|description||German satirical magazine|
|publishing company||Simplicissimus publishing house|
|First edition||April 4, 1896|
|attitude||September 13, 1944|
|Frequency of publication||weekly|
The Simplicissimus ( German : the simplest) was a satirical weekly magazine that appeared from April 4, 1896 to September 13, 1944 . The editorial office was based in Munich . The magazine targeted Wilhelmine politics , bourgeois morality, the churches, civil servants, lawyers and the military.
The most famous draftsmen were besides Thomas Theodor Heine : Karl Arnold , Josef Benedikt Engl , Olaf Gulbransson , Käthe Kollwitz , Bruno Paul , Ferdinand von Rezniček , Erich Schilling , Wilhelm Schulz , Eduard Thöny and Rudolf Wilke .
Numerous successful writers, some of whom are still famous today, worked on the magazine or published their texts there in loose succession: Otto Julius Bierbaum , Richard Dehmel , Bruno Frank , Hermann Hesse , Hugo von Hofmannsthal , Erich Kästner , Heinrich Mann , Thomas Mann , Gustav Meyrink , Georg Queri , Fanny zu Reventlow , Alexander Roda Roda , Arthur Schnitzler , Edgar Steiger , Robert Walser , Jakob Wassermann , Frank Wedekind and others. There were also international authors from the Albert Langen publishing house's book program, such as Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson , Knut Hamsun , Guy de Maupassant and Marcel Prévost .
In 1934/1935 an emigration edition appeared in Prague , initially under the title Simplicus , later under the title Simpl . After 1944 there were several attempts to revive the Simplicissimus , including the new edition founded by Olaf Iversen , which appeared from 1954 to 1967.
Founding phase (1896–1906)
The Simplicissimus was founded by the young publisher Albert Langen and was originally not designed as a satirical sheet, but as an illustrated literary review based on the French model, the Gil Blas Illustré . Gil Blas , the character of a French picaresque novel, was probably the inspiration for Langen's namesake: the character of the picaresque novel Der adventurous Simplicissimus by Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen , published in 1668 . Its motto "I wanted to be comfortable / To tell the truth with laughter" was quoted in the first issue.
In the beginning, the pictures were illustrations of the literary texts. The political caricatures for which the Simplicissimus is so famous today only gradually established themselves alongside them .
In the first years there was a lot of overlap with illustrators from the competitor magazine Jugend, which is also published in Munich . Artists who became known as members of the Scholle artist group and are now primarily associated with young people - such as Reinhold Max Eichler , Walter Georgi or Adolf Münzer - were also represented in the Simplicissimus . Before coming to Munich, Langen had stayed in Paris for a long time and highly valued the current French draftsmen and graphic designers such as Théophile Steinlen and Jules Chéret . But they were very busy in the 1890s, so that Langen could only get something from them for Simplicissimus occasionally . Therefore, for the illustration of the short stories printed, he resorted to young German and especially Munich artists, who became a permanent workforce. Heine alone was involved from the first issue, the others came to Simpl in the course of the first two years . Gulbransson was the last to join in 1902.
The Simplicissimus is said to have started on April 4, 1896 with a very high circulation . There is talk of 300,000 copies. The later editor Korfiz Holm even speaks of 400,000 copies, which, however, remained largely unsold. The high initial circulation was certainly a PR strategy by Albert Langen, who worked on the myth of his magazine from the start. In the first years the circulation was probably a few 1,000 copies. Although the magazine's popularity increased rapidly, and with it the turnover achieved, it took a long time for Simplicissimus to become profitable for the publisher.
State censorship has played a role time and again in the history of Simplicissimus . She gave decisive impulses to the orientation and development of the paper:
“Langen achieved a first boost in the politicization of his magazine with the, from today's perspective, very cautious decision to print poems by the writer Georg Herwegh, who died twenty years earlier, in issue 4 of the first year . He was one of the spokesmen for the democratization of Germany in the revolution of 1848 and later one of the founders of the General German Workers' Association , the predecessor of the SPD ; so he was decidedly opposed to the monarchy. In Austria, where the Simplicissimus was also sold from the start, it was apparently so much "persona non grata" that the issue was banned and allegedly even confiscated by the police. We are mainly informed about these events through the reports of Simplicissimus itself, because the editors and publishers immediately recognized that the best advertising could be done with this backlash from the authorities. "
The confiscation of the so-called Palestine number, issue 31 in the third year, dated October 29, 1898, and that of the following issue were then decisive . The cover picture of the Palestine number shows a rather harmless caricature of Heine with the crusaders Gottfried von Bouillon and Friedrich Barbarossa , who decided not to depict Kaiser Wilhelm II. A ridiculous poem by Frank Wedekind on the occasion of the emperor's trip to Palestine was considerably more snappy . In the run-up to this action, other editions of the Simplicissimus had been confiscated in Prussia , so that an example should now be made for good. Langen, who fled abroad after the confiscation, Wedekind, who fled first and then surrendered to justice, and Heine were charged with lese majesty . Heine and Wedekind had to serve prison terms. Langen lived in exile in France, Norway and Switzerland for five years to avoid arrest and had to run the publishing business from a distance with the help of Korfiz Holm . The proceedings against him were only discontinued after payment of a "compensation" of 30,000 marks .
