: Federal Law Gazette No. 360/1990
Date of law: June 7, 1990
Last change: BGBl. I No. 98/2001
Please note the note on the applicable legal version !

In Austria, training, access, job title and practice are regulated by the federal law on the use of the job title “psychologist” and the practice of the psychological profession in the health care sector (psychologist law) .

The following is expressly stated: “Anyone who has either 1. completed the field of psychology with the academic degree Magister of Philosophy or Master of Natural Sciences is entitled to use the professional title“ Psychologist ”or“ Psychologist ”, 2. The first subject to study psychology [...] has completed a doctorate in philosophy, 3. has completed a degree in psychology [...] with the title "Diplompsychologe" or 4. can provide evidence of a degree in psychology at a university abroad that is certified in Austria. "(§ 1 Para. 1 Psychologists Act) A
qualified psychologist is the old name; instead of a Magister, there is a Bachelor / Master of Science .

Professional area psychology: professions and training

The profession includes the following fields:

health professional specializations
  • Clinical psychologist
  • Health psychologist

Extensive further training is necessary for both professions, it includes the acquisition of theoretical and practical technical competence, the former for a total duration of at least 160 hours (Section 5, Paragraph 1) in courses at recognized private or public institutions including university institutes and university clinics ( Section 5 (1)), the second of 1480 hours, of which at least 150 hours within a year in a relevant health care facility (Section 5 (2)), as well as accompanying supervision for a total of at least 120 hours (Section 5 (2) Z. 2), with confirmation (§ 9). Only then is the psychologist entitled to work in the health sector, but then also as a full-fledged health profession. The exercise of the profession then includes in particular (Section 3 Paragraph 2):

  1. clinical-psychological diagnostics with regard to performance, personality traits, behavioral disorders, psychological changes and states of suffering as well as consultations, prognoses, certificates and reports based on this
  2. the application of psychological treatment methods for the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups or the advice of legal persons as well as research and teaching in the fields mentioned [in the law]
  3. the development of health-promoting offers and projects

According to the law, clinical and health psychologists are also subject to basic medical obligations such as practicing the profession to the best of their knowledge and belief , further training taking into account the development of scientific knowledge, confidentiality , information about treatment, and the like ( professional obligations §§ 13, 14). You will also be entered in a professional list maintained by the Federal Chancellery ( list of clinical psychologists and health psychologists §§ 16,17)

  • A technical specialization is also possible as
  • Psychotherapist In (special training in accordance with the Psychotherapy Act , previous training in studying psychology or psychotherapy science, includes psychotherapeutic propaedeutic course, 2 years and specialist course, 3–7 years)
  • Supervisor In (social workers can also do this job)
  • Neuropsychologist as a scientific-clinical specialization

Further special training courses include psychosocial health trainers , multiple therapy conductors for cerebral paretics and people with multiple disabilities

Related professions - which means that the training is partially credited - are doctor , educational and career counselor, marriage and family counselor, cognitive scientist, life and social counselor, pedagogue , psychiatric health and nurse, psychotherapist , social worker , sociologist .

Teaching position
  • For psychology lessons (subject psychology and philosophy ) at higher general and vocational schools, the teaching degree in psychology and philosophy is a prerequisite (graduates of philosophy studies can also take up this profession)
also outside the health sector

The occupation of psychologist is assigned to the occupational area of health and medicine according to AMS for the legally specially regulated forms, otherwise to the areas of social affairs, education and science, research and development , or the occupational group health / medicine / care (work area hospital ) according to BIC

Training in Austria

Basic data
Title: EEA Psychologists Act
Long title: Federal law on the establishment and exercise of the freedom to provide services by clinical psychologists and health psychologists from the European Economic Area
Type: Federal law
Scope: Republic of Austria
Reference: StF: Federal Law Gazette I No. 113/1999
Date of law: June 7, 1990
Last change: BGBl. I No. 95/2008
Please note the note on the applicable legal version !

The university course in Psychology (Bachelor and Diploma courses, 6 or 10 semesters) is currently offered in Austria (as of 2011/12):

The course is very popular, and admission restrictions have been set up at most Austrian universities.

