Golo man

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Golo Mann at a conference of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation , 1978

Golo Mann (born March 27, 1909 in Munich , † April 7, 1994 in Leverkusen ; actually Angelus Gottfried Thomas Mann ; legal resident in Kilchberg ) was a German-Swiss historian , publicist and writer .

The son of Nobel laureate Thomas Mann emigrated to the seizure of power of the Nazis through France and Switzerland to the United States . In the mid-1950s he returned to Germany and later moved to Switzerland. After working as a professor of political science in Stuttgart, he worked as a freelance journalist and influential commentator on current affairs . He socialized with politicians like Konrad Adenauer and Willy Brandt , for whom he initially acted as a consultant and whose Ostpolitik he supported. He was negative about the student movement . Before the federal election in 1980 he was committed to Franz Josef Strauss , the CDU / CSU's candidate for chancellor .

Golo Mann's best-known writings include the German history of the 19th and 20th centuries , published in 1958, with a print run of millions, translated into nine languages ​​and considered a standard work, as well as his Wallenstein biography published in 1971 . As a conservative historian, he placed people at the center of his narrative histories and thus drew criticism from some professional colleagues who preferred socio-political theories.


childhood and education

Golo Mann as a baby with his parents in front of the summer house in Bad Tölz , his siblings Klaus and Erika sitting on the stairs, 1909

A man who could not pronounce his abbreviated first name “Gelus” as a toddler and called himself Golo was born in Munich as the third child of the writer Thomas Mann and his wife Katia . This child's name accompanied him all his life. He had two older siblings, Erika and Klaus , and three younger ones, Monika , Elisabeth and Michael .

Reconstruction of the parents' house at Poschingerstraße 1 in the Herzogpark in Munich, which was badly damaged in the Second World War and later demolished. The villa was recreated on the Bavaria film site for the shooting of the documentary about the Mann family , Die Manns - Ein Jahrhundertromoman .

The mother described Golo in her diary as sensitive, nervous and scared. The father barely concealed his disappointment and rarely mentioned the son in his diary. Golo Mann described him in retrospect: "He could still radiate kindness, but mostly silence, severity, nervousness or anger". Among the siblings he felt particularly close to his brother Klaus, while all his life he had difficulties with the radical views of his sister Erika. Klaus Mann described the brother as a child in his first biography Kind of this time as follows: “Golo [but] represented the grotesque element among us. Quirky seriousness, he could be both malicious and submissive. He was obedient and secretly aggressive; dignified like a nome king. I got on very well with him, while he quarreled a lot with Erika. "

From September 1918 Golo attended the humanistic Wilhelmsgymnasium in Munich with mediocre grades, whereby his strengths lay in history, Latin and especially in the recitation of poems, the latter a lifelong passion. Golo was a member of the "Laienbunds Deutscher Mimiker" founded in 1919 by the siblings Klaus and Erika and Ricki Hallgarten . In addition to Monika Mann, other players were friends from the neighborhood. The group existed for three years and staged eight performances in private homes.

In the spring of 1921 he joined a boy scout association with which he undertook several days of exercises and extended trips to Franconia and Tyrol during the summer holidays , offering him a change from home and school . He enjoyed community with his peers, but there were irritating experiences: He rejected a homoerotic approach and suffered from paramilitary discipline , which was perceived as compulsory .

Salem Castle (south view)

New horizons opened up in 1923 when Golo Mann switched to the Schloss Salem boarding school , which he saw as liberation and lifelong enrichment. The head of the school, Kurt Hahn , became a formative personality in his youth. An intellectual elite was to be trained in Salem, which not only encouraged individual talents, but also promoted responsible behavior for the community. Therefore, there was free interaction with the teachers and a high degree of self-administration in the student community. Service to democratic society should determine the direction of its future action. In the technical area, Mann intensified his occupation with the Latin language taught by Hahn, which enabled him in old age to write about Tacitus and to translate Horace . In the Lake Constance region he also developed an equally long-lasting passion for mountain hiking, although a knee injury sustained in a high jump would plague him for the rest of his life. In retrospect, however, in his biography Memories and Thoughts , in addition to the description of Hahn's fascinating personality, his moral rigidity , which completely excluded sexuality , was discussed. The reason was Hahn's homoerotic tendency, which he [but] disapproved of and suppressed. Golo Mann himself had discovered his own homoerotic character in Salem.

At the beginning of 1925 Golo Mann suffered from a severe depression , which accompanied him episodically for life: "At that time the doubt came or, more correctly, broke in with unheard-of violence [...] I was seized by the blackest melancholy."

In March 1927 he passed as an “external” like his Salem classmates the Abitur at a grammar school in Constance with the overall rating “pretty good”. The results in German and history were graded “very good”. In April 1927 Golo Mann played the role of Wallenstein in Schiller's Wallenstein's Death at a theater performance in Salem  - a topic that would keep him busy from then on.

Study and job

After graduating, Golo Mann began studying law in Munich in the summer semester of 1927, apparently listlessly , which he only briefly mentioned in his memoirs . The university appeared to him as “cold, anonymous machinery”, and he felt a stranger among the other students. In the same year he continued his studies in Berlin in the subjects of history and philosophy . His uncle Heinrich Mann , Thomas Mann's publisher Samuel Fischer and family friend Bruno Walter lived there . However, he avoided the hectic culture and entertainment venues of the big city. He met the poet and historian Ricarda Huch , who would influence his later work. He used the summer of 1928 for a language stay in Paris and six weeks of “real” work in the lignite mine of Schipkau in Niederlausitz , which came to an abrupt end due to new knee problems.

Karl Jaspers

Finally, in the spring of 1929, Golo Mann moved to the University of Heidelberg , where he followed the advice of his academic teacher Karl Jaspers to do a doctorate in philosophy and study history and Latin at the same time to become a teacher. From autumn 1930 he was also politically involved in the socialist student group. In April 1932 Mann submitted his dissertation with the title The Individual and the I in Hegel's Philosophy , which Jaspers gave it the grade cum laude . He was very disappointed with this rating. Golo Mann's dissertation has only survived in the heavily revised and abridged version, which Hegel published in 1935 under the title On the concept of the individual, the self and the individual .