Since 1898, the prominent picture contributions on the title page and the back cover more and more current political events. The confiscation and the spectacular process only resulted in the editorial staff strengthening this tendency and the magazine becoming the political satirical journal as we know it today.
The censorship measures, as existentially threatening as they were, were cleverly used to make the magazine known to the socially critical readership. In close cooperation with the star lawyer Max Bernstein , corresponding advertisements were provoked and the processes were planned long in advance as a public spectacle. According to Langen's 1904 catalog, the print run increased from 15,000 to 85,000 copies between April 1897 and April 1904.
In 1906, the most important employees - Olaf Gulbransson, Ludwig Thoma, Bruno Paul, Th. Th. Heine, Eduard Thöny and Rudolf Wilke - got Albert Langen to separate Simplicissimus from his publishing house and bring it into his own GmbH, in which they were involved (Simplicissimus-Verlag GmbH Munich).
Initially , a young lady in a flowered dress designed by Heine, who was closely embraced by a black devil with the tip of his tail, painted the title as a brush for the Simplicissimus . But the red bulldog appeared in a cartoon by Heine in the eighth issue of the first year . Initially a marginal figure, bared teeth and torn from the chain, she became the heraldic animal of the magazine. From the fourth year onwards, it adorned the cover as a colored embossing print , with which the subscribers could have their years bound. It was also printed as a poster , blood red on a black background. The litho stone for this is now in the State Graphic Collection in Munich .
The Simplicissimus and Munich
The editing of the Simplicissimus was always in Munich. However, the registered office of the printer was specified as the place of publication. The first volumes appeared in Leipzig at the Hesse & Becker printing company. That is why a Saxon public prosecutor intervened in 1898 for libel of majesty. Based on this experience, Korfiz Holm, as Langen's trustee, looked for a new printing company in the months after the confiscations, which he found in the Strecker & Schröder company in Stuttgart in 1899. From issue 24 of the fourth year the Simplicissimus appeared in Stuttgart. The printing company, which also took over the distribution, was cheaper than the Leipzig one, and Stuttgart was far enough away from the Prussian-oriented public prosecutors. Munich printing plants were too expensive, and because of its conservatism, Bavaria was also politically insecure from the editors' point of view.
Most of the magazine's permanent employees did not come from Bavaria. However, the draftsman Engl and especially Ludwig Thoma ensured that a Bavarian idiom that had not been used in the written language until then became typical for the magazine. In addition, many jokes lived from the tensions between Prussia and Bavaria, whereby the Saxons regularly had to be stupid.
Success and Adaptation (1906-1918)
The paper was hit by several blows of fate: First, in 1906, Bruno Paul left Munich and when he took up his professorship in Berlin, except for a few papers published under the pseudonym Ernst Kellermann, he no longer drew any political satires. The draftsman Josef Benedikt Engl died in 1907; audience favorites Rudolf Wilke and Ferdinand von Rezniček followed. Albert Langen also died unexpectedly in 1909. After his death, Heine put the signature on the title page: “Founded by Albert Langen and Thomas Theodor Heine”, a line that was only rarely printed until Heine's flight into exile.
Economically prospered, however, the paper, now finally established as the journalistic power of the opposition, which grew to up to 16 pages with an insert for the advertisements . The literary program of the Langen Verlag ensured high quality text contributions. In addition to the draftsmen who regularly work for the sheet, it was also attractive for other artists to publish their sheets here. In the early years one can find contributions by Lovis Corinth and Max Slevogt , Ernst Barlach and Käthe Kollwitz . Heinrich Zille was repeatedly represented in the Simplicissimus between 1903 and 1935 . Most of the time, the editorial team added an interpretive text to the neutral drawings. The early deceased Ferdinand von Rezniček found successors in the elegant to frivolous genre in Marcello Dudovich and Ernst Heilemann .
