Heinrich von Treitschke
Heinrich Gotthard von Treitschke (born September 15, 1834 in Dresden , † April 28, 1896 in Berlin ) was a German historian , political journalist and member of the Reichstag from 1871 to 1884, initially as a national liberal member, from 1878 without party affiliation. He was one of the best known and most widely read historians and political publicists in Germany of his time.
With an essay published in 1879, Treitschke sparked the Berlin anti-Semitism dispute. This essay contains the sentence “The Jews are our misfortune”, which later became the catchphrase of the Nazi propaganda paper Der Stürmer .
Live and act
Origin and studies
Heinrich von Treitschke came from a Saxon family of officials and officers and was a Protestant denomination. The ancestors came from Bohemia and, because of their Protestant denomination, immigrated to Kursachsen during the Thirty Years' War after the Battle of White Mountain . His father was the Saxon Lieutenant General Eduard Heinrich von Treitschke , ennobled in 1821 , his uncle the lawyer Georg Carl Treitschke and his cousin General Heinrich Leo von Treitschke .
He attended the renowned Dresden Kreuzschule (humanistic grammar school) and studied history at the Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn from 1851 to 1853 , where he joined the Frankonia fraternity in the winter semester of 1851/52 and where he was influenced by the historian Friedrich Christoph Dahlmann . After that, at the insistence of his father, he continued his studies with the subjects political and camera sciences at the University of Leipzig . There he heard u. a. at Heinrich Wuttke , against whom he developed a permanent, mutual dislike . Even as a student he suffered from increasing hearing loss , which also hindered attending lectures . Because of the better library he went to the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen to study Wilhelm Roscher for his doctorate in economics and completed his dissertation as Dr. iur. (Title: Quibusnam operis vera conficiantur bona, On the productivity of work ) during a two-month stay in Freiburg im Breisgau . It was submitted in Leipzig. He then went to Heidelberg , where he was in prison for a time because of a pistol duel , and then turned to Dresden and, because of the better library, to Göttingen , where he wrote his habilitation in 1858, which he submitted to Roscher in Leipzig ( Die Social Science. A Critical Attempt ).
During this time, Treitschke hesitated whether he wanted to become a poet or a journalist and tried poetry and a drama. At the invitation of Rudolf Haym , he became a collaborator in the newly founded Prussian Yearbooks in 1858 and attracted the attention of liberals with his essay On the Basics of English Freedom , in which he praised the advantages of the political and legal system in England over the arbitrary state of German conditions. In 1858 he published his polemic The Social Sciences , in which he criticized this school of thought, represented by Robert Mohl and Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl , from a statist point of view (according to Treitschke, the study of society could not be carried out independently of that of the state), and he published an essay on Heinrich von Kleist , in which his previously abandoned literary inclinations still had an effect and which was later followed by further essays and sketches about writers.
In 1859 Treitschke became a private lecturer in Leipzig, where he also taught economics at the Agricultural Academy in Plagwitz from 1862 , but increasingly turned away from economics. His lectures in Leipzig, for example, on Prussian history (which was unusual at a Saxon university), European and German history, had over 200 listeners as early as 1861. At the same time, there was a falling out with his father, the general, who had planned a different career for him and asked him not to say anything critical to the Saxon government that Treitschke did not want to go into. When his mother Marie von Oppen (1810–1861) died, the family informed him so late that he could not attend the funeral. Since he saw little prospect of promotion in Leipzig despite his success as a university lecturer, he spent a. a. a lot of time in Munich.
In 1863 he was appointed associate professor for political science in Freiburg im Breisgau . In 1866 he took over a full professorship for history and politics at the University of Kiel . There was resistance in the faculty because of Treitschke's offensive nature and his political view of history. In 1867 he moved to the University of Heidelberg , and in 1873 he was appointed as successor of Leopold von Rankes to his chair at the Berlin Friedrich Wilhelms University . Jacob Burckhardt had turned down the call the year before. Johann Gustav Droysen was against Treitschke's appeal, while she was supported by Hermann von Helmholtz , who was friends with him. After Ranke's death in 1886, he became his successor as the official historiographer of the Prussian state .