In January 1933, Adolf Hitler came to power . For Thomas Mann, who had made no secret of his aversion to National Socialism , and especially for Golo Mann's older siblings Klaus and Erika Mann, this was the time to emigrate. While the parents were on a lecture tour abroad from which they did not return, Golo Mann looked after the Munich house in April 1933, organized the departure of the three younger siblings and put the parents' bank balance in a safe place. Thomas Mann asked his son to stow bundles of notes and oilcloth notebooks - they contained Thomas Mann's diaries from the twenties - in a suitcase and send them to Lugano (CH) by rail with the urgent request: "I count on your discretion that you you won't read anything. ”Hans Holzner, the family's chauffeur and Hitler's secret follower, offered to hand over the suitcase. Instead, he handed the bag over to the Bavarian Political Police . When it still had not arrived three weeks later, the seizure was obvious, and Thomas Mann implored the lawyer Valentin Heins to do everything possible to initiate the broadcast. Golo Mann describes the panic his father got into: “You will publish it in the Völkischer Beobachter . They ruin everything, they'll ruin me too. My life can no longer be in order. ”Heins obtained the publication a few weeks later in negotiations.

Memorial plaque for the German and Austrian refugees in Sanary, including the Mann family

The work for the state examination in history with a Wallenstein topic had already been submitted; the examination did not come because Golo Mann left Germany on May 31, 1933 in the direction of Bandol , where his parents stayed for a short time. For the summer months, after staying in a boarding house, he stayed as a subtenant in the villa of the US writer William Seabrook near Sanary-sur-Mer , and lived for another six weeks in his parents' new apartment in Küsnacht near Zurich . Finally he returned to France. In November he began two “intensive, instructive years” as a lecturer for German at the École normal supérieure in Saint-Cloud near Paris . At the same time he worked on the exile magazine The Collection of his brother Klaus.

Thomas Mann, photo by Carl van Vechten , 1937
Erika and Golo Mann, photo by Annemarie Schwarzenbach , 1936

In November 1935, Golo Mann took on a six-month editorial post for German language and literature at the University of Rennes . Frequent stays in Switzerland are an indication that the difficult relationship with the father had relaxed, who had increasingly come to appreciate the son's political expertise. The fact that the son had gained in esteem in the eyes of the father was only fully realized when, in old age, he was involved in the publication of his diaries and found himself presented in a friendly manner.

The collective revocation of German citizenship in 1936 caused additional problems in the literary family. Only the Czech textile manufacturer Rudolf Fleischmann, an admirer of Thomas Mann, made it possible for Thomas Mann and his family - with the exception of Erika Mann, who had become a British citizen through his marriage to W. H. Auden - to naturalize in his Bohemian community Proseč and thus to be awarded the Czech Citizenship. In Prague , Golo Mann learned Czech at the University and published articles on the New World Stage . In his diary he described encounters with Max Brod and Ernst Bloch ; an understanding with the latter was impossible, since Golo Mann had distanced himself from Marxism in view of the Stalinist show trials that took place from 1935 onwards . In the spring of 1937 he left Prague and moved to Zurich.

Emigration - As a soldier in the US Army

Measure and Value , edition from November / December 1938. Golo Mann is already mentioned there under “Criticism”.

In early 1939, Golo emigrated to Princeton , New Jersey , where his father had taken on a visiting professorship. After some hesitation, he returned despite the looming war broke out in August to Zurich in order to numerous contributions as an employee at the request of his father in November of that year, the chief editor of the exile magazine extent and value , edited by Thomas Mann and Konrad Falke , take to can. The bimonthly magazine for free German culture appeared from autumn 1937 to September 1940 in a total of 17 issues.

Les Milles warehouse

Adolf Hitler's campaign against France in May 1940 resulted in Golo Mann's decision to join a Czech unit in France as a volunteer and fight against the German invaders. But immediately after crossing the border he was arrested near Annecy and transferred to the Les Milles internment camp near Aix-en-Provence at the beginning of June . He was only released at the beginning of August following intervention by the US aid organization Emergency Rescue Committee , which Thomas Mann had contacted. It was possible to put Golo and his uncle Heinrich Mann as well as Franz Werfel on a list of celebrities whose requests for emigration were given preferential treatment. On September 13th, he and his uncle Heinrich, his wife Nelly and Alma Mahler-Werfel and Franz Werfel undertook the daring escape from Perpignan across the Pyrenees to Spain , which is described in Heinrich Mann's memoir An Age Is Visited . After crossing from Lisbon , they and many other exiles, including Alfred Polgar , arrived in New York on October 13 on board the Greek steamer Nea Hellas . Thomas and Katia Mann had come to Hoboken Harbor to greet the family members.

Klaus Mann as a US sergeant in Italy, 1944

In the New World , Golo Mann first lived in his parents' house in Princeton, then in unloved New York, before moving with his parents to the Pacific Palisades in California in July 1941 . From the fall of 1942 there was a ten-month teaching position in history at Olivet College in Olivet , Michigan .

Emulating his brother Klaus, Golo Mann joined the US Army in 1943 . From August he underwent basic training at Fort McClellan, Alabama ; In December, as a new US citizen, he took up an intelligence position in the Office of Strategic Services in Washington, DC. It was his job to collect and translate militarily valuable information.

In April 1944 Golo Mann was posted to London , where he gave radio commentary for the German section of the American Broadcasting Station, which had just been founded. In the last months of the war he switched to the same function for the secret military broadcaster 1212 - broadcast by Radio Luxemburg  - before he was transferred to Bad Nauheim in the late autumn of 1945 to help set up Radio Frankfurt . During his travels through Germany , he was appalled by the extent of the destruction that the Allied bombing in particular had caused.

In disgust at "the deeds of this victorious beast" he left the Army in January 1946 at his own request. For the time being, however, he retained his civilian work as a control officer, including taking part in the Nuremberg war crimes trial . At the end of 1946 he returned to the USA.

Post-war years in the USA and return to Germany

Book author and journalist - professor in Claremont and Münster

In 1946 Golo Mann's first major work appeared, the English-language biography Secretary of Europe. The Life of Friedrich Gentz , which was also published in German in 1947 under the title Friedrich v. Gentz . Story of a European statesman was published.

From 1947 to 1958, Golo Mann was an assistant professor of history at Claremont Men's College (now Claremont McKenna College ) in Claremont , California . In retrospect, he counted this teaching activity "among the happiest of my life", on the other hand he complained: "My students are also so mocking, unfriendly and dumb as they have never been before".