Although the Simplicissimus had sharply criticized the increasing militarization of foreign policy and the negligence of diplomacy in 1914, the editorial team gave up its critical stance with the beginning of the First World War in the context of the general enthusiasm for war. Hermann Sinsheimer , editor-in-chief 1924–1929, reports in his memoirs - probably second-hand, as he was not yet a member of the editorial team in 1914:
“Ludwig Thoma, the editor-in-chief and more than that, came to this meeting rather broken and made the unambiguous proposal to let the sheet go down. Like the vast majority of Germans, he was convinced that Germany had been attacked and that it was a defensive war and a war for its existence that it had to wage and that no German could escape. Thus there is no longer any space or task for a satirical paper of the opposition to the ruling powers in Germany. The others listened to him with a mute and heavy heart, for they, who had previously been spoiled by large incomes and who had become one-sided specialists in oppositional satire over time, saw their existence destroyed. A leaden silence followed Thomas's words. Then Th. Th. Heine began to speak. He said, for example, that it was completely wrong to believe that the time was now over; on the contrary, a great time has come for all of them only now, if they are based on the facts, namely the war, and the Supported war politics. Right now, Germany needs an internationally respected paper like the Simpl to support warfare at home and abroad. He added that the readers had long since grown tired of the constant jokes of lieutenants and junkers, which was evidenced by the slipping tendency of the edition: it would undoubtedly rise again soon and the Simplicissimus would be sure of a new great popularity if he professed to unconditional patriotism . A stone fell from the hearts of the others. They all felt themselves to be good patriots and above all they felt secure in their existence again and without exception agreed with their otherwise not exactly beloved spokesman Heine. Thoma also submitted, and Simpl was saved. Indeed, it gained new great popularity in the war. "
The draft Heine for the "war volumes" of the Simplicissimus , which from the 20th year, 1915, showed the red bulldog on the lid as the eager companion of a heavy rider with a drawn saber, is characteristic.
Even if cautious hope for peace was occasionally shown in the spring of 1915, the images and contributions that glorified war and later called for perseverance were the first fall of Simplicissimus .
“Opposition turned into opportunism, but without damaging the graphic quality of most of the drawings. If up until then one had been the voice of the opposition, any form of opposition was now denigrated. In a modification of the bon mot , which is usually attributed to Rudyard Kipling - 'In war, the truth dies first.' - one could say: In war, the first thing to die is satire. With this - and in the new topics of the magazine - the era of 1914/18 in Simplicissimus offers a terrifying model for the magazine's second fall, the time after the Nazis came to power in 1933. "
One can only credit the illustrators with the fact that they largely abstained from agitation and mutual insinuation of atrocities of war, if one disregards racist depictions of the non-European and Russian troops.
The Years of the Republic (1919–1933)
With the proclamation of the Weimar Republic , the Simplicissimus had arrived in a democratic form of government for which it had always stood up. But with the abdication of the monarchs and their clientele, important targets of criticism were also lost. From the beginning, the turmoil of the formation of a new system of government and the partisan tactics were mercilessly exposed. Simplicissimus was not free from the social currents of the time, which was reflected, for example, in nationalist jokes about foreign policy issues, concerning the Allied victors and especially the French " hereditary enemy ". The peace and subsequent disarmament negotiations were also felt by the cartoonists as a humiliation and an entire booklet was even put under the propaganda theme of the war guilt lie.
In particular, the younger draftsmen Arnold and Schilling, who became partners in the GmbH in 1917 and 1918, brought a new, factual style of drawing to the sheet from 1919 onwards. City issues and topics of modern life gave the magazine a new flair. Arnold's Berlin pictures , which were also published as an album, are an example of this. New artists joined them, such as Rudolf Großmann , George Grosz , Jeanne Mammen and Otto Nückel and Karl Rössing , and from the 1930s also Rudolf Kriesch .
Under the editors-in-chief Hermann Sinsheimer and from 1929 Franz Schoenberner published leading authors of their time such as Erich Kästner , Mascha Kaléko , Theodor Lessing , Mynona , Hans Natonek and Joachim Ringelnatz . At the beginning of the 1930s, the criticism of the left and right-wing radical forces became increasingly sharp. The Simplicissimus warned of the republic's gravedigger. Some of the hottest Hitler caricatures appeared.