In addition to hospitals and universities, there are also:

  • Austrian Academy for Psychology (ÖAP)

The establishment is on the Federal Law on the establishment and exercise of the freedom to provide services of clinical psychologists and health psychologists from the European Economic Area (EEA psychologists Act) regulated, it applies to the EEA -Vertragsstaaten and the Swiss Confederation , and then for third countries , if their Training in the former is recognized. Non-Austrians trained abroad are thus - provided that their training has been checked beforehand by the Minister of Health - on an equal footing with Austrians (with domestic and foreign qualifications) and, if necessary, also certified in the list of clinical psychologists and health psychologists .

Organizations and institutions

In addition to representatives of the BÖP, ÖGP and GkPP and the psychotherapy advisory board at the Federal Chancellery , the advisory body for psychologists , the advisory body at the Federal Chancellery (according to § 19  Psychologists Act ) also includes representatives of the following social partnership organizations : Austrian Medical Association , Federal Chamber of Commerce , Main Association of Austrian Social Insurance Institutions , Austrian Chamber of Labor , Austrian Federation of Trade Unions , Presidential Conference of the Austrian Chambers of Agriculture

Further specialized recognized organizations and professional societies are:

  • Society for Neuropsychology Austria
  • Emergency Psychological Service Austria
  • Austrian network mediation
  • Association for outpatient psychotherapy


Basic data
Title: Federal law on psychological professions
Short title: Psychology Professions Act
Abbreviation: PsyG
Type: Federal law
Scope: Switzerland
Legal matter: Service industry
legal collection (SR)
Original version from: March 18, 2011
Entry into force on: May 1, 2012 (Art. 36 + 37);
April 1, 2013 (except Art. 48-43)
August 1, 2016 Art. 38-43
Please note the note on the applicable legal version.

In 2013 the Psychology Professions Act (PsyG) came into force. It regulates the protection of titles and the professional duties of psychologists. Purposes are the protection of health and the protection against deception and misleading of persons who make use of services in the field of psychology. For this purpose, recognized domestic university degrees in psychology, requirements for further training, requirements for obtaining a federal further education title, periodic accreditation of further education courses, recognition of foreign qualifications and further education titles, requirements for the private professional practice of psychotherapy in one's own professional responsibility as well as the requirements for the Use of protected professional titles and federal advanced training titles established. The associated regulation regulates u. a. Further education, recognition of foreign qualifications, accreditation of further education courses, use of titles in job titles. According to this, only those persons may call themselves “psychologists” who have acquired a legally recognized Swiss master’s, licensed or diploma degree in psychology from a Swiss university or technical college. Comparable foreign qualifications are recognized if the psychology professions commission responsible for foreign qualifications recognizes them after weighing them or if there is a state treaty for the mutual recognition of corresponding diplomas. Bachelors are not allowed to describe themselves commercially as psychologists. The bachelor's degree (Bachelor of Science in Psychology) is also protected.

In Switzerland, a degree in psychology - formerly with a licensed degree (lic.phil), today EU-compatible as a BA / BSc or MA / MSc degree - is offered at the following universities: Basel , Bern , Friborg , Geneva , Lausanne , Neuchâtel and Zurich . The curricula largely correspond to those in Germany; Swiss scientists have worked on the recommendations of the German Society for Psychology .

In addition, a technical college course at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences - Department of Psychology (ZHAW-P) and the University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW) - University of Applied Psychology, with training as a psychologist, which is legally recognized (BSc. MSc.). The main focus of the training is on the aspect of applied psychology. The previous institution offered educational qualifications with the title Psych. IAP (Institute for Applied Psychology) until 2003, after which the institute was converted into a university for applied psychology HAP and it was awarded the title dipl. Psych. FH completed. The dipl. Psychologist FH is also protected by law.

The Federation of Swiss Psychologists (FSP) as the umbrella organization with its cantonal and thematic member associations is the largest professional association (approx. 6500 members) of psychologists in Switzerland (founded in 1987). There is also the older Swiss Professional Association for Applied Psychology (founded in 1952), in which the majority of FH psychologists are organized (approx. 900). The Swiss Society for Psychology (SGP, founded in 1943) as the oldest psychologists' association in Switzerland is the Scientific Society of Psychology in Switzerland.

Other states

In some states, such as B. in the USA or in Australia, psychologist is also a protected professional title, but also requires a special state approval in addition to a completed degree. Since there are often no state regulations for the training of psychologists, each applicant is checked with regard to the skills they have acquired to determine whether and to what extent they have sufficient qualifications to be able to work responsibly as a psychologist (regardless of the professional field); this procedure serves as a model for the European regulation. Building on this, there are also other state approvals, such as B. for the field of psychotherapy.