Working in Prussia
From 1858 Treitschke was editor of the magazine Preussische Jahrbücher . Initially he took a liberal stance and in 1863 even broke with the Prussian yearbooks , for which he had been an avid author because they sided with Bismarck in the constitutional conflict. After the founding of the empire in 1871, however, he joined the National Liberals and supported the Prussian state idea and Imperial Chancellor Otto von Bismarck , whom he had initially fought as a liberal. He saw above all social democrats and Jews , but also liberal supporters of the parliamentarization of the Reich and representatives of the free- spirited movement as opponents. Treitschke was later ousted from the editorial office of the Prussian yearbooks . His long-time co-editor Hans Delbrück , who also took over his chair after Treitschke's death, continued the yearbooks .
Treitschke rejected objectivity in historiography and was later perceived as the epitome of the politicizing historian (hence the word Treitschke redivivus by Thomas Nipperdey ). Treitschke put his historical work in the service of political goals. His main work, the five-volume German History in the Nineteenth Century (1879-1894), which breaks off rather than closes with the description of the harbingers of the revolutions of 1848/1849 in France, Italy and Switzerland, legitimizes the politics of Prussia and its outstanding position in Germany. At the same time he tried to delegitimize the independent existence of the southern German monarchies, especially Bavaria, by evaluating their sovereignty as the result of French politics only. Treitschke only took note of Montgela's reforms to the extent that he emphasized their deficits. In his historiography, the idea of a Franco-German hereditary enmity is opposed everywhere . The many biographical sketches, not only by statesmen, but also by men of letters and other personalities, had an impact on contemporary readers. Treitschke's person-oriented historiography is expressed in one of his most famous quotes from his German history : Men make history .
Treitschke's German history experienced many editions and found wide distribution among the educated middle class. The royalties made him financially independent. However, the book also met with fierce criticism from fellow historians, in particular from his former friend Hermann Baumgarten from 1883, who accused him of too much support for Prussia and neglect of scientific care, which led to a broad controversy (see Treitschke-Baumgarten controversy ). Another motive for the politically liberal Baumgarten was his disappointment at the political turnaround of a former liberal comrade. Treitschke was also defended by historians such as Bernhard Erdmannsdörffer , Gottlob Egelhaaf and Heinrich von Sybel , and an expert opinion by Sybel led to Treitschke receiving the Verdun Prize for the first two volumes of German history in 1884 , the most important historian prize of the German Empire. Treitschke was disappointed by the criticism, but at the same time felt encouraged by the journalistic success and expanded his work beyond the originally planned scope to five volumes of around 800 pages each.
Treitschke exerted great influence on the generation of students who shaped the government and administration of Germany in the final phase of the German Empire and also in the Weimar Republic . The hard of hearing Treitschke, who gave his lectures passionately and loudly (and due to his almost complete deafness, did not hold any seminars and also did not form a school), was particularly popular with corps students . His lectures, given lively and with rhetorical skill, were often overcrowded, attracted audiences outside the university and were social events. His listeners and students included many prominent personalities and later representatives of imperialist currents in the German Reich such as Alfred von Tirpitz , Friedrich von Bernhardi , Carl Peters and Heinrich Claß , but also personalities such as Friedrich Meinecke , Erich Marcks , Gustav Beckmann , Karl Liebknecht , WEB Du Bois and Georg Simmel . He did not allow women to attend his lectures. When the women's rights activist Helene Stöcker asked him if she could hear from him, he replied: "The German universities have been designed for men for half a millennium, and I don't want to help destroy them."
Treitschke advocated a German monarchy and viewed monarchism as a legacy that had grown over time, which is why he emphatically welcomed the unification of the German Empire under Prussian leadership. According to Thomas Gerhards, he did not represent any imperialist ideas; However, at the beginning of the First World War , Treitschke was perceived by English historians in particular as one of the main representatives of German imperialism, and transcripts of his lectures were used (especially his book Politics ). The English, whom Treitschke had accused of confusing “soap with civilization”, saw Treitschke at that time as a key witness and the epitome of a deeply rooted militaristic attitude of the Germans and placed him in a row with much in the war guilt debate at the time quoted Friedrich von Bernhardi and Friedrich Nietzsche . The British historian Gordon A. Craig also regarded Treitschke as one of the masterminds of the German aspirations for great power that led to the First World War due to his demand for a “smashing of British naval power” and his emotionally charged, “wild” language. His originally positive attitude towards England (he was a good expert on British conditions and English literature and had written an essay on John Milton , among other things ) had turned against Britain in the war against Denmark in 1864 and in the war of unification in 1870/71 due to the not very Prussian-friendly British attitude France cooled off and was partly turned into bitterness, which made Treitschke's stay in England in 1895 (his first trip to the island) even worse. He foresaw future conflicts with England in the event of the pursuit of the colonial ambitions of Germany (which Treitschke fundamentally advocated), but was, due to the threatening consequences for the isolated German Empire, opponent of a war with England in the current constellation.
