Rolf Hochhuth

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Rolf Hochhuth, 2009

Rolf Hochhuth (born April 1, 1931 in Eschwege ; † May 13, 2020 in Berlin ) was a German playwright and a major initiator of documentary theater . He achieved international success with the "Christian tragedy" The Deputy . As a rigorous “moralist and admonisher”, Hochhuth repeatedly dealt with the time of National Socialism and current political and social issues. In many open letters he tried since the 1960s to influence politics and "calls for a moral renewal."

life and work

Rolf Hochhuth was the son of the Hessian shoe manufacturer Friedrich Ernst Walter Hochhuth and his wife Ilse Hochhuth, nee. Woodapple. The young Hochhuth saw the entry of US troops into Eschwege on April 3, 1945 as a decisive experience, which was to leave traces in his later work. Hochhuth left grammar school in 1948 after completing secondary school and completed an apprenticeship as a bookseller .

Between 1950 and 1955 he worked as an assistant in bookstores and second-hand bookshops in Marburg, Kassel and Munich. At that time he was particularly interested as a reader in narrators and historians of the 19th and 20th centuries (especially Thomas Mann , Heinrich Mann , Robert Musil , Otto Flake , Jacob Burckhardt , Oswald Spengler and Heinrich von Treitschke ).

As a guest student, Hochhuth attended lectures in history, philosophy and literature at the universities of Heidelberg and Munich and made his first attempts at writing. In 1955 he appeared as a book editor in the Bertelsmann Lesering one. Two years later he married Marianne Heinemann, a former classmate whose mother, Rose Schlösinger , was beheaded as a co-conspirator of the Red Orchestra in Berlin in 1943.

During his publishing activity, Hochhuth published editions of works and narrative anthologies. When in 1959 a Wilhelm Busch edition of the “Bertelsmann Reader's Ring” that he had edited reached a circulation of one million volumes, the publisher Reinhard Mohn rewarded his editor with three months of special leave. Hochhuth, who professed Protestantism , used the time to travel to Rome , where he studied for a first drama and held talks with the Austrian bishop Alois Hudal and the Vatican diplomat Bruno Wüstenberg .

Literary debut: "The Deputy"

In August 1961, the Hamburg publishing house Rütten & Loening , which had belonged to the Bertelsmann group since the previous year and to which Hochhuth had been transferred as chief editor, accepted the drama Der Stellvertreter for printing. Shortly afterwards, the managing director Karl Ludwig Leonhardt received an instruction from the corporate headquarters in Gütersloh to cancel the printing of the plant, which was perceived as too provocative. The play deals with the attitude of the Holy See towards the Holocaust . Historical figures such as SS Obersturmführer Kurt Gerstein , who tried to inform the international public about the Holocaust in 1942, appear alongside fictional characters in the drama . A script by the deputy was forwarded to Rowohlt Verlag , which published it two years later at the same time as the world premiere.

Program booklet of the Freie Volksbühne Berlin, 1963. The image shows an edited section of the photo of the boy from the Warsaw ghetto

The West Berlin premiere of the deputy on February 20, 1963, for which Rowohlt Verlag was able to win Erwin Piscator , who became known as the director of political theater , triggered the largest theater debate in the Federal Republic of Germany to date ("deputy debate"). Hochhuth's debut also caused a stir internationally. The play led to tumults in other European countries during and after performances. For a successful production on New York's Broadway in February 1964, producer Herman Shumlin received a Tony Award .

While Der Stellvertreter initiated a new phase of West German post-war theater, the author forbade his play to be staged in Eastern Bloc countries until 1966 out of concern about an anti-Catholic interpretation that could negatively affect its acceptance by Western audiences. After the GDR premiere on February 20, 1966 at the Greifswald Theater and in numerous East German cities, the reactions of East German critics were similar to those in the Federal Republic. Above all, however, the GDR critics welcomed the ending in which Soviet soldiers liberated the last inmates from Auschwitz . Hochhuth's attacks on the economy and the church were rejected as anti-socialist.

