2020


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2020
SARS-CoV-2 without background.png

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic with far-reaching consequences for society , the economy and sport worldwide .

2020-02-05 Thuringian State Parliament, election of the Prime Minister 1DX 2723 by Stepro.jpg

Thomas Kemmerich was elected Prime Minister of Thuringia by votes of the AfD . His election and resignation sparked a government crisis.

Protest against police violence - Justice for George Floyd, May 26, 2020 25.jpg

The death of George Floyd in the United States led to protests against racially motivated police violence worldwide. In the United States, this case led to days of unrest, some of it severe, and night curfews in over 40 cities.

2020 Belarusian protests - Minsk, 16 August p0038.jpg

As a result of the 2020 presidential election in Belarus , there were the largest protests in the country's history.

2020 in other calendars
From urbe condita 2773
Armenian calendar 1468-1469
Ethiopian calendar 2012-2013
Badi calendar 176-177
Bengali calendar 1426-1427
Berber calendar 2970
Buddhist calendar 2564
Burmese calendar 1382
Byzantine calendar 7528-7529
Chinese calendar
 - era 4716-4717 or
4656-4657
 - 60 year cycle

Earth Pig (己亥, 36) -
Metal Rat (庚子, 37)

French
revolutionary calendar
CCXXVIII - CCXXIX
228-229
Hebrew calendar 5780-5781
Hindu calendar
 - Vikram Sambat 2076-2077
 - Shaka Samvat 1942-1943
Iranian calendar 1398-1399
Islamic calendar 1441-1442
Japanese calendar
 - Nengō (era): Reiwa 2
 - Kōki 2680
Coptic calendar 1736-1737
Korean calendar
 - Dangun era 4353
 - Juche era 109
Minguo calendar 109
Modern Olympics XXXII
Seleucid calendar 2331-2332
Thai solar calendar 2563

The year 2020 is the current leap year with 366 days. It started on Wednesday January 1st and ends on Thursday December 31st . So far, the year has been dominated by the global COVID-19 pandemic , which has resulted in numerous social and economic restrictions.

Events

Politics and world events

Exact date unclear

Terrorist attacks (selection)

Disasters

Natural disasters

Serious accidents

Society, culture, economy

After 35 years, the last episode of Lindenstrasse ran in March 2020.

Sports

The Summer Olympics planned for 2020 in Tokyo have been postponed to 2021 due to the coronavirus pandemic.

Memorial days

December 17, 2020 will be Ludwig van Beethoven's 250th birthday.

science and technology

Astronomy, cosmology and space travel

September 14: Scientists are reporting the discovery of monophosphane in the atmosphere of Venus , suggesting life there suggesting.