Since the 1870s, Treitschke vehemently fought against socialists like his professor colleague and former friend, the “Kathedersozialist” Gustav Schmoller , and often railed against Catholics, Jews and English. Already in his influential essay Das deutsche Ordensland Preußen from 1862 he put Poland and other Slavs in a grossly disparaging manner against what he believed to be the positive, culture and state-building influence of the Germans (in the form of the Teutonic Order ). The nationalist view of history and the extremely positive appreciation of Germanness remained the distinctive feature of his presentation of history and also shaped his listeners and followers.
Heinrich von Treitschke was editor of the Prussian yearbooks from 1866 to 1889 (alongside Hans Delbrück ) . In 1895/96 he was editor of the historical journal .
Berlin anti-Semitism dispute
Treitschke wrote the sentence " The Jews are our misfortune ", which later became the slogan of the Nazi propaganda paper Der Stürmer . Treitschke formulated it in his memorandum Our Prospects (1879), which caused a sensation with its pointed anti-Jewish statements. He claimed that the anti-Semitic convictions expressed in this way corresponded to the broad, bipartisan sentiment of his contemporaries and were shared by everyone “as if from one mouth”, but because of the “soft” and “philanthropic” zeitgeist and the liberal “taboo” in the press not pronounced openly.
The essay in which Treitschke demanded that the social influence of the Jews, which he perceived as being so perceived, be suppressed, sparked the Berlin anti-Semitism dispute, a debate that lasted until 1881 and met with great sympathy among the German bourgeoisie. The core of Treitschke's polemic is directed against the assumed will of the Jews to assert their cultural peculiarity aggressively against Germanness, which Treitschke characterized as ungrateful and cheeky, since they owed their participation in the life of the nation to the emancipation granted to them. The solution to the “Jewish question” is the path of assimilation , which, however, has only been taken by a few individuals such as Gabriel Rießer or Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , while the majority of Jews oppose it. According to his political theory, he assumed that a Jew who has the will to fully affirm his environment has the ability to take in the German essence and shed the Jewish essence. Such a conversion to Germanness with all its spiritual values is basically possible, but must be demanded more resolutely. They owe all the good things about the Jews to their adaptation to the German world, but Judaism itself has no positive power. As a religion, it is rather an outlived relic that has a dangerous quality for the nation-state, namely creating solidarity ties across national barriers and promoting the formation of a supranational Jewish-secular network. The main healthy direction of history, on the other hand, is realized in the modern nation-state with a Christian tradition. Judaism should never be accepted as an equal denomination, since on this basis no national unity is possible and ultimately the only alternative is the expulsion of the Jews.
The racial doctrine , the then anti-Semites as Wilhelm Marr , and soon after Karl Eugen Dühring stylized as the basis of national idea, Treitschke refused. He also spoke of the "mixed culture" as a "corrosive" factor to which the healthy "Germanic" public sentiment must react with defense. However, he did not consider a "mixture of blood" between Jews and non-Jews to be fundamentally bad, but also regarded it as a means of assimilation, since it was "at all times the most effective means of balancing tribal differences." The one used by his students in the context of the anti-Semite dispute He did not sign the widespread anti-Semite petition , but was sympathetic to the actions to collect signatures and only distanced himself from them in November 1880 at the urging of his colleague Theodor Mommsen . Treitschke's writings and lectures at the Berlin University around 1880 in this controversy made a significant contribution to spreading the view in bourgeois and academically educated circles and making it appear acceptable that Judaism was fundamentally alien and hostile to the national unification of Germany.