The central statements of the fictional text, which emphasized the responsibility of the individual for his actions, remained due to the historical verdict against Pius XII. controversial. Statements by Ion Mihai Pacepa , a former general of the communist Romanian secret service Securitate , according to which the author had used materials from the Soviet secret service KGB and worked on behalf of the secret services of the Eastern bloc states , Hochhuth rejected.

Hochhuth's play was in 2002 by the Greek-French film director Constantin Costa-Gavras with Ulrich Tukur in the lead role filmed .

From the Erhard era to the Schmidt era

Hochhuth has been working as a freelance author since 1963. He moved to Switzerland, first to Riehen in the canton of Basel-Stadt , then directly to the city of Basel , in order to gain the distance that he thought was necessary for the consistent fulfillment of his literary task. In Basel the existentialist philosopher Karl Jaspers became a friend and mentor for him . The self-image of the author developed at that time also remained decisive for Hochhuth's following works: The “morality of individual action even under conditions of existential threat: that is Hochhuth's subject; It is an essential task of the writer to sound out them and [...] to insistently demand them. "

In May 1965, Hochhuth expressed criticism of the social situation in the Federal Republic in the essay The class struggle is not over in Spiegel magazine and affirmed his view that writers have a political function. A few weeks later, a reply from Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard caused a sensation . In a speech to the CDU / CSU Business Conference in Düsseldorf on July 9, 1965, the Chancellor denied writers such as Hochhuth the right to intervene in socio-political issues:

“They talk about things that they have no idea about from boobs and bladders. [...] No, we didn't bet like that. That's where the poet stops, that's where the very little pinscher begins. "

- Federal Chancellor Ludwig Erhard, Düsseldorf, July 9, 1965

This statement caused violent reactions from writers and the press. The American playwright James Baldwin reacted ironically after a performance of his play Amen Corner in Hamburg in July 1965 with the remark: "I am proud to be a pinscher."

In 1967 Hochhuth presented the play Soldiers, Nekrolog auf Geneva , which deals with Winston Churchill's fight against Hitler and which was again premiered at the Free Volksbühne Berlin . It was largely based on studies by the British publicist David Irving , who portrayed the Allied bombing war in his writings as a war crime and who later emerged as a Holocaust denier . In his play, Hochhuth raised the question of Churchill's joint responsibility for the air raids on German cities in World War II . He also indicated that Churchill had ordered the murder of the head of the Polish government-in-exile, Władysław Sikorski , in 1943. Performances of the play in the UK were initially banned. A production on New York's Broadway in May 1968 met with little success. Several lawsuits have been brought against the author.

In May 1970, the tragedy Guerillas , about a coup from above by a US economic boss, was premiered in Stuttgart by Peter Palitzsch . In 1972 the world premiere of the comedy Die Midamme took place in the Schauspielhaus Zurich and at the same time in various German cities . In this piece, Hochhuth satirically examines the social grievances in a small town. The director Wolfgang Spier filmed the material in 1976 with Inge Meysel as a midwife. In 1974 Hochhuth's comedy Lysistrate and NATO premiered in Essen, Vienna and Hamburg at the same time.

From the Filbinger affair to German unification

Hans Filbinger (center) resigned as Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg in 1978 after it became known in the context of Hochhuth's story Eine Liebe in Deutschland that Filbinger, as a judge in the Navy, had passed death sentences against deserters in 1945

With a preprint of his investigative story Eine Liebe in Deutschland in the weekly newspaper Die Zeit on February 17, 1978, Hochhuth sparked the discussion about the past of Baden-Württemberg's Prime Minister Hans Filbinger as a Nazi judge. In his story, Hochhuth took the view that Filbinger, as “Hitler's naval judge”, “persecuted a German sailor with Nazi laws” even after the end of the war. Shortly after the narrative was published in extracts, Filbinger filed an injunction at the Stuttgart Regional Court against the playwright, who had publicly described him as a “ terrible lawyer ”. The lawsuit was dismissed.

