Krzysztof Penderecki

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Krzysztof Penderecki (2008)

Krzysztof Eugeniusz Penderecki [ˈkʂɨʂtɔf pɛndɛˈrɛt͡skʲi] (born November 23, 1933 in Dębica ; † March 29, 2020 in Krakow ) was a contemporary Polish composer whose work is classified as post-serial music and who caused a sensation primarily through his sound compositions . For this technique, which is especially used in instrumental music, Polish musicology, namely Zofia Lissa and Józef Michał Chomiński , developed the term sonorism . He is considered one of the leading composers of the Polish avant-garde , whose music "helped to shape the compositional style of an entire era of contemporary music". His fearless advocacy of Christian ideas and humanity as well as his unmistakable tonal language made Penderecki the figurehead of a "Polish school" of the avant-garde.


Krzysztof Penderecki was born in Dębica near Rzeszów (not in Kraków , as is sometimes mistakenly reported). His grandmother was from Armenia . Penderecki's grandfather Robert Berger was a talented painter whose father Johann, a Protestant German, had moved to Dębica from Breslau. His father introduced him to music at an early age; As a child he received violin and piano lessons. He later studied composition at the Kraków Music Academy with Artur Malawski and Stanisław Skołyszewski and privately with Franciszek Skołyszewski ; He also studied philosophy , art and literary history at the University of Kraków . In 1958 he completed his studies with a diploma and in the same year took over a professorship for composition at the Krakow Music Academy.

In 1959 he attracted attention in Poland and internationally when he was awarded all three exposed prizes for three anonymously submitted works at the Warsaw Young Polish Composers Competition. He became well known in the western world when his work Anaklasis for string orchestra and percussion instruments was premiered at the Donaueschinger Musiktage in 1960 .

From 1972 to 1987 he was rector of the Cracow Academy of Music . Between 1966 and 1968 he was also a lecturer at the Folkwang University in Essen . Penderecki was honorary chairman of the board of trustees of the Institute for Cultural Infrastructure Saxony in Görlitz and since 1992 honorary member of the International Society for Contemporary Music ISCM ( International Society for New Music ). From 1976 he lived in Lusławice . In 1988 he was elected first guest conductor of the NDR Symphony Orchestra (Hamburg). In 2001 he was the eleventh composer in the annual composer portrait of the Rheingau Music Festival . He spoke fluent German. Penderecki died after a long illness in March 2020 at the age of 86 in Krakow.


In music after 1945, a direct line of development leads from Schönberg's twelve-tone technique via the compositions of Anton Webern to "punctual music" , the primary aim of which was to break down melodies into individual tones. Composers such as Olivier Messiaen , Pierre Boulez , Luigi Nono and Karlheinz Stockhausen used special techniques of seriality in place of classical-romantic theme processing in order to combine the individual tones into larger formal organisms. Penderecki countered this method of composition, which was mainly known and quickly popularized through the Darmstadt Summer Course , with his own tonal language, in which the isolation of the notes was abolished and transformed into its opposite by means of new dimensioning techniques. Before, it was a matter of defining each tone individually using so-called parameters , in the groundbreaking work Anaklasis (1959/60) Penderecki designed sound surfaces and sound bands that consisted of innumerable and individually no longer audible tones. "The novelty of this work lies in the primarily noisy gesture, which looks as if it had been painted with a broad brush. Penderecki worked here with sound bands, clusters , glissandi or 'moving sound blocks', the inner workings of which appear to be melodically fanned out." The special feature of the overall sound is based, among other things, on the use of unusual sound generators such as B. from wood saws and mechanical typewriters as well as in the addition of noisy blowing, scratching and plucking noises on conventional orchestral instruments (in Fluorescences for large Orch. 1961/62). The dimensioning of the individual tones goes so far that the borders and differences between percussion, wind and string instruments can no longer be perceived by the listener. Penderecki was primarily guided and inspired by the joy of discovery and experimentation, but also saw his work as the result of research and awarded them titles such as De natura sonoris (Latin: About the nature of sound). The focus was on the acoustic experience of music. Another means on this path was the abolition of traditional rhythms and time-setting means. With the graphic means of a so-called "space notation", the duration of sound processes was visually made clear without any more precise information being given for the individual actions. thus a certain framework can be seen in the score for players and conductors.