Treitschke was sharply attacked by parts of the liberal press for his statements. His attitude led to many quarrels with colleagues such as Theodor Mommsen, Harry Breßlau and Johann Gustav Droysen and to a break with Jewish friends such as Levin Goldschmidt ; His close friend Franz Overbeck also criticized him for this. Although he himself always distinguished himself from "riot anti-Semitism", he considered this to be the understandable consequence of the allegedly far too great influence of the Jews, whom he thus blamed for anti-Jewish excesses. He did not see himself as an anti-Semite and referred to his friendly relationships with Jewish individuals as justification (e.g. he gave the funeral oration for his Jewish friend and federal brother Alphons Oppenheim ). Treitschke even offered to contribute to Josef Schrattenholz ' Antisemiten-Hammer , a series of publications with the stated aim of refuting anti-Semitism. Treitschke's views were, however, radically nationalistic, whereby, according to his understanding of the nation, the Jews remained excluded as foreigners. With his statements, Treitschke “took the 'cavesson of shame' (Theodor Mommsen) from anti-Semitism and made it acceptable to broad sections of the population who distanced themselves from 'rowdy and rabble anti-Semitism'”. In doing so, he made "a significant contribution to making anti-Semitism socially acceptable within the bourgeoisie".
The historian Golo Mann characterized Treitschke's attitude as follows:
“At the same time as the emancipation of the Jews, the new bourgeois assimilation, the new anti-Semitism appears. But at first it is not what we imagine it to be; he does not demand exclusion, but complete assimilation and modesty in assimilation; he only demands the exclusion of those who do not want to assimilate. I want to give you just one remarkable example of this view, this attitude, that of the German historian Heinrich von Treitschke. This great writer is generally considered an anti-Semite, and he was; nevertheless, the Nazis, for example, could not have done anything with his anti-Semitism. Treitschke was a passionate, angry patriot, very resolute in his judgment, but with a fine sense of what is just and true; something untrue, something mean would never have come out of his pen. And so Treitschke saw only one possible solution to the Jewish question in Germany: complete dissolution of the numerically so small Judaism in Germany, abandonment of every individual Jewish lifestyle. He praised the Prussian Jews who had honorably done their military duty in the Wars of Liberation. "
One of the consequences of the dispute was Mommsen's long-term successful attempt to prevent Treitschke from being accepted into the Prussian Academy of Sciences (and also his involvement in the editing of the historical journal ) on the grounds that he was more of a journalist than a scientist. In 1895, Treitschke was accepted after all, mainly at the energetic instigation of his supporter Sybel.
Treitschke was later taken over by the National Socialists and his anti-Semitic stance was reinforced in the popular edition of his works initiated by Alfred Rosenberg through distorting cuts, omissions and, in some cases, complete reformulations of his texts.
The historian Shulamit Volkov sees the lasting importance of Treitschke's anti-Semitism in the fact that it made an anti-Semitic attitude “acceptable” in bourgeois society and gave it access to German universities.
The social pedagogue and head of the Fritz Bauer Institute Micha Brumlik compared von Treitschke's argumentation with Thilo Sarrazin's and Geert Wilders ' and stated that all three knew or knew that one should not have in common with bullying anti-Jews or anti-Islamists however, it could “make sense” to “use their anger as an opportunity to break an alleged taboo in order to constitute a collective 'we'”.
As in his lifetime, Treitschke had a polarizing effect after his death. On the one hand, critics also recognized the erudition, literary liveliness and rhetorical skill of his portrayal, on the other hand, as a Prussian court historian, he was often accused of a biased and partisan view. Representatives of the liberal historicism of his time did not always like Treitschke's overly flaming and emotional partisanship for or against the protagonists of his story, and some therefore questioned his suitability as a soberly judging historian in the spirit of Rankes who was committed to the truth. The patriotic pathos and the person-centered and national historical narrowing of his historiography led, depending on the ideological standpoint and nationality of the recipient, to very pronounced judgments, apologetic approval or sharp rejection. A large part of the foreign national historiography was one of those who frequently rejected Treitschke's positions, which had always sided with Prussia. In addition, South German or Catholic historians often took contrary positions. The conservative or, from today's perspective, reactionary views explicitly expressed in his works led to the practically unanimous rejection of Treitschke's works on the part of the political left. In the German educated middle class during the imperial and Weimar period and also in the early post-war period, his name was the proverbial epitome of precise historical factual knowledge. More recently, and especially after the experience of National Socialism, Treitschke's rejection because of his anti-Semitic statements has dominated.