In the course of the further argument, Filbinger claimed that he had not passed a single death sentence in his capacity as judge . On May 15, 1978, Der Spiegel quoted him with the apodictic assessment: “What was right then cannot be wrong today!” Erhard Eppler , then SPD parliamentary leader and opposition leader in the Baden-Württemberg state parliament , attested Filbinger a “ pathologically good conscience ". After records on death sentences that Filbinger had met as a naval judge in 1945 came to light in the summer of 1978 , the leading bodies of the CDU and CSU distanced him. Filbinger resigned in August and had to resign from office. Hochhuth also took up the subject in his play Juristen the following year .

Between 1985 and 1986 Hochhuth was "poet in residence" at the comprehensive university in Essen . In the semi-fictional story Alan Turing in 1987, the author wrote about the father of the modern “computer”, which had contributed to the automatic decryption of radio messages from the Wehrmacht .

Working in a united Germany

After Hochhuth had secured the right of first refusal at the " Theater am Schiffbauerdamm " through the Ilse Holzapfel Foundation he founded in 1993 and named after his mother , the foundation became the new owner of the property in March 1996. The then artistic director of the Berliner Ensemble , Heiner Müller , described this procedure as "intrigue" and "attempt at hostile takeover". Hochhuth's Foundation has been leasing the Theater am Schiffbauerdamm to the State of Berlin since 1998, which in turn makes the theater available to the Berliner Ensemble. At the same time, the lease promised Hochhuth that he would be able to perform his own plays on Schiffbauerdamm.

In addition to historical-political material, Hochhuth's late work revolves around the many facets of the topic of social justice ( Wessis in Weimar , Scenes from an Occupied Land , 1993; McKinsey Comes , 2004). In 2001, Hochhuth's historically realistic piece Nachtmusik premiered in Glasgow, and in 2002 it was performed in the Salzburg State Theater; The German premiere took place in 2006. In 2005, the author surprised with a guest appearance on the television series Gute Zeiten, Bad Zeiten , a few days before his play Familienbande in Brandenburg an der Havel premiered exclusively with actors from the series . In 2006, Hochhuth wrote a play called a tragicomedy entitled Heil Hitler , which premiered on January 13, 2007 at the Berlin Academy of the Arts .

In addition to dramas, Hochhuth has also published poems , short stories and short stories (including Die Berliner Antigone ), which, however, did not achieve the awareness of his drama, as well as numerous essays on history and contemporary history. The criticism has repeatedly accused Hochhuth of the lack of mastery of formal means.


Hochhuth was a member of the PEN Center Germany , the Academy of the Arts in Berlin (since 1986), the Bavarian Academy of Fine Arts in Munich (since 1989) and the Free Academy of the Arts Hamburg (since 2004). He has held several guest lectureships for poetics at universities (including in 1996 at the Goethe University in Frankfurt am Main ).

Archive, other activities

Hochhuth's extensive archive has been in the Swiss Literature Archive in Bern since 1997 . Since the 1980s, Hochhuth has been campaigning for an appropriate appreciation of the Hitler assassin and resistance fighter against National Socialism Georg Elser , who, unlike the conspirators of July 20, 1944 , had hardly played a role in the official culture of remembrance of the Federal Republic until the 1990s. On his initiative, the state of Berlin set up the Georg Elser memorial . When it was handed over to the public on November 8, 2011, Hochhuth asked in his celebratory speech why the Germans had such a “hostile non-relationship” with Elser. 2012 Hochhuth resigned from the Berlin Academy of Arts and accused several of its members to be anti-Semites after about the poem What needs to be said of Gunter Grass had been discussed.


The marriage with his first wife Marianne Heinemann, with whom Hochhuth had two sons Martin (* 1960) and Friedrich (* 1965), was divorced in 1972. From 1975 Hochhuth was married to the Serbian former medical student Dana (Danica) Pavic, with whom he had a son, and was married to Ursula Euler for the third time. After she died on October 14, 2004, he married the Berlin bookseller Johanna Binger on May 28, 2009.

Rolf Hochhuth died at the age of 89 and was buried in the old St.-Matthäus-Kirchhof in Berlin-Schöneberg .