After a few years of experimentation, a reorientation began as early as the 1960s. In the early phase Penderecki had the forms of his compositions emerge from the sound material, but now he increasingly turned to the traditional forms of the Classical and Romantic periods and strived to combine his sonic innovations with the tonal language of earlier epochs: "Symphony and concert, oratorio and Opera was now the focus of his interest. " An important step in this direction was the composition of his 1st String Quartet (1960), the importance of which has been described by musicologists as a "turning point in the history of the genre". While the quartet compositions from Beethoven to Brahms had developed their formal meaning mainly in the processing of opposing thematic material and its division into motifs, Penderecki elevated the contradiction of noise and traditionally orthodox quartet sound to formative power and created a symbiosis of sonic innovations in his 1st string quartet und the traditional sonata idea. In this first approach, Penderecki's predisposition for integral thinking is clearly evident. In the camp of music criticism, Penderecki's opening to the world of forms, harmony and tonal language of earlier centuries was in most cases interpreted and regretted as a rejection of modernity. It was overlooked that in this way he was trying to create nothing more and nothing less than a connection between his compositional innovations and a broad understanding of music. The composer Peter Michael Hamel finds an interesting comparison for this when he says that Penderecki "speaks less of a rigidly fixed personal style than of diverse changes in style, since Penderecki is also fascinated by the ever-progressive change in style of Picasso." In his operas, oratorios and symphonies, content specifications, be they religious or general in nature, formed the framework for a mode of expression that could no longer be tied to the shock and surprise effects of avant-garde sound design.


Krzysztof Penderecki (1993)

Although Penderecki initially had a style-forming effect with his sonorous compositional technique and played a decisive role in developing the aesthetics of post-serial music , views on the meaning and impact of his work later diverged widely. Many of his early works, due to the unusual and coherent compositional techniques used in them, initially attracted a considerable amount of attention in specialist circles and had a stimulating effect on musical further development, but acceptance has also been noticeable in broad circles of the concert audience since Penderecki's turn to tradition grown. So his music soon found acceptance at La Scala in Milan , the Vienna Musikverein and the Salzburg Festival Hall . The opera The Black Mask (text: Gerhart Hauptmann ), which premiered at the Salzburg Festival in 1986, “ apparently found even the local keeper of the Grail, Herbert von Karajan , so beautiful that he would have loved to conduct it himself.” Works such as the St. Luke Passion , the Polish Requiem and that Dies irae had reached countless people, especially in the ecclesiastical field, and his symphonies and large-scale operas primarily convinced and enthused a generally interested audience. Also that his avant-garde techniques are increasingly used by film music composers such as B. Don Davis and Elliot Goldenthal , were used and taken over, is an indication of the rather general acceptance. And so over the years Penderecki was more and more criticized by his composer colleagues and by the critics. As early as 1972 Hans Vogt noted: "Penderecki is undoubtedly a striking figure in the concert of contemporary music. His instinct for direct effects [...] has made him one of the few younger composers to gain public awareness. For the overall situation, this is to be welcomed; some resentment against 'modern music' has been reduced as a result. For himself and his further development, however, there is a certain danger: Once successful, he begins to repeat himself all too often in his last years. " With his position open to all styles, Penderecki had earned a lot of recognition on the one hand, from audiences who believed they had found access to new music here. On the other hand, he was met with skepticism by colleagues such as Helmut Lachenmann , who apostrophized him as "Penderadetzky" , who led the "tonal cloven-hoofed". Ulrich Dibelius , one of the best connoisseurs of contemporary music and always striving for objectivity in his formulations, characterizes Penderecki's more recent development as "broad-tracked sounding", based on Penderecki's unrestrained love for Tchaikovsky's music and "highly in line with current neo-romantic tendencies." The objections to Penderecki's development sound no less clear when it says elsewhere: Penderecki "responded with artistic arguments to critical voices that accused him of artistic stagnation and all too willing adaptation to the cultural scene. Behind the deliberately traditionally chosen titles (including Partita , Sinfonie , Concerto grosso ) hide compositions in which the earlier sound experiences are articulated more formally and more consistently in their processing, but whose balance sometimes lacks the wild unrestrainedness of the earlier sound gestures. " Under the distinctive headline: “With Gloria and Glycol in reverse gear”, Klaus Umbach writes in a pointed criticism in the weekly magazine Der Spiegel : “The newtoner Penderecki has abdicated” and continues: “If everything is not wrong, the traitor is the pioneer Become avant-garde - in the antiques trade. "Penderecki himself said:" When it comes to music, I am against all orthodoxy. I am neither an enemy of tradition nor an uncritical enthusiast of the avant-garde. I do not love theory at all In my opinion enough has been experimented with in our century: with atonal means, with aleatoric technique, with electronics. Music simply has to express itself, not go around in any experimental direction, bypassing the audience. " With this attitude Penderecki rejected thinking in terms of categories of a musical "material" to be worked on and, in the sense of a post-modern conception of art, distanced himself from the important centers of the musical avant-garde in Central Europe, where the discourse on the possibilities of further development and the progressiveness of the sound material in The focus was on and every backward orientation was critically registered. In the meantime, critics are increasingly coming to the realization that Penderecki "like no other at all times has combined tradition and modernity and made their supposed contradictions fruitful." Wolfgang-Andreas Schultz interprets Penderecki's step to liberate himself from the narrowness of material aesthetics in the 1960s as an "attempt to bring the excluded areas of everyday life back into music." Although "the previous attempts with stylistic pluralism" seem to still lack "convincing integration", Schultz sees "the much maligned postmodernism" as "uncertain steps in a perhaps right direction."