From 1952 Golo Mann wrote leading articles for the Zürcher Weltwoche , whose features editor and co-founder was Manuel Gasser , a self-confessed homosexual, a close friend he had known since 1933 and who was also friends with Mann's siblings Erika and Klaus. He saw Gasser as a happier version of himself and admired his courage and independence. Gasser's death in 1979 meant a great loss for him.

In 1954 Golo Mann published his second book, From the Spirit of America . To write this work, he interrupted his stay in California and stayed in Switzerland and Austria . On August 12 of the following year, his father Thomas Mann died in Kilchberg. Golo Mann later wrote in a confidential letter to Marcel Reich-Ranicki : “Inevitably I had to wish him dead; but was completely broken during his death and afterwards; it took months for me to recover somewhat from this loss. We are such nests full of contradictions ... ”In his autobiography, Reich-Ranicki addressed the suffering of Golo Mann and his brothers Klaus and Michael from paternal dominance.

In the years 1956 and 1957 he spent many weeks in the Gasthaus Zur Krone in Altnau on Lake Constance to read his German history of the XIX. and XX. Century . It was published in July 1958 as a two-volume work and immediately became a bestseller. In that year Mann finally returned to Europe and taught in the winter semesters 1958/59 and 1959/60 as a visiting professor at the Westphalian Wilhelms University in Münster . On the occasion of Friedrich Schiller's 200th birthday, he gave the lecture Schiller as a historian in Marbach in 1959 , with whom he toured German cities due to great demand.

Full professor in Stuttgart

In the 1960/61 winter semester, Golo Mann moved to become a full professor of political science at the Technical University of Stuttgart, which later became the University of Stuttgart . He chose Stuttgart primarily because of its proximity to Switzerland. No courses in political science or history were offered at the technical university, so that Mann's courses were attended by students of engineering and natural sciences as part of a general study program . This reduced the professor's duties of supervision, who anyway only had to offer one lecture and one exercise per semester. The downside was that Mann suffered from a lack of student interest. He put both of his lectures in one day, so that he gained a lot of freedom for other activities.

The success of his German history meant that man was in demand as a public intellectual. He gave lectures, took part in radio and television broadcasts and published in the daily press. His subjects ranged from his father Thomas Mann to historical-philosophical and historical subjects to current issues of daily politics, whereby he distinguished himself as a proponent of a New Ostpolitik . Since 1960, the much-noticed new version of the Propylaea World History has been published , which Mann had been concerned with since 1956 and which he edited together with Alfred Heuss and August Nitschke , his colleague from Stuttgart; Golo Mann himself contributed introductions and his own contributions in kind.

The work overload, the unsatisfactory situation at the university and fears of public appearances led to a severe psychological crisis for Mann in the Stuttgart years, which he tried to combat with drugs and alcohol. The collapse occurred on November 8, 1962, and Mann spent five weeks in the Tübingen University Clinic. In January 1963 he returned to his chair, still fulfilled his obligations in the summer semester of that year, but then took unpaid leave. In 1965 he officially gave up his professorship.

In 1961, Mann had a holiday home built in Berzona in Ticino , where he often retired to write and hike; he was a neighbor of Alfred Andersch and Max Frisch there .

Review of Hannah Arendt's Eichmann in Jerusalem

Like Golo Mann, Hannah Arendt had been a student of Karl Jaspers . Your 1963 report in the New Yorker , Eichmann in Jerusalem , on the Eichmann trial that took place in Jerusalem in 1961 sparked controversy on the subject of National Socialism. Golo Mann was one of the first European critics; his review appeared immediately before the German version was published in the Neue Rundschau that same year. In Arendt's view, Eichmann was not a monster and fanatical hater of Jews, but an ordinary person with organizational talent who, ambitious and obedient, at the same time clumsy and stupid, gave the impression of a "buffoon" when interrogated. Her assessment of Eichmann's personality, the thesis that the Jews were complicit in their own downfall, and their assessment of the resistance against Hitler, sparked outrage among Golo Mann. The controversy led to the final estrangement from his doctoral supervisor Jaspers, who was friends with Arendt.

The Adorno / Horkheimer controversy

Max Horkheimer (left), Theodor W. Adorno (right) and Jürgen Habermas (in the background right) in April 1964 in Heidelberg

In 1963, Golo Mann's planned appointment as a full professor at the social science faculty of the University of Frankfurt am Main was prevented by his colleagues Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno . The professor position was instead given to the Marxism specialist Iring Fetscher . In a television interview conducted on the occasion of his 80th birthday in 1989, Golo Mann described both of them as "rags". Many German sociologists, philosophers and historians protested publicly. Golo Mann justified his attack in the Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung by saying that Adorno and Horkheimer had blackened him as a "secret anti-Semite" to the then Hessian minister of education after he had applied for the chair at the University of Frankfurt am Main. The historian Joachim Fest gave a description of the events in his publication Encounters , in which, in addition to the already mentioned suspicion of anti - Semitism, he mentions the reference in a letter from Horkheimer to Golo Mann's homosexuality and the resulting endangerment of academic youth. Herbert Heckmann took his "oath" to have seen the letter, but there is no evidence for the letter. Tilmann Lahme has extensively researched the controversy and its history, which began in exile in America, for his biography, published in 2009. In June 1960 Golo Mann had given a lecture “About anti-Semitism” in the Düsseldorf Rhein-Ruhr-Club , which appeared in abridged form on July 2nd in the Deutsche Zeitung and Wirtschaftszeitung . The sociologist Clemens Albrecht examined Golo Mann's lecture and highlighted the factual differences with regard to "coming to terms with the past" (Albrecht) between Mann and the neo-Marxist Frankfurt School , represented by Adorno and Horkheimer. The opposing views lie in the approach of a pessimistic anthropology as well as an enlightening systems theory.

From 1963 to 1979 Golo Mann was co-editor and author of the literary magazine Neue Rundschau , which is published by S. Fischer Verlag . The collaboration with the publishing house, in which most of his works were published, began in 1957 with his contribution on foreign policy in the Fischer Lexicon .