Exemplary controversies

The "rigor with which Hochhuth attacks the economically powerful on the one hand and the ideologically justified claim to power of the left on the other creates numerous opponents." Critics accuse Hochhuth of compensating for declining public attention as a dramatist with scandalous effects that attract the public. Increased scandal reports in the media and the public discussions that followed.

"McKinsey is coming"

Hochhuth comes after reading his book
McKinsey , 2005

Hochhuth had built in a passage in McKinsey comes that was interpreted by media representatives as a possible “understanding of a murder call” against the Deutsche Bank CEO Josef Ackermann . In it it says: “The FAZ teaches A's [= Ackermanns] to disguise victims without rights as 'remodeling'! / 'Step back' A. just like Gessler through - Tell? / Schleyer, Ponto, Herrhausen warn . “In Schiller's Wilhelm Tell , the tyrannical bailiff Gessler was killed by the freedom hero Tell. One of Ackermann's predecessors, Alfred Herrhausen , had fallen victim to an attack by the Red Army faction , as were the business representatives Hanns Martin Schleyer (employer president ) and Jürgen Ponto (CEO of Dresdner Bank) mentioned in the passage . Hochhuth rejected the accusation of calling for murder and stated that he wanted to point out an objective threat to the German business elite as a result of, among other things, the current reform of the social system.

Hochhuth and Irving

Rolf Hochhuth (right) and David Irving (1966)

In March 2005, Rolf Hochhuth hit the headlines again because, in an interview with the new right-wing weekly newspaper Junge Freiheit, he defended the British publicist David Irving , who was convicted several times as a Holocaust denier (Munich 1993, Vienna 2006) and was banned from entering Germany was occupied. Hochhuth said, “Irving is a marvelous pioneer of contemporary history who has written great books. Without a doubt, a historian the size of Joachim Fest . The accusation that he is a Holocaust denier is simply idiotic! ” Hochhuth reiterated his partisanship a day later compared to the Berliner Tagesspiegel . Here he said that Irving "was (is) much more serious than many German historians". Irving, with whom he maintains a personal friendship, is an "honorable man". His interview partners had confronted him directly with the Holocaust-denying statements by Irving. A question in the Junge Freiheit interview had already read: “But Herr Hochhuth, after all, Irving claims that there were no gas chambers in Auschwitz. He said flippantly that fewer people died there in gas chambers than in 1969 in Edward Kennedy's back seat  - and, as is well known, only his girlfriend was sitting there. "To this, Hochhuth replied:" He cynically gave free rein to his not entirely un-British inclination to black humor calmly. Probably he was insanely provoked before he said that. As a historian, he is an absolutely serious man. ”Observers pointed out that Irving made his comment not after provocation but in front of a paying audience, as shown in a video in Irving's London trial. Richard Rampton, the defendant's attorney, said, “Mockery is not enough. They also have to be tasteless. You have to say things like: More women died in the back seat of Senator Edward Kennedy's car in Chappaquidick than in the Auschwitz gas chambers. "

The publicist Ralph Giordano described Hochhuth's interview as “one of the greatest disappointments of the past 60 years. There is no act of resignation that would have been spared those murdered in Germany after 1945. " Paul Spiegel , the then President of the Central Council of Jews in Germany , said:" If Hochhuth defends the British as an allegedly serious scientist, he will defend himself owns its position and thus denies the Holocaust itself ”. Hochhuth apologized a week later for his position on Irving. He did not want to speak to the right and hurt the feelings of the Jewish citizens. David Irving's late statements were not known to him ( dpa , February 26, 2005). However, Paul Spiegel considered this to be "implausible". Anyone who studies recent history should be aware of the repulsive slogans Irving uttered. Hochhuth also announced that he would no longer give the Junge Freiheit an interview. It was criticized that he had previously given two interviews for the newspaper and wrote his own article.