On the occasion of his death, Penderecki was described in a press release from the Akademie der Künste Berlin , of which he had been a member since 1979, as "the most important Polish composer and conductor of the 20th century" and "one of the most committed humanists in international musical life". "With his death, the music world loses a composer who has set the tone from the late 1950s to the present day," wrote the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna, and among Auschwitz survivors it was said: "With his work" Dies Irae ", which he composed in 1967 for the inauguration of the memorial announced by the International Auschwitz Committee in the Auschwitz-Birkenau extermination camp, he inscribed the memory of all the victims of Auschwitz in the musical memory of mankind." He has "illuminated the darkness and the beauty of the world over many decades with his music and his memory."

Penderecki's works in film

Penderecki's expressive music has also been used in films . "His collaboration with Martin Scorsese (" Shutter Island "/ 2010), David Lynch (" Inland Empire "/ 2006), Stanley Kubrick (" Shining "/ 1980) and Andrzej Wajda (" The Katyn Massacre "/ 2007 ) is outstanding ). " As early as 1973 Penderecki's sounds were found again in the film " The Exorcist " (director: William Friedkin ). He also composed the original music for the films " The Handwriting of Saragossa " (1965) and " I love you, I love you " (1968).



Instrumental music

Works for orchestra

  • 1959–1960: Anaclasis for strings (42 string instruments) and percussion groups; World premiere by Hans Rosbaud and the Südwestfunk-Orchester at the Donaueschinger Musiktage
  • 1961–1962: Fluorescences for orchestra
  • 1966: De natura sonoris No. 1 for orchestra
  • 1971: Prelude for wind instruments, percussion and double basses
  • 1971: De natura sonoris No. 2 for orchestra
  • 1972–1973: 1st symphony for orchestra
  • 1974: When Jacob woke up from sleep, he saw that God had been there. But he didn't notice it for orchestra
  • 1979: Adagietto from Paradise Lost for orchestra
  • 1979–1980: 2nd Symphony (Christmas Symphony) for orchestra
  • 1988–1995: 3rd symphony for orchestra
  • 1989: Adagio - 4th symphony for large orchestra
  • 1991–1992: 5th symphony for orchestra
  • 1994: Music from Ubu Rex for orchestra; Establishment by Henning Brauel
  • 1995: Adagio from the 3rd symphony for orchestra
  • 1996–1997: Serenade for string orchestra
  • 2003: Fanfarria real for orchestra