See also

Web links

  • PsychAuthors , database of authors who scientifically publish in German-speaking psychology,

Individual evidence

  1.  ( page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /
  2. ^ T. Melles: Areas of activity of psychologists in institutional market research. In T. Brandenburg, MT Thielsch (Ed.): Praxis der Wirtschaftspsychologie: Topics and case studies for study and practice Monsenstein and Vannerdat , Münster 2009, pp. 27-42 ( page no longer available , search in web archives: pdf , nordlight-research .com)@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  3. about: H. Fuchs: Organizational Psychology at the Police. In Brandenburg, Thielsch: Practice of business psychology . 2009, pp. 11-26
  4. Kirsten von Sydow: The image of psychologists, psychotherapists and psychiatrists in public. A systematic research overview. In: Psychotherapist. Volume 52, 2007, pp. 322-333.
  5. UP Kanning: On the Image of Psychology . Report Psychology 01/2014.
  6. Federation of German Psychological Associations: Commentary on the legal opinion on the license to practice medicine (April 2007) by Prof. Dr. Hermann Plagemann (Frankfurt). February 23, 2008. Retrieved October 28, 2018 .
  7. PsychThG - unofficial table of contents. Retrieved October 28, 2018 .
  8. Example: recognized curricula in Switzerland ( memento of the original dated September 24, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  9. Example FSP Switzerland ( Memento of the original from January 3, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  10. Page no longer available , search in web archives: Position of DGPs (PDF)@1@ 2Template: Dead Link /
  11. ^ Standards for professional training in psychology higher than the Bologna declaration. ( Memento from February 24, 2008 in the Internet Archive )
  13. ^ Judgment of the Federal Court of Justice of July 4, 1985, I ZR 147/83, MDR 1986, 119-120
  14. ^ Professional Association of German Psychologists: Profession Psychologist - FAQ: Title recognition and professional practice in Germany. ( Memento of the original from December 30, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was automatically inserted and not yet checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  15. BDP makes it clear: The title “Psychologist” is protected
  16. Maren Wernecke: Bin Guide Psychology ,
  17. Career opportunity check psychologist. Education and Knowledge, Nuremberg 1999, ISBN 3-8214-8244-3 .
  18. Federal Act of June 7, 1990 on the use of the professional title “Psychologist” and “Psychologist” and on the exercise of the psychological profession in the field of health care (Psychologist Act) . StF: Federal Law Gazette No. 360/1990
  19. a b c d e f g h i j k l Occupational group: Psychology. In: Berufslexikon. AMS , accessed July 19, 2011 .
  20. a b c d e f Job description psychologist. In: - BerufsInformationsComputer . WKO Austrian Chamber of Commerce , IBW Institute for Economic Research in Business , accessed on July 19, 2011 .
  21. psychologist / clinical psychologist ,
  22. Health psychologist  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Toter Link /   ,
  23. Forms for entry in the list of clinical psychologists and in the list of health psychologists ( memento of June 11, 2013 in the Internet Archive ), Federal Ministry of Health
  24. Page no longer available , search in web archives: Academic course for psychosocial health trainer@1@ 2Template: Dead Link / .
  25. University course for the training of academic multiple therapy conductors for cerebral paretics and people with multiple disabilities ( Memento from September 20, 2011 in the Internet Archive ).
  26. Occupational groups: Health / Medicine / Nursing  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ; Fields of work: Emergency Room: Hospital workplace.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. , 2Template: Toter Link /  @1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  27. the master's degree planned since 2009 at the Johannes Kepler University Linz has not yet been realized. Master's degree in psychology in Linz. In: admin Category: News, University. Institute for Education and Psychology, Johannes Kepler University Linz, April 10, 2009, accessed on July 18, 2011 .
  28. Federal law on the establishment and exercise of the freedom to provide services by clinical psychologists and health psychologists from the European Economic Area (EEA Psychologists Act) . StF: Federal Law Gazette I No. 113/1999
  29. Society for Neuropsychology Austria
  30. Emergency Psychological Service Austria
  31. Austrian Network Mediation
  32. ^ Association for outpatient psychotherapy
  33. Practical Psychology Professions Act ( Memento of the original from January 16, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  34. 935.81 Federal Act on Psychology Professions on
  35. 935.811 Ordinance on the Psychology Professions of March 15, 2013 on
  36. Law and Practice on
  37. University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland - University of Applied Psychology.