Ralph Giordano later relativized his earlier massive conviction and expressed his solidarity with Hochhuth in an article published in the Berliner Zeitung . At that time he only knew the Irving passages from the interview and could "only advise the public [...] to submit to the entire reading (= the interview )". Among other things, Giordano wrote: “Rolf Hochhuth, to put it cautiously, went completely wrong when it came to Irving - right. [...] So after I had shouted loudly and clearly to Rolf Hochhuth where he deserved it, I assure him from this point just as clearly that he was an ally for me, the survivor of the Holocaust, in the long conflict over the Nazi era, is an ally and will remain an ally. "

As a result of the controversy surrounding the Hochhuth interview, the Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt (DVA) refused in 2005 to publish Hochhuth's autobiography. The DVA publisher Horbach justified this with the fact that Hochhuth could "no longer publish his autobiography or autobiographical writings in a publishing house that has a large number of Jewish authors in its program." However, there was public protest against this decision. In addition to Giordano, Eva Menasse , Tilman Jens , Joachim Güntner and others were also critical .

Hochhuth and Oettinger

On April 11, 2007, Baden-Württemberg's Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) held a funeral speech for his predecessor, Hans Filbinger, which triggered severe criticism . In this speech he said, among other things: “There is no judgment by Hans Filbinger through which a person would have lost his life. And when it comes to the judgments that he is accused of, he either did not have the power to make decisions or the freedom of decision that many assume he has. ”The files on death sentences found in 1978 refute at least the first sentence.

In his reaction, Der Lügner , published on April 13, 2007 in the Süddeutsche Zeitung , Hochhuth described this statement by Oettinger as “an unabashed invention” and, at first erroneously, complained about the “tragedy of the sailor Walter Gröger ”, which Hans Filbinger supposedly “still personally murdered in British captivity ”. Filbinger, according to Hochhuth, was a "sadistic Nazi" because, as a judge, he allegedly sentenced the sailor Walter Gröger to death in a British prisoner-of-war camp after the war, which had "long ended by total surrender", and was in favor of the British executing Groeger "Twelve rifles" borrowed.

Hochhuth had confused the Gröger case with the case of the flak cartillerist Petzold, whom Filbinger sentenced to six months in prison after the end of the Second World War on May 29, 1945 while still in British captivity for "insubordination, disobedience and resistance". The 22-year-old Gröger was sentenced to death at the request of the then naval staff judge Filbinger for “weaknesses in character” and was executed less than two months before the end of the war on March 15, 1945. Filbinger was present and, as the highest officer, gave the order to shoot.

The online version of the article Der Lügner von Hochhuth was deleted from the Süddeutsche Zeitung on April 13, 2007, one day after it appeared, with the following reference:

“The depiction of the writer Rolf Hochhuth in the Süddeutsche Zeitung on April 13th ('Der Lügner') that Filbinger had Gröger murdered in British captivity is wrong. The well-known statement by Hochhuth from 1978 that Filbinger `` even persecuted a German sailor with Nazi laws while he was still in British captivity '' relates to the Petzold case. Hochhuth could not be reached on Friday to comment. "

Günther Gillessen and Wolfram Wette deal with the Gröger and Petzold cases in detail - and with very different evaluations.

Hochhuth also claimed in the article that the Stuttgart Regional Court had called Filbinger a “terrible lawyer” in 1978. However, the court had only ruled that Hochhuth's statement about Filbinger was a value judgment (i.e. not an assertion of fact ) that was covered by the fundamental right to freedom of expression , which is why Filbinger was not entitled to his omission. Hochhuth therefore describes the expression of opinion as a synonym for the "fact that he [Filbinger] was a sadistic Nazi". “But the fact that supports this factual assertion is not,” commented feature editor Patrick Bahners in the FAZ.