During National Socialism (1933–1944)
During the days of the “ seizure of power ”, on the night of March 10th to 11th, the SA devastated the editorial offices. After a massive threat, the partners of the GmbH signed a declaration on March 23, 1933, stating that the paper should be “administered and managed in a strictly national spirit” in the future. "Any derogation, ridicule or caricature of the factors connected with the current movement will be strictly avoided in the future." And the readers were told on April 1st that "the withdrawal of the temporary ban on our paper took place after we have given the government a binding commitment to act loyally. Hand in hand with that went a change in the editorial team. ” Franz Schoenberner fled Germany immediately and Heine, the illustrator most hated by the National Socialists - not least because of his Jewish origins - went into hiding and finally emigrated. Those who remained succeeded in saving the magazine and with it their livelihood at the same time, at the price of giving up their previous attitudes. Erich Schilling, for example, one of the ardent despisers of the Nazis in his drawings before 1933, has now become their propagandist.
This unresisted co-ordination caused great outrage among the emigrants. Klaus Mann put this most sharply: “Of all the adversities printed in the Third Reich, the 'satirical' weekly 'Simplicissimus' is the most adverse to me. (...) the old names can still be found there - Karl Arnold, Olaf Gulbransson, Eduard Thöny, Erich Schilling, Wilhelm Schulz, they are all still there. Only Th. Th. Heine is missing, (...) from Prague and Brno he has to watch with grief and ashamed the disgraceful misconceptions his former friends and colleagues are affording. ”In 1935/1936 the Simplicissimus was sold to the National Socialist Eher Verlag .
The following ten years were characterized by good conversation in a conversational tone - the idyllic lyric seems grotesque in view of the circumstances - but the Simplicissimus also remained an island for neutral artists: Josef Hegenbarth and Alfred Kubin published drawings here, Wolfgang Borchert, until the last years published his first texts. The numerous erotic drawings by Kurt Heiligenstaedt based on American pin-ups are also fascinating . The drawings by Gulbransson's pupil Franziska Bilek and the humorous poems by Eugen Roth were popular . Something like subversion only flashed up occasionally , but so far no sources have been discovered regarding the mechanisms of censorship.
On September 13, 1944, the last issue appeared with a strange full-page drawing by Nückel , "Ghost Battle", on which a ruin with the skeletons of warriors can be seen without comment. One is waving a pirate flag - a final greeting from the old oppositional Simpl spirit, who was able to pass the censorship unnoticed in the turmoil of the “ total war ”. Gulbransson, Schilling, Schulz and Thöny, on the other hand, again provided pure propaganda drawings. Simplicissimus was then discontinued, along with most of the press products.
- Hans Erich Blaich - Dr. Owlglass, Ratatöskr
- Korfiz Holm - Hase (often wrongly Ludwig Thoma is assumed to be behind the pseudonym Hase )
- Willy Ganske - Pan
- Peter Scher - Emanuel
- Edgar Steiger - Cri-Cri, Tarub, Wespe, Zwickauer
- Ludwig Thoma - Peter Schlamminger, Peter Schlemihl
- Kurt Tucholsky - Theobald Tiger
- Frank Wedekind - Hieronymus Jobs
The Duchess Anna Amalia Library in Weimar, in cooperation with RWTH Aachen University and the German Literature Archive Marbach, digitized all volumes from 1896 to 1944 and indexed them with keywords. All images and texts can be easily accessed online and searched for people, institutions, events and the like. In addition to the conservative Kladderadatsch and the youth, the most important illustrated periodicals in Germany around 1900 are completely available online.
- Facsimile Cross section through the simplicissimus. Published by Christian Schütze. Introduction by Golo Mann . Bern et al. (Kidding) 1963.
- Simplicissimus. Images from the "Simplicissimus" . Edited by Herbert Reinoss using a selection by Rolf Hochhuth . Hanover 1970
- Stanley Appelbaum: Simplicissimus. 180 Satirical Drawings from the Famous German Weekly . New York 1975
- Simplicissimus . A selection of the years 1896–1914 by Richard Christ . Rütten & Loening (GDR) 1978
- Children in the simplicissimus . Selection and texts by Dagmar von Kessel-Thöny. Atzbach 1978
Simplicus - magazine in exile (1934–1935)
The attempt at an emigration edition of Simplicissimus , which appeared in Prague from January 25, 1934 to September 13, 1934 under the title Simplicus and then until July 4, 1935 under the title Simpl , remained largely unknown . The Simplicus appeared in two editions: a German and a Czech, the content of which was not identical, but was geared towards the interests of the respective readership. Both editions appeared weekly.