In 1909, a memorial was erected for him in front of the Berlin University next to the statue of Hermann von Helmholtz , which was soon followed by that of Theodor Mommsen . While the Mommsen memorial is still there today, von Treitschke moved it to a side courtyard during renovation in the mid-1930s and dismantled and melted it down in 1951.
After his death, streets in many cities were named after Treitschke, which has led to controversy in recent years. In Nuremberg, for example, a street named after him during the Nazi era was renamed Steuerwald-Landmann-Straße . In November 2011, after a long-standing dispute , the Heidelberg City Council decided to rename the local Treitschkestrasse. The name was then changed to Goldschmidtstrasse on March 29, 2012.
In other cities like Berlin , Munich (since 1960), Hanover or Karlsruhe there are still Treitschkestrassen . The renaming of Treitschkestrasse in Berlin to Kurt-Scharf- Strasse was rejected by the Steglitz-Zehlendorf district council in 2003 after extensive discussion. In Berlin-Steglitz and Karlsruhe, information boards explain the importance of Treitschke. In Berlin-Steglitz, an adjacent green space was also renamed Harry-Bresslau-Park .
Treitschke had been married to Emma Freiin von und zu Bodman (1836-1901) since 1867 and had three children. The death of his son in January 1881 from diphtheria hit him and his wife especially hard, which further burdened Treitschke. He was almost deaf and communicated with his wife using sign language and with others using notes. He traveled a lot in Germany and Europe, mostly to Switzerland and Tyrol, but also to Italy, France, Sweden, Spain and England.
- Patriotic poems. Grote'sche Verlags-Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1856 ( archive.org PDF).
- Studies. Hirzel, Leipzig 1857.
- The social science. A critical attempt. Hirzel, Leipzig 1859.
- The German Order of Prussia. In: Prussian year books. Volume 10, 1862, pp. 95–151 (also in: Historische und Politische Aufzüge . Volume 2, 1871 in revised form).
- Historical and political essays mainly on the latest German history. Hirzel, Leipzig 1865.
- The solution to the Schleswig-Holstein question. A reply. Hirzel, Leipzig 1865.
- The future of the north German medium-sized states. Reimer, Berlin 1866.
- The war and federal reform. Reimer, Berlin 1866.
- What are we asking of France? Reimer, Berlin 1870.
- Cavour. In: ders .: Historical and Political Essays. Volume 1, Hirzel, Leipzig 1870.
- Ten years of German fighting, 1865–1874. Writings on daily politics. 2 volumes, Reimer, Berlin 1874.
- Socialism and its patrons. Along with a letter to Gustav Schmoller. In: Prussian year books. Volume 34, 1875, pp. 67-110 and 248-301.
- Socialism and assassination. Reimer, Berlin 1878.
- Our prospects. In: Prussian year books. Volume 44, 1879, pp. 559-576 ( gehove.de PDF; 1.2 MB) (anti-Semitism controversy ).
- Mr. Graetz and his Judaism. In: Prussian year books , vol. 44, 1879, pp. 660–670 ( gehove.de PDF; 666 kB).
German History in the Nineteenth Century. 1879-1894;
- Vol. 1: Until the Second Peace of Paris. Hirzel, Leipzig 1879. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive )
- Vol. 2: Until the Karlovy Vary resolutions. Hirzel, Leipzig 1882. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ).
- Vol. 3: Until the July Revolution. Hirzel, Leipzig 1885. ( Digitized and full text in the German text archive ).
- Vol. 4: Until the death of King Friedrich Wilhelm III. Hirzel, Leipzig 1889. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ).
- Vol. 5: Until the March Revolution. Hirzel, Leipzig 1894. ( digitized and full text in the German text archive ).
- A few more remarks on the Jewish question. In: Prussian year books. Volume 45, 1880, pp. 85-95 ( gehove.de PDF; 740 kB).
- A word about our Judaism. 1880 (four editions), special print from: Prussian year books. Volume 44 and 45, 1879 and 1880.
- Luther and the German Nation. Lecture. Reimer, Berlin 1884.
- Speech given to celebrate the twenty-five year reign of His Majesty the Emperor and King Wilhelm I in the large lecture hall of the Friedrich Wilhelms University in Berlin on January 4, 1886. Vogt, Berlin 1886.