Freelance historian and journalist

Move to Switzerland

The house at Alte Landstrasse 39 (2009). At the entrance there is a plaque with the names and dates of residence of the Mann family

In 1965 Golo Mann resigned from teaching at the Technical University in Stuttgart to work as a freelance historian and publicist. He took up his permanent residence at his parents' house in Kilchberg at Alte Landstrasse 39 on Lake Zurich , where he lived until 1992 - initially together with his mother Katia, who became demented in old age, and his sister Erika Mann. In 1968 he took on Swiss citizenship. The character and political differences to Erika were considerable; they were alleviated by the numerous trips that the siblings took so that their parents' house served more as a base. Erika Mann died in August 1969 and appointed her brother as heir. The father was still present in Kilchberg. Golo Mann was only able to gradually give the house its own note. A close friend, Hanno Helbling , summed up: “You saw him suffering in Kilchberg, for which the locality was not to blame [...]. The shadows went around the house. [...] The father's study is still half and half recognizable, taken over by the son half and half [...] The salon, on the other hand, has been preserved in its bourgeoisie under the mother's watchful eye at the time ”.

In April 1966, in Cadenabbia , a holiday resort that Konrad Adenauer often visited, he met the former Federal Chancellor , whose course of integration with the West and reconciliation with Israel Golo Mann often praised. As early as 1963, however, he accused Adenauer of dishonesty on the question of reunification , as he had often spoken of her but never did anything for her. In relation to this he wrote: “His policy was not the most straightforward, most open, and most faithful either. He never betrayed the French or the Americans; rather the own people ”. From 1969 he supported Willy Brandt and his new east and détente policy . He also occasionally worked as a ghostwriter for Brandt. Like his doctoral supervisor Karl Jaspers and the Zeit editor-in-chief Marion Gräfin Dönhoff , with whom he was friendly, he advocated a dialogue between East and West in order to “build bridges” with the peoples of Eastern Europe.

In contrast, he perceived the emergence and growth of the student movement as a serious threat to democracy , in spite of certain agreements : “Stop playing Lenin !” He headed an article in Die Zeit in April 1968 . The article provoked protests from left-wing students when Mann was awarded the Büchner Prize in 1968. In the same year he was confronted with demonstrating students at a panel discussion he led during the Frankfurt Book Fair , which led to a decided rejection of the movement. In this sense, he gradually turned away from Willy Brandt in 1973, whom he accused of passivity towards a communist infiltration of his party.

The passion for the Bohemian generalissimo Wallenstein , which had lasted for 50 years, culminated in the publication of the monumental biography Wallenstein in 1971 . His life is told by Golo Mann , which is over 1000 pages long. Because of its pictorial language and its literary quality, it is considered a masterpiece of narrative historiography.

In 1974, as the successor to Günter Gaus, he directed his own television program entitled Golo Mann in Conversation with… . In 1976, in addition to Swiss citizenship, he took on German citizenship, which he had been deprived of under National Socialist rule.

German autumn 1977

After the assassination of the Federal Public Prosecutor Siegfried Buback in April 1977 and the banker Jürgen Ponto in July, terrorism reached its peak in Germany. Golo Mann followed the activities threatening the rule of law with great concern. He accused the government under Helmut Schmidt of playing down the terrorist threat. He caused a sensation with his emotional contribution "Quo usque tandem?" In the world of September 7, 1977, during the German Autumn period , in which he discussed the possibility of the execution of terrorists in connection with the kidnapping of Hanns Martin Schleyer on September 5 September 1977 addressed. He defined the fight against terrorists as war and called for new counter-terrorism measures. The title was borrowed from Cicero's speech against Catiline and his followers, who were executed. It read in the opening words: “Quo usque tandem abutere, Catilina, patientia nostra? (How much longer, Catiline, are you going to abuse our patience?) "Mann's article provoked various reactions. The critical statement met with approval from the “man on the street”, while many intellectuals in the circle of the extra-parliamentary opposition switch Golo Mann as a reactionary and militant right-wing conservative. Right-wing opposition members such as Franz Josef Strauss expressed their applause. After the successful campaign against the kidnapping of the Landshut in Mogadishu in October 1977, Golo Mann withdrew his criticism of the federal government and thanked them for their commitment to justice and law. In the years that followed, he consistently refused to explain terrorism on the basis of social and political backgrounds and vehemently attributed it to a "demonic of evil" inherent in humans. With the repeatedly repeated statement that Germany was in a state of emergency or war, he played into the hands of terrorists who wanted to be understood as a legitimate war party.

Golo Mann bought a house in Icking near Munich in 1979, not least in order to escape the authority and the old age stubbornness of the demented mother . However, he ended the “homeland attempt” two years later in order to return to Kilchberg after the death of his mother, who died in 1980.

Commitment to Franz Josef Strauss

Franz Josef Strauss, 1982

Because of the student unrest and terrorist attacks in Germany, Golo Mann, who broke up with Willy Brandt after the Eastern Treaty , began to approach Franz Josef Strauss , whom he believed to be the politician who could contain the left movement. As early as 1976, a lengthy conversation took place on the occasion of a commemoration of Adenauer's 100th birthday in Bad Honnef . From July 1979 he worked as an election worker for the candidate for chancellor, signing appeals, attending events, giving interviews and appearing on television. However , he had reservations about the then General Secretary of the CSU, Edmund Stoiber , based on his equating socialism and National Socialism in the CSU election campaign .

The criticism was not long in coming. Letters from friends and acquaintances arrived expressing their astonishment, such as Hans-Jochen Vogel , Harry Pross , Ernst Klett jr. and Arnulf Baring . Golo Mann sent the latter the reason that Strauss was an “underdog” for the German intelligentsia and remarked: “I've always been for the underdogs throughout my life; That's why I was passionate about the Social Democrats from 1929–1933, and that's why I was for them in the 1950s, when Adenauer treated them very ugly. "

For his appearance on a television program in January 1980, Mann received negative press coverage. The star wrote under the title “Mannomann”: “In an embarrassing television program, he even had himself presented as a Strauss key word and head nod”. The satirical magazine Titanic named him “Pipe of the Year” after being voted Pipe Smoker of the Year the year before .

Golo Mann noted in his diary under the date February 5, 1980: "The whole thing will get me like the" Daily Telegraph Affair "to Kaiser Wilhelm".