(Note: The 6th symphony was written many years after the 7th and 8th - see "Vocal Works")

Works for string orchestra

  • 1959: Emanations for two string orchestras
  • 1960–1961: Threnos (Threnodie) - The victims of Hiroshima , for 52 string instruments
  • 1961: Polymorphia for 48 string instruments
  • 1962: Canon for string orchestra
  • 1963: Three pieces in the old style based on music for the film "The Handwriting of Saragossa" for string orchestra
  • 1973: Intermezzo for 24 strings
  • 1992: Sinfonietta per archi
  • 1996–1997: Serenade for string orchestra: Passacaglia (1996), Larghetto (1997)
  • 1994: Agnus Dei from the Polish Requiem (1980/1984), version for string orchestra, arranged by Boris Pergamenschikow
  • 1998: De profundis from Seven Gates of Jerusalem , version for string orchestra

Works for wind orchestra

  • 1967 Pittsburgh Overture for symphonic wind orchestra
  • 1994 Entrata for 4 horns, 3 trumpets, 3 trombones, tuba and timpani
  • 1995 Burlesque suite from “Ubu Rex” for large wind orchestra, arranged by Henning Brauel
  • 1998 Lucerne Fanfare for 8 trumpets and percussion

Works for jazz ensemble

  • 1971: Actions for jazz ensemble

Works for solo instruments and orchestra

  • 1961: Fonogrammi for flute and chamber orchestra
  • 1964: Capriccio for oboe and 11 strings. World premiere: August 26, 1965 with Heinz Holliger and the Festival Strings Lucerne , conductor: Rudolf Baumgartner (recording by Swiss radio SRG SSR on Neo.Mx3 )
  • 1964: Sonata for violoncello and orchestra
  • 1966–1967: Concerto for violoncello and orchestra (revised 1971/1972)
  • 1967: Capriccio for violin and orchestra
  • 1971: Partita for harpsichord in concert, electric guitar, bass guitar, harp, double bass and orchestra (revised 1991)
  • 1976–1977: Concerto for violin and orchestra (revised 1988)
  • 1982: Concerto No. 2 for violoncello and orchestra
  • 1983: Concerto for viola (violoncello / clarinet) and orchestra
  • 1992: Concerto for flute (clarinet) and chamber orchestra
  • 1992–1995: Metamorphosen , Concerto for Violin and Orchestra No. 2
  • 1994: Sinfonietta No. 2 for clarinet and strings
  • 2000: Music for recorders, marimbaphone and strings
  • 2000–2001: Concerto grosso for three cellos and orchestra
  • 2001–2002: Concerto "Resurrection" for piano and orchestra (revised 2007)
  • 2002–2003: Adagio for cello and orchestra
  • 2004: Concerto grosso No. 2 for five clarinets and orchestra
  • 2007: Largo for cello and orchestra
  • 2007: Adagietto from the opera Paradise Lost , 2nd version for cor anglais and strings
  • 2007–2008: “Winterreise” concert for horn and orchestra
  • 2012: Concert for violin, viola and orchestra, commissioned by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna , world premiere: October 22, 2012 with Janine Jansen , Julian Rachlin and the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra under Mariss Jansons
  • 2015: Concert for trumpet and orchestra, world premiere: May 3, 2015, Congresshalle , Saarbrücken , with Gábor Boldoczki and the Saarland State Orchestra under David Robert Coleman (as part of the Saar Music Festival )