- The future of the German high school. Hirzel, Leipzig 1890.
- The draft of the Prussian elementary school law. Cotta, Stuttgart 1892.
- Gustav Adolf and Germany's Freedom. Lecture given on December 8, 1894 at the Sing-Akademie zu Berlin. Hirzel, Leipzig 1895.
- Speeches by Heinrich v. Treitschke in the German Reichstag 1871–1884. Hirzel, Leipzig 1896.
- German fights. New episode, writings on politics of the day. Hirzel, Leipzig 1896.
- Politics. Lectures. 1897–1898, 2 volumes, Hirzel, Leipzig 1911–1913.
- Pictures from German history. 2 volumes, Hirzel, Leipzig, 3rd edition 1909.
- Selected Writings. 2 volumes, Hirzel, Leipzig, 4th edition 1908.
- Historical and Political Articles. 4 volumes, Hirzel, Leipzig, 8th edition 1918.
- Walter Boehlich (ed.): The Berlin anti-Semitism dispute (= Insel Collection. Volume 6). Insel, Frankfurt am Main 1965.
- Walter Bussmann : Treitschke. His view of the world and history (= Göttingen building blocks for the science of history. Volume 3/4). 2nd Edition. Muster-Schmidt, Göttingen et al. 1981, ISBN 3-7881-1053-8 .
- Andreas Dorpalen : Heinrich von Treitschke. Yale University Press 1957.
- Helge Dvorak: Biographical Lexicon of the German Burschenschaft. Volume 1, Part 8, Supplement L-Z. Winter, Heidelberg 2014, ISBN 978-3-8253-6051-1 , pp. 345-349.
- Ansgar Frenken: Treitschke, Heinrich von. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 12, Bautz, Herzberg 1997, ISBN 3-88309-068-9 , Sp. 442-444.
- Thomas Gerhards: Heinrich von Treitschke. Effect and perception of a historian in the 19th and 20th centuries. Schöningh, Paderborn u. a. 2013, ISBN 978-3-506-77747-8 .
- Adolf Hausrath : In memory of Heinrich von Treitschke. Old acquaintance. Gedächtnisblätter II, Leipzig 1901 (also translated into English).
- Holger Hjelholt: Treitschke and Schleswig-Holstein. Liberalism and the politics of Bismarck on the Schleswig-Holstein question. Oldenbourg, Munich et al. 1929.
- Georg Iggers : Heinrich von Treitschke. In: Hans-Ulrich Wehler : German historians. Volume 2, Vandenhoeck and Ruprecht, Göttingen 1971, pp. 174-188.
- Hildegard Katsch: Heinrich von Treitschke and the Prussian-German question from 1860–1866. A contribution to the development of Treitschke's political views (= historical library. Volume 40). Oldenbourg, Munich et al. 1919.
- Karsten Krieger: The "Berlin Antisemitism Controversy" 1879–1881. A controversy about the membership of the German Jews in the nation. Annotated source edition. Edited on behalf of the Center for Research on Antisemitism. 2 parts. KG Saur / De Gruyter Saur, Munich 2004, ISBN 978-3-598-11688-9 .
- Ulrich Langer: Heinrich von Treitschke. Political biography of a German nationalist. Droste, Düsseldorf 1998, ISBN 3-7700-1093-0 .
- Ernst Leipprand : Treitschke's position on England. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1928.
- Ernst Leipprand: Heinrich von Treitschke in the German intellectual life of the 19th century. Kohlhammer, Stuttgart 1935.
- Hans Liebeschütz : Judaism in the German view of history from Hegel to Max Weber. Mohr, Tübingen 1967.
- Karl Heinz Metz : Basic forms of historiographical thinking. History of Science as a Methodology. Represented on Ranke, Treitschke and Lamprecht (= Munich University Writings , Volume 21). Fink, Munich 1979, ISBN 3-7705-1550-1 .
- Hermann von Petersdorff : Treitschke, Heinrich von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 55, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1910, pp. 263-326.
- Christof Rolker: Heinrich von Treitschke. Works and editions. University of Konstanz, Konstanz 2001 ( full text bibliography).