The editor-in-chief was the former Ullstein journalist Heinz Pol , but František Bidlo , a well-known Czech cartoonist, was responsible for the imprint . Other collaborators were the Czech caricaturists Fritta (alias Fritz Taussig), Adolf Hoffmeister , Jappy (d. I. Vilém Reichman), Antonin Pelc, Josef Čapek , the emigrated German cartoonists Erich Godal , Ludwig Wronkow , Pjotr (di Günther Wagner), E. Katzer, A. Stadler and Nikl (ie Johannes Wüsten ), literary contributions came from Heinrich Mann , Alfred Kerr , Walter Mehring , Erika Mann , Stefan Heym , Balder Olden and Theodor Plivier .
The publisher's aim was to publish the magazine in the Sudeten region, Austria, Switzerland and the Saarland as well. The circulation is said to have been between 10,000 and 20,000 copies. But with increasing fascist ideologization in these areas, more and more issues were confiscated. Accordingly, many booksellers no longer dared to continue selling the newspaper. This development was the main reason for the discontinuation on July 4, 1935.
During Langen's lifetime, before the First World War, there were some numbers of a so-called édition française , in which the captions were pasted over with French translations. For this, however, Langen had to put up with fierce accusations: exported criticism of the conditions in the Reich only played into the hands of the “ hereditary enemy ”.
From 1946 to 1950 Der Simpl was published in Munich , which looked like the Simplicissimus , but was not allowed to call itself that due to unresolved copyright problems.
From 1954 to 1967 the Simplicissimus appeared in Munich under the publisher and editor Olaf Iversen , up to No. 37/1959 with the addition "Edited by Olaf Iversen". From No. 39/1959, after Iversen's death, the addition was "Newly founded by Olaf Iversen". During this period there are, inter alia, Lithographs by A. Paul Weber . As a draftsman worked inter alia. Horst Haitzinger , Walter Hanel , Wigg Siegl , Manfred Oesterle and Josef Sauer for the paper.
In 1981/82 a new start was attempted and in 1997 there was another attempt at a new edition of the magazine, a co-production between Berlin and Vienna. In the middle of 1998 she was also discontinued due to financial problems.
The Simplicissimus as namesake
The magazine also gave its name to the artist pub Simplicissimus in Munich, Maxvorstadt, which was founded in 1903 . Parts of the Simplicissimus circle were regular guests there. In the Munich district of Haidhausen there is a restaurant called Simplicissimus . And in the university town of Trier there is also a student bar called Simplicissimus , which has the red bulldog as its logo. In Vienna , the Simpl cabaret, with the bulldog as a landmark, still exists today with great success. A YouTube channel called Simplicissimus was also named after the satirical magazine and has been an offer from funk since October 6, 2019 .
- Korfiz Holm: colored reflection. Memories of Ludwig Thoma, Max Dauthendey and Albert Langen . Munich 1940.
- Hermann Sinsheimer: Lived in paradise. Memories and encounters . Munich 1953.
- Hasso Zimdars: The magazine 'Simplicissimus'. Your cartoons . Bonn (Diss.) 1972.
- Ludwig Hollweck : caricatures. From the flying leaves to the simplicissimus . Munich 1973.
- Simplicissimus. A satirical magazine Munich 1896–1944 , catalog of the exhibition in the Haus der Kunst in Munich, November 19, 1977 to January 15, 1978. Introduction by Golo Mann
- Helga Abret, Aldo Keel: The libel affair of the "Simplicissimus" publisher Albert Langen . Frankfurt am Main 1985.
- Herberg Reinoss (ed.): Pictures from the Simplicissimus . Hanover, 3rd edition 1987.
- Helga Abret, Aldo Keel: The copy book Korfiz Holms (1899-1903). A contribution to the history of Albert Langen Verlag and “Simplicissimus” . Bern, Frankfurt / M., New York, Paris: Peter Lang 1989
- Gertrud Rösch (Ed.): Simplicissimus. The glamor and misery of satire in Germany . Series of publications by the University of Regensburg, Volume 23.Regensburg 1996.
- Christian Lenz (Ed.): 100 Years of Simplicissimus. Drawings from a private collection in southern Germany . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Olaf Gulbransson Museum, Tegernsee from March 24 to May 19, 1996.
- Hermann Heinzelmann (Ed.): Simplicissimus. 1896-1944. Original graphics and prints from the years 1896–1933 . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Olaf Gulbransson Museum, Tegernsee from August 4 to October 27, 1996.