Literary works

  • 1963: The deputy . (About the role of Pope Pius XII in World War II, number 1 on the Spiegel bestseller list from April 3 to July 2, 1963 )
  • 1963: The Berlin Antigone . Novella.
  • 1967: soldiers, necrology on Geneva. (Tragedy; about the bombing war against Germany)
  • 1970: guerrillas. (Tragedy; covers a fictional coup in the US)
  • 1971: The midwife. (Comedy; deals with nepotism and social disadvantage in a fictional small town in North Hesse)
  • 1971: War and Class War : Studies
  • 1974: island comedy. (Comedy; original title: Lysistrate and NATO. Paraphrase of the Aristophanes comedy against the background of the planned establishment of a US missile base on an Aegean island.)
  • 1974: Interlude in Baden-Baden.
  • 1976: Distant relatives. (Monologue)
  • 1976: Death of a hunter. ISBN 3-499-25068-3 . (On Ernest Hemingway and the literary scene of the 1960s)
  • 1978: A love in Germany. Available edition: Rowohlt Taschenbuch Verlag, Reinbek 1983, ISBN 3-499-15090-5 . (Filmed by Andrzej Wajda )
  • 1979: Lawyers. ("Three acts for seven players"; On the social and political influence of former Nazis in Germany; one of the main characters bears the features of the former Prime Minister of Baden-Württemberg Hans Filbinger .)
  • 1980: female doctors . (On drug testing and pharmaceutical industry practices)
  • 1982: Robber speech: three German allegations: Schiller, Lessing, Scholl siblings.
  • 1982: Tips of the iceberg: reflections, dialogues, essays, sketches.
  • 1984: Judith . (On the chemical rearmament of the U.S. Army, the moral justification for tyrannicide, and the person of Ronald Reagan .)
  • 1985: Atlantic Novella: Stories
  • 1987: Perpetrators and thinkers: Profiles and problems from Caesar to Jünger.
  • 1987: was Europe here? Speeches, poems, essays.
  • 1987: Alan Turing. Narrative.
  • 1988: Every time builds pyramids. Stories and poems.
  • 1989: Immaculate Conception. (On the subject of artificial insemination)
  • 1990: Summer 14th (A broad-based drama about the outbreak of the First World War)
  • 1991: Menzel: Painter of Light.
  • 1991: Panic in May. (Anthology; all poems and stories)
  • 1991: Seen, thought, told from Syracuse.
  • 1992: Tell versus Hitler: Historical Studies. Insel, Frankfurt am Main / Leipzig, ISBN 3-458-19119-4 ( Insel-Bücherei 1119).
  • 1993: Wessis in Weimar .
  • 1994: Julia or the way to power. Narrative.
  • 1996: And Brecht did not see the tragic: pleadings, polemics, profiles.
  • 1996: Effi's night. Monologue. Rowohlt Verlag, Reinbek near Hamburg
  • 1996: waves: conspecifics, contemporaries, housemates.
  • 2000: Hitler's Dr. Fist. Tragedy. (Treats the freedom and responsibility of the scientist in the 20th century using the example of Hermann Oberth .)
  • 2000: The right to work. Drama.
  • 2001: anecdotes and ballads.
  • 2001: objections! On history, politics and literature.
  • 2001: The Birth of the War Tragedy: Frankfurt Poetics Lectures .
  • 2002: Gas stove and enema or the diet cook's great-grandmother. Novella.
  • 2003: night music.
  • 2004: McKinsey is coming . ISBN 3-423-13134-9 .
  • 2004: Nietzsche's walking stick.
  • 2005: family ties.
  • 2005: Livia and Julia. ISBN 3-7844-2982-3 .
  • 2006: The Rolf Hochhuth Reader. Published by Gert Ueding . dtv, Munich 2006, ISBN 978-3-423-13432-3 .
  • 2006: Heil Hitler. (Tragicomedy)
  • 2008: preventive detention. New poems. With an afterword by Gert Ueding. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg 2008, ISBN 978-3-498-02996-8 .
  • 2012: What do you have to do, aphorisms. With an afterword by Uta Ranke-Heinemann . Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg, ISBN 978-3-498-03003-2 .
  • 2014: 9 nuns flee. With essays by Uta Ranke-Heinemann and Antje Vollmer . comedy
  • 2014: women. BuchVerlag für die Frau, Leipzig, ISBN 978-3-89798-462-2
  • 2016: The land register. 365 seven to twelve lines. Rowohlt, Reinbek near Hamburg, ISBN 978-3-498-03027-8
  • 2016: Exit from NATO: or Finis Germaniae. Zeitgeist Print & Online, Höhr-Grenzhausen, ISBN 978-3-943007-11-4 .