- Hans Schleier : Sybel and Treitschke. Anti-democracy and militarism in the historical-political thinking of big bourgeois historical ideologists (= writings of the Institute for History / German Academy of Sciences in Berlin. Series 1: General and German history. Volume 23). Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 1965.
- Peter Sprengel : History of German-Language Literature 1870–1900. From the founding of the empire to the turn of the century. Munich 1998, ISBN 3-406-44104-1 , pp. 702-704.
- Guido Wölky: Roscher, Waitz, Bluntschli and Treitschke as political scientists. The late bloom and decline of a classic university subject in the second half of the 19th century. Dissertation, University of Bochum 2006 ( full text ).
- Ulrich Wyrwa : Genesis and development of anti-Semitic motifs in Heinrich von Treitschke's "German History in the 19th Century". In: Werner Bergmann , Ulrich Sieg (ed.): Antisemitic historical images. Klartext Verlag, Essen 2009, ISBN 978-3-8375-0114-8 (= Antisemitism. History and structures. Vol. 5), pp. 83-102.
- Johannes Zechner: Heinrich von Treitschke's anti-Semitism and German history. In: Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed.): Memory Policy - A Critical Interim Balance. Berlin 2003, pp. 94-113.
- Works by Heinrich von Treitschke in Project Gutenberg ( currently not usually available for users from Germany )
- Works by Heinrich von Treitschke in the Gutenberg-DE project
- Literature by and about Heinrich von Treitschke in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Heinrich von Treitschke in the German Digital Library
- Newspaper article about Heinrich von Treitschke in the press kit 20th century of the ZBW - Leibniz Information Center for Economics .
- Heinrich von Treitschke in the database of members of the Reichstag
- Overview of Heinrich von Treitschke's courses at the University of Leipzig (summer semester 1859 to summer semester 1863)
- Rüdiger vom Bruch : On the 100th anniversary of Heinrich von Treitschke's death. Liberal political scientist and chauvinist historian. In: Institute for History. Humboldt University of Berlin, November 29, 1996, archived from the original on August 20, 2010 ; accessed on May 3, 2020 (original website no longer available).
- Heinrich von Treitschke in the Internet Archive
- Directory of the locations of Heinrich von Treitschke's estate. Provider: Harold B. Lee Library, Brigham Young University, UT
- Florian Kiuntke, Verena Keilen: Heinrich von Treitschke, historicum.net, 2003
- Hermann von Petersdorff, ADB 1910
- Theodor Urbach: Die Kreuzschule 1866-1921. A memorial sheet for the old Cruzians , Braunschweig 1921, p. 17.
- Jens Flemming : Review of Thomas Gerhards Heinrich von Treitschke. In: Archives for Social History . 54, 2014, ( library.fes.de PDF); This is how Nipperdey referred to the social historian Hans-Ulrich Wehler . Cf. Nipperdey: Wehler's Empire. A critical discussion. in: History and Society . Volume 1, Issue 4, 1971, pp. 539-560.
- Treitschke: The historian is not allowed to simply deduce the later from the earlier in the manner of natural scientists. Men make the story. The favor of the world situation becomes effective in the life of nations only through the conscious human will who knows how to use it. In: German history in the nineteenth century. Volume 1, p. 28; Treitschke founded the personality cult of German historicism: "Men make history" (Volume 1, p. 27); Imanuel Geiss : From right to left orthodoxy. The political-ideological element in German historiography since 1871, from Treitschke zu Wehler. In: Thomas Stamm-Kuhlmann , Jürgen Elvert , Birgit Aschmann , Jens Hohensee (eds.): History pictures. Festschrift for Jürgen Salewski on his 65th birthday (= HMRG. Supplements 47), Steiner Verlag, Stuttgart 2003, p. 417, books.google.de .
- Among other things, one-sided archive research. According to Petersdorff ( Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie , 1910), Treitschke's important archives, such as those in Munich and Vienna, were closed despite his requests.
- Gabriele Clemens : Review of the book by Thomas Gerhards: Heinrich von Treitschke , in: Sehepunkte , 14, 2014, No. 1.
- Gabriele Clemens: Review by Gerhards , ibid.
- Helene Stöcker: Memoirs , ed. by Reinhold Lütgemeier, Davin u. Kerstin Wolff. Böhlau, Cologne 2015, p. 54.
- Thomas Gerhards: Heinrich von Treitschke. 2013.