Death of friend Hans Beck - visit to the GDR

In 1986 a close friend of Golo Mann's, Hans Beck-Mann (* 1936) - a pharmacist at Bayer AG in Leverkusen  - whom he met in 1955 and who supported him financially, died of porphyria . Hans Beck-Mann had suffered from this severe metabolic disease for years. In 1964, reports Mann's biographer Tilmann Lahme, "Hans Beck told him he was going to be a father and wanted to marry his girlfriend ... A severe shock for Golo Mann". The historian adopted Hans Beck-Mann in 1972. This concluded an arrangement with which Golo Mann created a family.

In the meantime, the GDR lifted Golo Mann's year-long ostracism in early 1989. This existed because his German history was judged to be deliberately anti-Marxist. Books that he had sent to the GDR were regularly returned. On the occasion of the first publication of the Wallenstein in the GDR, he held first readings in April 1989 at the invitation of SED Minister of Culture Hans-Joachim Hoffmann . When the signs of the times were pointing to reunification only a year later , he reacted distantly: “No joy in German unity. You will make nonsense again, even though I don't experience it. "

Last years

The grave of Golo Mann in the cemetery in Kilchberg

In March 1990 Golo Mann suffered a heart attack after a lecture and was given a pacemaker . In the same year, doctors diagnosed him with prostate cancer . Due to his poor health, he moved to Leverkusen in 1992 , where he was looked after and cared for by his daughter-in-law Ingrid Beck-Mann (a trained nurse). A few days before his death, in an interview with the reporter Wolfgang Korruhn, he confessed to his homosexuality , which, however, he had never lived out significantly for fear of reprisals.

“I didn't fall in love often. I kept it to myself a lot, maybe that was a mistake. It was also forbidden, even in America, and you had to be careful. "

According to Tilmann Lahmes biography, Golo Mann lived out his homosexuality less openly than his brother Klaus, but had romantic relationships since his student days. While in exile in New York, he shared a flat with WH Auden , Benjamin Britten , Paul and Jane Bowles and the tenor Peter Pears for some time .

Golo Mann died shortly after his 85th birthday on April 7, 1994 in Leverkusen . The urn burial took place in the cemetery in Kilchberg, but at the request of the deceased it was done away from the family grave. His sister Elisabeth Mann Borgese and his nephews Frido and Antony Mann took part in the funeral service against the will of the deceased, who had not wanted blood relatives to be present at his funeral . Golo Mann had fallen out with his family due to a lawsuit over the inheritance of Monika Mann, who, like him, had been accepted into her house by Ingrid Beck-Mann.

Relationship with the father, personality

“Golo Mann was born as a 'son'; did not like it; could not help it. "

“Golo Mann was born a 'son'; do not want it; couldn't change it. "

- Golo Mann in exile at the beginning of writing his résumé

Golo Mann suffered from childhood, like his siblings with the exception of Elisabeth , from his father's authoritarian attitude and fame. Mann's biographer Urs Bitterli quotes from Golo Mann's diary, among other things, the text passages “What a miserable childhood we had” and from the introduction to Vom Geist Americaikas “In particular, I do not deny that I am only with certain aspects of my German childhood and youth today Can remember horror ”. The children were not allowed to enter the father's study; they were mostly silent at the table. Especially during the First World War , when Thomas Mann was busy writing his work, Considerations of an Apolitical , he was sensitive and irritated. In his diary from 1920 Thomas Mann noted: “Golo, more and more problematic, lying, unclean and hysterical, irritates K. [Katia] very much and was punished for lunch and dinner.” The relationship only relaxed in the 1930s when Thomas Mann came to appreciate his son's collaboration on the exile magazine Measure and Value . After his father's death in 1955, Golo Mann tried to step out of his shadow with the German history of the 19th and 20th centuries published in 1958 . He did this better than his brothers. However, on the occasion of Golo Mann's 80th birthday, Thomas Mann researcher Hans Wysling summed up: “[...] There he was Professor Dr. Golo Mann, and yet everyone who spoke of him called him Golo. He was a famous old man and yet he was still a son ”. This is how the historian himself saw it, he still quarreled in old age with his fate, which had made him Thomas Mann's son, as his private correspondence shows.

The editor of the work The Children of the Mann Family , Uwe Naumann , describes in his foreword that Golo Mann's character was perceived by his fellow men as gloomy and melancholy, his attitude as conservative and pessimistic. Unlike his siblings Erika and Klaus, he did not take an active part in the resistance against Hitler, although he suffered from current events like them. Golo Mann emphasized how he was shaped by the events of the 20th century: “Anyone who lived through the thirties and forties as a German can never fully trust their nation [...] No matter how hard they try may and should give, remain sad in the deepest soul until he dies. "

Hans Woller wrote a review of Tilmann Lahmes biography and quotes from it, among other things, Golo Mann's suffering from the overpowering, sterile-cold father and the masculine-domineering mother as well as the fears, phobias and depressions that periodically paralyzed him and which he temporarily caused by alcohol and Tried to contain tablets. In his book, Lahme also brought new insights into Golo Mann as a “homo politicus” and committed contemporary. As a student in Salem, he was already interested in politics and social issues and later, as an independent political head, tried to make his own judgment, especially in the confrontation with Hitler and National Socialism. As a young man he "drifted far to the left" and joined a radical left student group; however, the “democratic purification” that began after 1933 quickly led to a complete break with Marx. Golo Mann campaigned early on for a new Ostpolitik and a reconciliation with Poland and was not afraid to raise uncomfortable demands. But he was also guided by resentment and moods. Woller cites his benevolent judgments of Franco's Spain, his standing up for Hans Filbinger in the naval judge scandal and his heavily criticized commitment to Franz Josef Strauss in the election campaign as examples .


Sale of the Kilchberg house

Franz von Lenbach: Portrait of Katia Pringsheim , 1892

Golo Mann's sister Monika , who died in 1992, also passed away her last year in Leverkusen, in the house of Golo Mann's daughter-in-law, Ingrid Beck-Mann, the wife of his late lover and adopted son Hans Beck-Mann. Ingrid Beck-husband was heir to the estate of her adoptive father and received by a testamentary disposal in addition the assets of Monika Mann. In 1995 she sold the house in Kilchberg, which had been owned by the Mann family for 40 years, together with the inventory, without consulting the family members.

The inventory included, for example, three paintings by Franz von Lenbach : portraits of Katia Pringsheim , the future mother of Golo Mann, her mother Hedwig Pringsheim, who died in Zurich in 1942, and her grandmother, the women's rights activist Hedwig Dohm . The paintings were acquired in 2006 by the Thomas Mann Archive at ETH Zurich . Other objects from the house, such as the children's diary in which Katia Mann recorded the development of little Golo or various books from the family library, have not reappeared to this day.