Environmental science and paleontology

  • January 13th - Scientists report that the oldest known material on earth is particles of the Murchison meteorite : they are about 7 billion years old (the earth about 4.5 billion years).
  • Jan 16 - Scientists show that the dinosaur extinction was caused by the meteorite impact, not volcanism.
  • Jan 21 - Researchers show that ozone-depleting substances (ODS) caused most of the Arctic warming between 1955 and 2005. To do this, they used a climate model with which they examined two scenarios: ODS and all natural and man-made emissions were fed into one, and only the latter into the other. ODS caused about half of the Arctic ice loss. ODS have been banned since 1989 , causing the ozone hole to recede.
  • January 28 - Researchers examine over 100 tropical forests and coral reefs disrupted by extreme weather events and local human activities.
  • January 21st - Scientists use dating and simulations to show that the Yarrabubba impact is the oldest known asteroid impact , occurred about 2.2 billion years ago and could have ended the Ice Age at that time.
  • January 21 - According to a study, the highest emissions of the greenhouse gas fluoroform were measured.
  • January 23 - Scientists show that epaulette sharks ("running sharks") are the newest shark species.
  • February 24 - According to a study, over 20% of Australian forests burned down in the 2019-20 Australian bushfires . The extent is new and has not occurred in the last 20 years. A connection with climate change was not sufficiently proven at the time of publication. One author of the study points out that this at least amplified the extreme heat waves of summer. The fires differ in several ways from previous fires of this magnitude.
  • February 24th - Study for the discovery of the oldest green plant ( Chlorophyta ): approx. 1 billion years old alga Proterocladus antiquus with a size of approx. 2 mm and the ability to photosynthesize
  • February 25th - Researchers report the first finding of an animal that produces its energy without mitochondria or oxygen. The <10-cell salmon parasite Henneguya zschokkei has lost the ability to convert oxygen (aerobic cell respiration) in the course of evolution , which proves that even multicellular organisms can survive without oxygen or oxygen cell respiration and that evolution can lead to apparently less complex organisms.
  • March 4th - A study of around 100 institutions over a period of 30 years shows that the ability of tropical forests to absorb CO 2 is dwindling due to climate change and deforestation . In the study, scientists use data and models to project a long-term decline in the African CO 2 sink - 14% by 2030 - and a change in the Amazon rainforest to a CO 2 source - instead of a sink - by the mid-2030s.
  • March 4 - Scientists report that climate change affected the 2019/2020 bush fires in Australia , increasing the risk of such large-scale fires by> 30%.
  • Mar 10 - Researchers show larger ecosystems collapse faster - even if they transition to collapse more slowly. According to their study, large ecosystems could completely collapse faster than previously thought. The Amazon rainforest - to a savanna - in ~ 50 and the coral reefs of the Caribbean in ~ 15 years.
  • April 1 - A scientific review of data and studies on earlier interventions concludes that the ecosystems of the oceans can be restored to the 2050th You can choose between the legacy of an irreversibly disturbed and a pulsating, resilient ocean within a narrow time frame. UN Sustainability Goal # 14 can be achieved if climate change is limited sufficiently .
  • April 7 - After examining the coral reefs of the Great Barrier Reef , scientists report that a third mass coral bleaching has occurred in 5 years, affecting all three regions of the reef on the northeast coast of Australia for the first time.
  • April 20 - Scientists expect a severe impairment of brain performance in rooms by CO 2 concentrations of up to 1400 ppm by the end of the century.
  • August 1 - The number of fires in the Amazon increased 28% in July compared to July 2019 , according to satellite data.
  • August 13 - Scientists report that the melting of the Greenland Ice Sheet has passed the reversal point. This ice melt is the largest contributor to sea ​​level rise , which threatens coastal regions and island states, and makes storms and floods more frequent and more violent. A large-scale decline in 2000-2005 led to the transition to a stage of sustained mass loss dynamics.
  • August 20 - Scientists report that the Greenland Ice Sheet lost a record mass of ice in 2019. They provide explanations for the anomalous, lower ice loss in 2017 and 2018.
  • August 24th - Researchers show that around 300 million people live on tropical forest restoration opportunity land.
  • Aug 26 - Scientists report that the Last Ice Age was ~ 6.1 ° C colder than average temperatures at the start of the Industrial Age.
  • August 31 - Ice losses in Greenland and Antarctica correspond to worst-case scenarios of projections of sea ​​level rise in the Fifth Assessment Report of the IPCC .