- For example GM Young: Victorian England. Portrait of an age. Oxford University Press, Oxford 1936, p. 24. According to Young, the statement was made in one of his Berlin lectures.
- The book by the historian John Adam Cramb: Germany and England was influential here . 1914.
- Gordon A. Craig : Deutsche Geschichte 1866-1945. From the North German Confederation to the end of the Third Reich. From the English by Karl Heinz Siber, 2nd edition, Beck, Munich 1999, ISBN 3-406-42106-7 , p. 233.
- Hermann von Petersdorff: Treitschke, Heinrich von . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 55, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1910, pp. 263-326.
- Treitschke The German Order of Prussia , Insel Verlag . On the final page (p. 96), for example, there is a quote that seems bizarre today: Germans still carry the blessings of culture to the east on a daily basis. But the German teacher is sullenly received in the Slavic country as a cheeky intruder; only in Prussia did he remain a citizen and master of the land that his people won for civilization.
- Thomas Nipperdey : German History 1866-1918. Vol. 2: Power state before democracy CH Beck, Munich 1990, p. 298 f .; Johannes Zechner: Heinrich von Treitschke's anti-Semitism and German history. In: Heinrich Böll Foundation (ed.): Memory Policy - A Critical Interim Balance. Berlin 2003, pp. 94-113.
- Treitschke: “The emancipation had a beneficial effect insofar as it deprived the Jews of all grounds for justified complaints. But it also makes it more difficult to mix blood, which has always been the most effective means of balancing out tribal differences. ”(From: A few more remarks on the Jewish question , Treitschke's response to Harry Bresslaus' criticism in his work on the Jewish question ).
- Peter GJ Pulzer : The emergence of political anti-Semitism in Germany and Austria 1867-1914. Göttingen 2004, p. 263.
- Christoph Jahr : Antisemitism in court. Debates on the legal punishment of anti-Jewish agitation in Germany (1879–1960) (= Scientific series of the Fritz Bauer Institute . Volume 16), Frankfurt am Main / New York 2001, p. 97.
- Peter Walkenhorst: Nation - People - Race. Radical nationalism in the German Empire 1890–1914 (= Critical Studies in History . Volume 176). Göttingen 2007, p. 52.
- Golo Mann: About anti-Semitism. In: History and Stories. Fischer, Frankfurt am Main 1961, p. 178.
- Thomas Gerhards, quoted from the review by Gabriele Clemens, loc. cit.
- Shulamit Volkov : Anti-Semitism as a cultural code. Ten essays. Beck, Munich 2000, ISBN 3-406-42149-0 , p. 31.
- Micha Brumlik: “New and old anti-Semitism in Germany. Analysis and educational interventions. ”In: Mechtild Gomolla, Ellen Kollender, Marlene Menk (eds.): Racism and right-wing extremism in Germany. Figurations and interventions in society and state institutions. Beltz Juventa, Weinheim 2018, p. 72
- A detailed description of its reception can be found in the book by Thomas Gerhards, Heinrich von Treitschke , 2013 (dissertation).
- Marc Zirlewagen : Biographies of the clubs German students . BoD - Books on Demand, Norderstedt 2014.
- Rüdiger von Bruch on the 100th anniversary of Heinrich von Treitschke's death , Humboldt University Berlin ( Memento from August 20, 2010 in the Internet Archive ).
- The Treitschke- becomes Goldschmidtstraße ( Memento from December 17th, 2012 in the web archive archive.today ). RNZ, November 12, 2011, accessed November 12, 2012.
- What takes a long time is finally good: Treitschkestrasse has now been renamed. In: RNZ , April 2, 2012, accessed September 25, 2018.
- 50 years of Munich's Treitschkestrasse. haGalil.com from January 19, 2010.
- Small request, Steglitz-Zehlendorf district council, KA 298 / II, 2003, pdf ( Memento from May 27, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Press release of November 14, 2008 ( Memento of November 7, 2012 in the Internet Archive ).
|SURNAME||Treitschke, Heinrich von|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Treitschke, Heinrich Gotthard von (full name)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German historian, political journalist and politician (NLP), MdR|
|DATE OF BIRTH||September 15, 1834|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Dresden|
|DATE OF DEATH||April 28, 1896|
|Place of death||Berlin|