Estate in the Swiss Literary Archives

Golo Mann's estate is kept in the Swiss Literary Archives in Bern . It includes manuscripts, letters, articles in books, newspapers, magazines, radio and television and lectures, as well as his private library and objects such as paintings, typewriters and suitcases.

Golo Mann Award

Since 2013, the Golo Mann Society, which was founded in Wiesbaden in 2010 and has its headquarters in Lübeck's Buddenbrookhaus , has been awarding the Golo Mann Prize for historiography, endowed with 15,000 euros, every two years . The Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach Foundation makes the award and award possible. The Golo Mann Society appoints a jury to make recommendations for the award of the prize. The award is given to “German-speaking authors who have made a substantial contribution to historical research and whose work also meets literary standards”. The first prize winner in autumn 2013 was Volker Reinhardt for his work Machiavelli or The Art of Power. A biography . (Munich 2012). The 2015 award winner was the historian Werner Dahlheim for his work Die Welt im Zeit Jesu and in 2017 he received the award from the contemporary historian Martin Sabrow for his biography Erich Honecker - Das Leben before .

Works (selection)

“For some time I hid from myself that I was basically destined to be a writer, even if it was just a historian, a little philosophizing; unconsciously probably because I didn't get into my brother Klaus' enclosure and because I wanted to wait for my father to die. "

- Golo Mann in his autobiography Memories and Thoughts

Golo Mann would have liked to become a writer like his father Thomas and his brother Klaus. However, he decided to choose topics mainly from the historical area, and as a "literary historian" became one of the most popular German writers in this genre; the total circulation of his books is over two million copies.

Under the pseudonym Michael Ney, he described his first depression and the unrequited love for Raimund's friend Jerome in the story About the life of student Raimund in autobiographical references . The story appeared in 1928 in the anthology of the youngest prose , for which Klaus Mann was co-editor. Tilmann Lahme rediscovered this narrative while working on his biography and published it in an additional volume entitled One must write about oneself in 2009. In addition to the historical novella Lavalette , the volume also contains radio addresses to the Germans for US radio (1944–1945), Mann's positions on German Ostpolitik and portraits of his family members, of John F. Kennedy , Willy Brandt and Charles de Gaulle .

His debut as a book author was the historical Secretary of Europe. The Life of Friedrich Gentz , which Mann had initially written in German and was then published in the USA in 1946, translated into English. A year later, the German edition by Emil Oprecht in Zurich was published by Europa Verlag under the title Friedrich v. Gentz. Story of a European statesman . Golo Mann leaves in his first book on the consultant Metternich outlines of a pessimistic philosophy of history recognize that a Evolution does not believe in the course of history. Human inadequacy repeats itself again and again in politics, the influence of the individual on power is limited. The first work is, according to the author, like his later Wallenstein "[...] a story of the misery of politics, of the failure of political people."

The second work was published in 1954 Vom Geist Amerika as an Urban paperback by Kohlhammer Verlag , which offers a description of the United States from a European perspective. The "Introduction to American Thought and Action in the Twentieth Century" provides an essayistic outline of domestic and foreign policy as well as an examination of the country's philosophy, which deals critically with the McCarthy era . In his book, Golo Mann describes the USA as a country full of contradictions. He sums up: “I still see America through the eyes of a European. Conversely, however, I see Europe with American eyes and a lot of things that once seemed natural to me now seem narrow, artificial and unbearable. ”He explains that he remembers certain aspects of his German childhood and youth“ with horror ”.

Golo Mann's best-known work is the German History of the XIXth Century, commissioned by the Gutenberg Book Guild in 1953 . and XX. Century , on which he worked in 1956/57 and which was first published as a two-volume book edition with over 1000 pages in 1958. It contains an overview of the history of Germany, divided into twelve chapters, beginning with the time of the French Revolution , and ties in with Ricarda Huch's three-volume work on German history, which was published between 1934 and 1949. Golo Mann placed the history of Germany in the context of European history up to the present and thus interrupted the historical tradition of that time, which used to evade contemporary history due to the "lack of distance". It is above all a story of the German spirit. Domestic and economic policy and the investigation of social structures take a back seat. The historian brought the great philosophers like Immanuel Kant , poets like Heinrich Heine and political figures like Karl Marx and Otto von Bismarck into the context of the great upheavals of the 19th and 20th centuries. The work developed into the historical standard work and appears in new editions up to the present day.

From 1960 to 1964 Golo Mann was co-editor of Propylaea World History - A Universal History from the Beginnings to the Post-War Period together with Alfred Heuss and August Nitschke . During this time ten volumes were published by Propylaen Verlag. In addition to the history of the Middle Ages, he was mainly responsible for the history of the modern era.

Albrecht von Wallenstein

The publication of the historical biography Wallenstein. His life told by Golo Mann in 1971 became one of the greatest book successes in Germany in the second half of the 20th century. Hanno Helbling titled his review of the extensive work in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung with "Masterpiece of historiography"; the translator and Thomas Mann connoisseur Peter de Mendelssohn stated that the work had a "downright witchcraft identity of biography and historiography", while Golo Mann wanted recognition as a writer and wanted it to be understood as an "all too true novel". His preoccupation with the protagonist began as a schoolboy; As a high school graduate, he played the main role in Schiller's Wallenstein's Death , and his completed state examination in history , which no longer led to the examination because of his emigration from Germany, also dealt with this topic. In addition to Schiller's drama, Ricarda Huchs Wallenstein - A Character Study provided suggestions for this major work. Golo Mann worked on it for five years.

A biography of Alfried Krupp von Bohlen and Halbach , which the Krupp Family Board of Trustees commissioned him to write in 1976, remained unfinished . He was relieved when he was released from the job after four years of work. The exact reasons for this are unclear; possibly the Krupp house was bothered by the style of the work and the disclosure of the family history. The biography was only two thirds ready and only published in one extract.