Life sciences

  • January 15 - After twelve years of research, microbiologists successfully report that they have isolated the slowly reproducing Lokiarchaeota from deep-sea mud and then cultivated it. The Prometheoarchaeum syntrophicum strand MK-D1 has long "tentacles" in which partner microbes nest, which, as "proto mitochondria " , could possibly give it improved chances of survival with increasing oxygen and were enclosed and endogenized by the tentacles - as ancestors of the mitochondria. According to their E 3 model, this is how eukaryogenesis took place.
  • January 24 - Researchers discover cellless mitochondria in human blood. Mitochondria are the "powerhouses" of most cells in most eukaryotes - they generate their source of chemical energy, ATP . According to the researchers, these loose mitochondria could be involved in many physiological - including disease-related - processes.
  • January 27 - Researchers develop a nanoparticle that induces immune system cells - monocytes and macrophages - within the body to eat plaques in the layers of arterial blood vessels. The particle contains carbon nanotubes, which contain a drug that deactivates the SHP1 gene in blood cells. Such plaques - mostly stored fats - cause atherosclerosis , currently the leading cause of death worldwide.
  • 30./31. January - Summaries of research on the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 and its outbreak are published. They contain information on the transferability , the fatality , the incubation time before the onset of symptoms (approx. 2 to 14 days), the worldwide capacity for and the course of containment to date, the time until a vaccine is available (probably over 1 year) and similar outbreaks ( SARS ).
  • March 4 - Scientists use CRISPR-Cas9 in a human body for the first time . They are trying to restore the eyesight of a patient with Leber's congenital amaurosis using genome editing , after tests in human cells, mice and monkeys were successful and they received official approval. To do this, you inject three drops under the patient's retina. The change in DNA is permanent and - unlike human germline engineering - not inheritable .
  • March 5 - Neuroscientists show that rats perceive the suffering of other rats as negative and that the same brain region is activated as in humans. Most stopped choosing their favorite candy when it resulted in an electric shock to a neighbor rat. An anesthetic of the brain region or a higher amount of the candy changed this behavior. Morality could therefore have old evolutionary roots.
  • March 14th - Scientists develop a CRISPR -Cas13d-based system ("PAC-MAN") that can find and destroy viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and could be further developed into a system that can be quickly adapted to new viruses .
  • March 16 - Scientists develop an open source platform for the design of RNA target sequences in order to be able to edit viruses or human RNA - for more temporary edits than DNA.
  • March 16 - The first phase I clinical trial of a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine begins.
  • March 20 - WHO announces a large-scale study (the "Solidarity trial") to test four potential drugs to treat COVID-19 .
  • March 23 - Researchers report that squid by RNA editing by ADAR2 - enzyme protein templates outside of brain cells (their squid giant axon change). In other organisms - such as humans - RNA "blueprints" of the templates in the DNA are only "post-processed" to a significantly smaller extent and exclusively within the cell nucleus. The ability could enable them to better adapt to changing environments and also be relevant to more flexible, lower-risk RNA editing technologies .
  • April 6 - Scientists report the discovery of metabolic genes in non-metabolism viruses ( nucleocytoviricota ), suggesting that they alter the metabolism of their host cells.
  • April 27th - Scientists manage to make plants shine independently and permanently brighter than ever before by means of gene editing . To do this, they inserted genes from a bioluminescent fungus into the plant genome.
  • July 8th - Scientists edit the genes of mitochondria for the first time using a novel, CRISPR-free, gene editor.
  • July 28th - Marine biologists report the discovery of 101.5 million year old microorganisms in a kind of hibernation about 70 m below the sea floor. The microbes were resurrected in the laboratory two years earlier and could be the longest-lived organisms found to date .
  • August 26th - Scientists report that extremophilic bacteria on earth ( Deinococcus radiodurans ) were able to survive in space for three years in an experiment on the ISS , which, for example, supports the panspermia hypothesis.

anthropology

  • February 12 - Scientists confirm discovery of “ghost population” DNA in the DNA of modern-day West Africans . According to their estimates, this population split off from the ancestors of the Neanderthals and modern humans 360,000 to 1 million years ago and crossed with them within the last 124,000 years . Up to almost 20% of the West African DNA examined is made up of this DNA.
  • April 1 - Scientists report the finding and dating of the oldest remains of a Homo erectus . The fossils are 2 million years old and show that this species lived in South Africa during the same period as other, sometimes upright, hominini genera Paranthropus and Australopithecus .
  • April 1st - Scientists gain genetic information on Homo antecessor ~ 0.8 million years ago and Homo erectus 1.8 million years ago through proteome analysis . The data show that H. antecessor was a closely related sister branch to the subsequent hominini, including modern humans and Neanderthals.
  • August 14 - Scientists report the discovery of a grass bed of more than 200,000 years ago - much older than the previously oldest known bed. The remains of insect-repellent plants and ashes found underneath - often remains of previously burned beds - could have been used for a dirt-free, insulating and insect-repellent foundation, according to the authors of the study.

Other

Nobel Prizes

The announcement of the Nobel Prize winners for 2020 took place from October 5th to 12th. The award ceremony is to take place on December 10, the anniversary of Alfred Nobel's death , in Stockholm and Oslo (only Nobel Peace Prize ).

Coronavirus

In 2020, the global COVID-19 pandemic with the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 began in Wuhan , China . On January 30, 2020, the WHO classified COVID-19 as a health emergency of international concern , and on March 11, the disease was officially declared a pandemic. At the same time, numerous states around the world responded with restrictions on public life such as curfews and the cancellation of major events in order to slow the spread of the virus. By the end of September 2020, the number of infected people rose to over 33 million worldwide; around a million sick people had died at this point in time. With over 7 million infected people at the time, the USA accounted for almost a quarter of the cases registered worldwide.

Annual dedications

The organ of the World Health Organization (WHO), the World Health Assembly (WHA) , declared 2020 the International Year of the Nursing and Midwife, as this year marks the 200th birthday of Florence Nightingale .

Cultural references

Died

For the detailed list of the deceased see Nekrolog 2020 .

January

February

March

April

May

June

July

August

September

October

Gallery of the deceased

(The years refer to the year of admission)

See also

Web links

Commons : 2020  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

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