Speeches and essays


  • Wilhelm Busch, Complete Works and a Selection of Sketches and Paintings in two volumes. Volume 1: And the moral of the story. Volume 2: What is popular is also allowed. Bertelsmann, Gütersloh 1959.

Film adaptations and phonograms

Film adaptations

Sound carrier

  • Hochhuth and The Deputy: Discussion, scenes, documentation. Fontana 1964 (LP 681 320 EL).
  • Rolf Hochhuth: The Berlin Antigone. A story spoken by Hannes Messemer . Deutsche Grammophon Gesellschaft, Berlin 2004 (= LP 168 078; also as an audio cassette from Rowohlt, 1989).
  • Rolf Hochhuth: The deputy. Director: Erwin Piscator . Production: Hessischer Rundfunk 1963. Der Hörverlag, Munich 2003 (2 audio CDs).
  • Rolf Hochhuth: Effi's night. Monologue read by Vera Borek. Reading version and direction: Ingrid Rencher. Production: Preiser Records, Vienna 2005.


Comments on the Irving Controversy

Web links

Commons : Rolf Hochhuth  - Collection of images, videos and audio files




more links

Individual evidence

  1. Playwright Rolf Hochhuth is dead , Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 14, 2020
  2. a b c d e f Christian Pohl: Hochhuth, Rolf. In: Bernd Lutz (Hrsg.): Metzler Authors Lexicon. German-speaking poets and writers from the Middle Ages to the present. Metzler, Stuttgart 1986, p. 283 f.
  3. Birgit Lahann: Hochhuth - The Troublemaker. JHW Dietz Successor, Bonn 2016, p. 37.
  4. Spiegel talk with playwright Rolf Hochhuth . In: Der Spiegel . No. 17 , 1963 ( online ).
  5. ^ A fight with Rome . In: Der Spiegel . No. 17 , 1963, pp. 78, 83 ( online ).
  6. Birgit Lahann: Hochhuth - The Troublemaker. JHW Dietz Successor, Bonn 2016, pp. 42–45.
  7. ^ A fight with Rome . In: Der Spiegel . No. 17 , 1963, pp. 78, 84 ( online ). Birgit Lahann: Hochhuth - The troublemaker. JHW Dietz Successor, Bonn 2016, p. 54 f.
  8. A production in Rome was prevented with reference to a paragraph of the Vatican law, which served to protect the staff of the Vatican from diatribes.
  9. Dieter Husfeld, Frauke Deißner: Program No. 165, season 1965/66 . Ed .: United Theater Stralsund-Greifswald-Putbus.
  10. ^ Ion Mihai Pacepa: Moscow's Assault on the Vatican. In: The National Review . No. 1, January 25, 2007.
  11. ^ Hochhuth defends himself ( Memento from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: Wiesbadener Kurier , February 3, 2007.
  12. ^ Valentin Herzog : Authors in Riehen Rolf Hochhuth | Yearbook to smell. Retrieved May 15, 2020 (Swiss Standard German).
  13. ^ Rolf Hochhuth: The class struggle is not over. Rolf Hochhuth on the social conditions in the Federal Republic . In: Der Spiegel . No. 22 , 1965, p. 28-44 ( online ).
  14. ^ Marion Dönhoff , Helmut Schmidt, Theo Sommer (eds.): ZEIT history of the Federal Republic. Rowohlt, Reinbek 1999, ISBN 3-498-01314-9 , pp. 192, 198.
  15. ^ Rudolf Augstein on Rolf Hochhuth's soldiers . In: Der Spiegel . No. 43 , 1967 ( online ).
  16. ^ Filbinger affair: What was legal ... In: Der Spiegel . No. 20 , 1978, p. 23-27 ( online ).
  17. ^ Matthias Bartsch, Udo Ludwig, René Pfister, Markus Verbeet: Prime Minister: Pathologically good conscience . In: Der Spiegel . No. 16 , 2007, p. 36-38 ( online ).
  18. ↑ In detail: The Filbinger case. ( Memento from March 12, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Lecture by Wolfram Wette from September 14, 2003, Chapter 3: The “terrible lawyer”: Hochhuth contra Filbinger 1978. pp. 4–6 (PDF; 44 kB).
  19. ^ Scandal in the Berliner Ensemble. Hochhuth compares Wowereit to Hitler. In: Spiegel Online , August 20, 2009.