In November 1986 the memories and thoughts appeared. A youth in Germany . Golo Mann describes the parental home determined by the father, life with siblings, cultural influences such as literature, music, drama, school and university days. The book ends with the beginning of the “Third Reich” in 1933. It was a great success, even if some critics were surprised at the title, which sounded like a plagiarism of Bismarck's autobiography Thoughts and Memories . Immediately after its release, he picked up the sequel Memories and Thoughts. Apprenticeship years in France , which includes the period of French exile from 1933 to 1940, are on the way. Golo Mann broke off work on it three years before his death; this autobiographical work was published posthumously as a fragment in 1999 .


The historian - success and criticism

“I don't believe in the entire need for theory in history. History is an art that is based on knowledge, and it is nothing further. "

- Golo Mann: Plea for the historical narrative

Golo Mann's German History of the XIX. and XX. Century from 1958 made him known as a historian and reached many readers. He received important prizes, for example the Georg Büchner Prize in 1968 .

Many fellow historians did not share the euphoria, as Mann formulated his works in an essayistic manner and mostly dispensed with an annotation apparatus. In Wallenstein , published in 1971 , he even included a fictional internal monologue by the general. The facts in the Wallenstein were verifiable, but the experts gave the work the derisive title Lotte in Eger , which alluded to Thomas Mann's novel Lotte in Weimar , and the historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler called Golo Mann a “gold frame narrator” in the 1980s ". Indeed, Golo Mann attached importance to comprehensibility and pictoriality in his style, and he rejected technical jargon. Mann's friend, the linguist Hans-Martin Gauger , emphasized in his contribution to the style of Golo Mann that he loved the direct treatment of topics and renounced scholarly inconvenience. He avoided empty phrases such as “It is clear from this” or “The question arises”.

Hans-Ulrich Wehler and Golo Mann met in 1978 at a historians' conference and gave presentations that represented different points of view and did not allow an agreement. While Wehler did not go into the narrative portrayal of historical topics and accused Mann of having an outdated conception of history, Mann explained that Wehler denied the possibility of illustration through a narrative form, so that his school lacked the sympathy gained from human experience that the characters of history had to show be. There was also no consensus with the members of the Marxist-oriented Frankfurt School, which was founded in 1930, such as Theodor W. Adorno , Max Horkheimer , Herbert Marcuse and Jürgen Habermas , to whom many historians were close. They made capitalism responsible for fascism and National Socialism and saw a critical analysis of the social condition as a preventive measure against such ideologies . Golo Mann shared the optimistic tendencies and the belief in man's ability to emancipate only to a very limited extent, as he placed the emphasis of his interpretation of history on the individual and not on society.

Correspondence between Rolf Hochhuth and Golo Mann (1963–1987)

Rolf Hochhuth (right) and David Irving , 1966

The Swiss Literature Archive (SLA) in Bern looks after the estate of Golo Mann and the archive of Rolf Hochhuth , so that this extensive correspondence is completely preserved. It includes Hochhuth's first letter of thanks to Golo Mann in connection with the deputy controversy in 1963 through to the last letter in 1988. After Golo Mann strongly supported the playwright Rolf Hochhuth after the first performance of the deputy alongside Professors Karl Jaspers , Karl Barth and Walter Muschg and admired him, a long-term correspondence developed. The next pieces by Hochhuths, soldiers , guerrillas and the midwife , however, did not meet with the undivided approval of Golo Mann. Hochhuth's friendship with the Holocaust denier David Irving worsened the relationship increasingly. In the case of Hans Filbinger , who had inspired Hochhuth to the drama Juristen (1980), Golo Mann took a stand for him after the publication of Filbinger's defense book The Maligned Generation in the World on Sunday 1987 by advocating a reconciliation with the generation that survived the war. Hochhuth then accused him of violating his own view of history and alluding to the historians' dispute. He, Golo Mann, was the teacher of his generation. Golo Mann replied that he had never been involved in the historians' dispute, and that Hochhuth should, instead of slandering him as a neo-Nazi, deal intensively with Filbinger's depiction. Golo Mann had Hochhuth's last letter go back unopened.

Films Related to Golo Husband and Family

A two-hour television film by Heinrich Breloer , which documented the life of his brother Klaus Mann , was shown in the third programs of NDR , SFB and Radio Bremen at the end of October 1983 . The title was, based on a novel by Klaus Mann, Meeting Point in Infinity . Golo and Monika Mann were among Breloer's interview partners. Golo Mann was shown in one scene reading a previously unknown FBI protocol about his brother who was suspected of being a communist friend and homosexual.

It was also Breloer who conceived and directed the successful three-part documentary Die Manns - A novel of the century . It was first broadcast on television in 2001. Philipp Hochmair interpreted the role of Golo Mann. Elisabeth Mann Borgese, as the last survivor of the Mann family of letters, was Breloer's interviewee.

The Secret of Freedom is a German television film by director Dror Zahavi , which was broadcast for the first timeon January 15, 2020 on Das Erste . Berthold Beitz , chief representative of Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach , instructs Golo Mann to write a book about the Krupp family. Edgar Selge plays Golo Mann, Erni Mangold Katia Mann.

Exhibitions for the 100th birthday

The storyteller. Golo Mann on his 100th birthday , under this title an exhibition took place in the Buddenbrookhaus , Lübeck , from September 6th to November 22nd, 2009. The then head of the Buddenbrookhaus, Holger Pils, explained the approach of the exhibition that for Golo Mann the biographical narrative was a preferred form. Therefore, the exhibition should tell biographically and at the same time show a piece of experienced history. Pils designed the exhibition together with the Golo-Mann-biographer Tilmann Lahme.

Another exhibition took place in 2009 on the occasion of his birthday in Ticino, where Golo Mann owned a holiday home in Berzona . The “Museo Onsernonese” in Loco was reminiscent of the historian and writer.

Between all chairs - as it should be the motto of the exhibition in the Schwules Museum Berlin for the 100th birthday in March 2009. A room staging depicted Golo Mann's youth and the family environment. His children's room in the Munich Mann Villa in Poschingerstraße was reproduced 1 with playpen and school desk. One wall was decorated with Thomas Mann pictures and excerpts from his diary. Another part of the exhibition was a Klaus Mann showcase and a Heinrich Mann bust.

Awards and honors (selection)

Fonts (selection)

Secondary literature


Golo Mann in Family Members' Records

Family man


  • “I hate everything extreme” , Günter Gaus in an interview with Golo Mann (March 4, 1965). In: Günter Gaus: “What remains are questions.” The classic interviews. Das Neue Berlin, Berlin 2001, ISBN 978-3-360-01012-4 .
  • Gero von Boehm : Golo Mann. December 10, 1988. Interview in: Encounters. Images of man from three decades. Collection Rolf Heyne, Munich 2012, ISBN 978-3-89910-443-1 , pp. 167-189.