- Ursula E. Koch , Markus Behmer (ed.): Coarse truths - true coarseness - fine lines - sharp stitches. Jugend, Simplicissimus and other caricature journals of the Munich “Belle Epoque” as mirrors and distorting mirrors of the small as well as the big world . Catalog for the exhibition of the same name in the Institute for Communication Studies at the Ludwig Maximilians University. Munich 1996.
- Eduard Thöny and the Simplicissimus. Works from the Siegfried Unterberger Collection . Exhibition catalog Olaf Gulbransson Museum . Tegernsee 2013
- All numbers 1896–1944 can be found here as PDFs and as a searchable database.
- Historical lexicon of Bavaria: Simplicissimus
- dhm.de: Magazines for literature and art
- dradio.de: Holding up a mirror to society
- The poems of the Simplicissimus
- complete list of all journal articles from 1896–1944 (including initials and pseudonyms) can be found in the "Simplicissimus online" project.
- Jakob Wassermann: Albert Langen and his circle. In: Simplicissimus XXXI.1 (April 1, 1926), p. 2 (anniversary issue »Germany 1926« with caricatures of many employees) remembers that Otto Erich Hartleben would have found the title.
- Ludwig Hollweck: caricatures. From the flying leaves to the simplicissimus . Munich 1973, p. 164, quoted the Börsenblatt of March 26, 1896: “Simplicissimus. Illustrated weekly. Editor Albert Langen. Today in Leipzig for shipment no. 1 (from April 4th) and will be delivered free of charge to all customers as a trial number. [...] The important edition of 300,000 copies has been ordered in advance with the exception of a few thousand. "
- Korfiz Holm: Colored reflection. Memories of Ludwig Thoma, Max Dauthendey and Albert Langen . Munich 1940, p. 54.
- Andreas Strobl : The "most artistic joke sheet in Europe". In: Eduard Thöny and the Simplicissimus. Works from the Siegfried Unterberger Collection . Exhibition catalog Olaf Gulbransson Museum. Tegernsee 2013., p. 10.
- Palestine Number , PDF accessed July 11, 2013.
- For these events see: Helga Abret, Aldo Keel: The majesty libel affair of the “Simplicissimus” publisher Albert Langen . Frankfurt am Main 1985
- Thomas Theodor Heine, “Vom Kriegsschauplatz in Wien” , PDF accessed July 11, 2013.
- Krofiz Holm in his reports to Albert Langen, see: Helga Abret, Aldo Keel: Das Kopierbuch Korfiz Holms (1899-1903). A contribution to the history of Albert Langen Verlag and “Simplicissimus” . Bern, Frankfurt / M., New York, Paris: Peter Lang 1989, pp. 58, 63 f., 74-78.
- Hermann Sinsheimer: Lived in Paradise. Memories and encounters . Munich 1953, p. 229 f.
- Thomas Theodor Heine, “Der Frühling von 1915” (PDF; 6.6 MB), accessed July 11, 2013.
- Andreas Strobl. Between patriotism and propaganda - The Simplicissimus and the First World War. Summary of the lecture. In: And so on ... Announcements from Olaf Gulbransson Gesellschaft e. V. Tegernsee . Issue 9, December 2008, p. 25.
- Simplicissimus XXIX.13 (June 23, 1924) (PDF; 6.5 MB), accessed July 11, 2013.
- Thomas Theodor Heine, "Resultless House Search at Hitler" , accessed July 11, 2013.
- Monika Peschken-Eilsberger: Thomas Theodor Heine. The Lord of the Red Bulldog. Biography . Leipzig: EA Seemann 2000, p. 113.
- Klaus Mann: The Simplicissimus. In: Das Neue Tagebuch, 5th year 1937, p. 214.
- Monika Peschken-Eilsberger: Thomas Theodor Heine: The Lord of the Red Bulldog. Biography . P. 126. Catalog Part II in Thomas Theodor Heine - on the occasion of the exhibitions in the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus and Kunsthaus, Munich, from September 9th to November 26th, 2000 and in the Bröhan-Museum, Country House Museum for Art Nouveau, Art Deco and Functionalism Berlin , from December 16, 2000 to March 18, 2001. Catalog ed. by Helmut Friedel. Seemann, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 978-3-363-00744-2 .
- "Ghost Battle"
- see Simplizissimus Online
- Simplicissimus - YouTube. Retrieved October 16, 2020 .