  20. ^ Brigitte Marschall: Political Theater after 1950. Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2010, p. 120.
  21. Structure and mission. ( Memento from November 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Website of the Berliner Ensemble.
  22. Hochhuth loses against Peymann. In: Der Tagesspiegel , August 13, 2009.
  23. ^ Message on Hochhuth's personal website.
  24. Ernst Piper: Alone against Hitler. In: one day . November 6, 2009.
  25. Birgit Walter: Honoring a hero. In: Berliner Zeitung , November 9, 2011, p. 24.
  26. Because of the Grass poem: Rolf Hochhuth leaves the Academy of Arts. In: Die Welt , May 6, 2012.
  27. ^ Short message "Rolf Hochhuth" in the Süddeutsche Zeitung , No. 173, July 30, 2009, p. 8.
  28. Klaus Nerger: The grave of Rolf Hochhuth. In: Retrieved July 22, 2020 .
  29. Hochhuth comments on Deutsche Bank's allegations. In: January 21, 2004.
  30. ↑ Respect the dignity of the place. The writer Rolf Hochhuth on his proposal for a bomb war museum, David Irving and Winston Churchill. Interview with Rolf Hochhuth in Junge Freiheit on February 18, 2005.
  31. ^ Frank Jansen : Writer Hochhuth praises deniers of the Holocaust. In: Der Tagesspiegel. February 19, 2005.
  32. ^ Karl Pfeifer : Rolf Hochhuth: Praise for a notorious Holocaust denier. In: HaGalil , February 21, 2005.
  33. Like a blind man of the color - Hochhuth had no idea. In: n-tv , February 25, 2005.
  34. Frank Jansen: Hochhuth relativizes his Irving statement. In: Der Tagesspiegel. February 26, 2005.
  35. Otto Köhler: Take it easy on Hochhuth! ( Memento of October 10, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) In: Ossietzky . No. 8, 2005.
  36. "The man did not deserve this damnation". Ralph Giordano protects Rolf Hochhuth. In: Berliner Zeitung. March 26, 2005.
  37. ^ The Hochhuth case ( Memento from April 4, 2005 in the Internet Archive ) Report by Tilman Jens in the ARD television program Title Thesen Temperamente from March 6, 2005.
  38. ^ Joachim Güntner: The Deutsche Verlagsanstalt does not want to print Rolf Hochhuth's autobiography. In: Deutschlandradio , March 24, 2005.
  39. ^ Verbal funeral speech by Baden-Württemberg's Prime Minister Günther Oettinger for Hans Filbinger. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , April 12, 2007.
  40. ^ Rolf Hochhuth: The liar. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. April 13, 2007.
  41. ^ Robert Probst: Hans Filbinger and the military justice. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung , May 11, 2010.
  42. Robert Probst: He was oil in the gear. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. 14./15. April 2007.
  43. Günther Gillessen: The Filbinger case - a review of the campaign and the historical facts. In: The Political Opinion . No. 408, November 5, 2003, pp. 67-74 (PDF).
  44. Wolfram Wette: The Filbinger case. ( Memento of March 12, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 45 kB). Lecture on the event “What was wrong cannot be right!” Freiburg, September 14, 2003; in particular p. 6 and 12 ff.
  45. Patrick Bahners: The judgment. In: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung , April 14, 2007.
  46. Armin Eichholz: Laudation for Rolf Hochhuth on the occasion of the award of the first Geschwister-Scholl Prize in 1980 for “A Love in Germany”. Munich, November 13, 1980.
  47. Helmut Glück , Walter Krämer , Eberhard Schöck (ed.): German Language Culture Prize 2001 - Speeches and Speeches . Paderborn 2001.