Web links

Commons : Golo Mann  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , p. 10 f.
  2. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , p. 41
  3. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 620
  4. Klaus Mann: Child of this time , p. 19
  5. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , p. 25
  6. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , p. 113 f.
  7. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 17–19
  8. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , pp. 193–197
  9. Uwe Naumann: The children of the Manns , p. 82 f.
  10. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 23 ff.
  11. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , pp. 265–278
  12. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , pp. 430, 462 ff.
  13. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, p. 81 f. and p. 508.
  14. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 39 f.
  15. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts. Eine Jugend in Deutschland , S. Fischer, 1986, pp. 522-527. (The typescript of parts of the novel Joseph and his brothers is not mentioned there)
  16. Golo Mann: Memories and Thoughts , p. 129
  17. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 436
  18. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 137
  19. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 55 f.
  20. Measure and value. Bimonthly publication for free German culture (1937–1940) , kuenste-im-exil.de
  21. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 70–72
  22. ^ "American Broadcasting Station". In: Philip M. Taylor: British propaganda in the 20th century: selling democracy . Edinburgh University Press, 1999, p. 196
  23. ^ Letter to Manuel Gasser , quoted from Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 137
  24. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 202
  25. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 140 f.
  26. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 502 f., 687
  27. Volker Hage: Enthusiasten der Literatur , p. 111. In: Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 437
  28. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, p. 535.
  29. printed in: Golo Mann: History and Stories. Frankfurt / M. 1961, pp. 63-84.
  30. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, p. 265.
  31. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, p. 267 and p. 278.
  32. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 161–167; Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, pp. 240-248.
  33. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, pp. 240-248.
  34. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 216 ff.
  35. Joachim Fest: Encounters , p. 226 f.
  36. Clemens Albrecht : Why Horkheimer called Golo Mann a "secret anti-Semite": The dispute about how to come to terms with the past correctly . In: Clemens Albrecht, Günter C. Behrmann , Michael Bock , Harald Homann, Friedrich H. Tenbruck : The intellectual foundation of the Federal Republic. A history of the impact of the Frankfurt School , Campus Verlag, 2000 (1999¹), ISBN 3-593-36638-X , pages 189-202
  37. ^ Hanno Helbling: Golo Mann - a landlord? In: Spokesman, Gutbrodt: The Mann family in Kilchberg , p. 120. In: Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 493 f., 499
  38. ^ Golo Mann: The statesman and his work , p. 106. In: Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 305
  39. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 304 f., 347
  40. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 270
  41. ^ Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography. Frankfurt / M. 2009, p. 331 f.
  42. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 382
  43. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 384 ff.
  44. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 232 f.
  45. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 408–418
  46. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 292
  47. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 427
  48. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 512
  49. ^ Hans Georg Lützenkirchen: With willful persistence. literaturkritik.de, May 5, 2009, accessed on September 6, 2009 .
  50. See for example Arnold Reisberg: Review of German History . In: Zeitschrift für Geschichtswwissenschaft , No. 7 (1961), pp. 1647–1651. In: Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 616
  51. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 268, 548
  52. ^ Golo Mann: Diary , June 21, 1990. In: Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 554
  53. Axel Schock & Karen-Susan Fessel: OUT! - 800 famous lesbians, gays and bisexuals , Querverlag, Berlin 2004, ISBN 3-89656-111-1
  54. a b Golo Mann on his 100th birthday. www.luebeck.de, accessed on September 5, 2009 .
  55. Frido Mann: roller coaster . P. 315 f.
  56. Born as a son. diepresse.com, accessed on October 6, 2012 .
  57. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 10-14
  58. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 442 f.
  59. Uwe Naumann (Ed.): Die Kinder der Manns , p. 18
  60. Hans Woller: Tilmann Lahme: Golo Mann. Biography , Frankfurt a. M .: S. Fischer 2009. sehepunkte 9 (2009), No. 5, May 15, 2009, accessed on September 18, 2009 .
  61. ^ Marianne Krüll: The women in the shadow of Thomas and Heinrich Mann. Retrieved September 3, 2009 .
  62. Homecoming . nzz.ch, November 6, 2006, archived from the original ; Retrieved September 3, 2009 .
  63. Holdings , tma.ethz.ch, accessed on November 27, 2015
  64. Lahme, Golo Mann, p. 439.
  65. Golo Mann: Inventory of his estate. Swiss Literary Archives, Bern, accessed on September 4, 2009 .
  66. ^ New award for historians , www.boersenblatt.net, December 4, 2012, accessed on February 9, 2015
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  71. Urs Bitterli: Seismographic sensitivity. weltwoche.ch, accessed on October 7, 2012 .
  72. ^ H.-Georg Lützenkirchen: With willful persistence . literaturkritik.de, accessed on November 6, 2009 .
  73. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 204
  74. Uwe Naumann (Ed.): Die Kinder der Manns , p. 226
  75. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 168–175
  76. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 253
  77. Uwe Naumann: Die Kinder der Manns , p. 278
  78. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 530
  79. Plea for historical narration in theory and narration in history . dtv, Munich 1979, p. 53. In: Hans Wißkirchen: Die Familie Mann , p. 137.
  80. Later fame. br-online, September 16, 2008, accessed October 6, 2012 .
  81. Gustav Seibt: Critical gold frame. In: Berliner Zeitung . December 12, 1998, accessed June 15, 2015 ( continued, p. 2 ).
  82. In: Hartmut Hentig / August Nitschke (ed.): Was diereal teaches , p. 328
  83. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann . P. 256.
  84. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , p. 270 ff.
  85. T. Feitknecht, K. Lüssi: An exciting quarter century. The correspondence between Golo Mann and Rolf Hochhuth . fpp.co.uk, accessed December 2, 2009 .
  86. Urs Bitterli: Golo Mann , pp. 211–216
  87. The son . In: Der Spiegel . No. 43 , 1983 ( online ).
  88. With Wallenstein literature in your backpack. swissinfo.ch, accessed on September 7, 2009 .
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This article was added to the list of excellent articles on December 14, 2009 in this version .