Chamber music

  • 1953: 1st sonata for violin and piano
  • 1956: 3 miniatures for clarinet and piano
  • 1959: Miniature for violin and piano
  • 1960: Quartetto per archi No. 1 for 2 violins, viola, violoncello
  • 1968: Capriccio per Siegfried Palm for solo cello
  • 1968: Quartetto per archi No. 2 for 2 violins, viola, violoncello
  • 1980: Capriccio for tuba solo
  • 1984: Cadenza for violin solo
  • 1985–1986: Per Slava for solo cello
  • 1987: Prelude for clarinet in B flat
  • 1988: The Interrupted Thought for 2 violins, viola, violoncello
  • 1990–1991: String trio for violin, viola and violoncello
  • 1993: Quartet for clarinet, violin, viola and violoncello
  • 1994: Divertimento for violoncello
  • 2000: 2nd sonata for violin and piano
  • 2000: Sextet for clarinet, horn, violin, viola, cello and piano - commissioned by the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna
  • 2004: Tempo di valse for violoncello solo
  • 2007: Serenade for three cellos
  • 2008: Capriccio for violin solo
  • 2008: String Quartet No. 3
  • 2011: Duo concertante for violin and double bass, world premiere: March 9, 2011, Kuppelsaal , Hanover, with Anne-Sophie Mutter and Roman Patkoló

Works for piano

Tape composition

  • 1961: Psalmus for tape
  • 1962: Canon for 52 strings and tape
  • 1963: Brygada Śmierci ("Death Brigade") for tape (for a radio play about the Auschwitz concentration camp )
  • 1972: Ekechejria - music for the 1972 Olympic Games for tape; World premiere on August 26, 1972 in Munich on the occasion of the opening ceremony for the XX. Olympic Games

Vocal music

A cappella choir

  • 1962: Stabat Mater for 3 mixed choirs (SATB) a cappella (later adopted unchanged in the St. Luke Passion )
  • 1965: Miserere from the St. Luke Passion for boys' choir ad lib. and three mixed choirs (ATB) a cappella
  • 1965: In Pulverem Mortis from the St. Luke Passion for three mixed choirs (SATB) a cappella
  • 1972: Ecloga VIII (Vergili "Bucolica") for 6 male voices (AATBBB) a cappella
  • 1981: Agnus Dei from the Polish Requiem for mixed choir (SSAATTBB) a cappella
  • 1986: Ize cheruvimi ( Song of Cherubim / Cherubinischer Lobgesang ) - Old Church Slavonic with English transcription for mixed choir (SSAATTBB) a cappella
  • 1987: Veni creator ( Hrabanus Maurus ) for mixed choir (SSAATTBB) a cappella
  • 1992: Benedicamus Domino (Organum and Psalm 117) for five-part male choir (TTTBB) a cappella (lat.)
  • 1993: Benedictus for mixed choir (SATB) a cappella
  • 1996: De profundis (Psalm 129, 1–3) from Seven Gates of Jerusalem (1996) for 3 mixed choirs (SATB) a cappella
  • 2002: Benedictus for female choir a cappella

Singing and instrumental ensemble or orchestra

  • 1959: Verses for soprano, speaking voice and ten instruments on original texts by Menander , Sophocles , Isaiah , Jeremiah and Omar Chayyām ( Warsaw autumn 1959)
  • 2017: 6th symphony Chinese songs based on poems by Li-Tai-Po, Thang-Schi-Yie-Tsai and Tschan-Jo-Su in the adaptation by Hans Bethge for baritone and orchestra

Choir and orchestra

  • 1958: From the Psalms of David for mixed choir (SATB) and instruments - Psalm XXVIII, Psalm XXX, Psalm XLIII and Psalm CXLIII
  • 1959–1961: Dimensions of Time and Silence for 40-part mixed choir, percussion groups and string instruments
  • 1964: Cantata in honorem Almae Matris Universitatis Iagellonicae sescentos abhinc annos fundatae for two mixed choirs and orchestra
  • 1970–1973: Canticum Canticorum Salomonis for 16-part mixed choir, chamber orchestra and a pair of dancers (ad lib.)
  • 1997: Hymn to St. Daniel (Slawa swjatamu dlinnju knazju moskowskamu) for mixed choir (SATB) and orchestra
  • 1997: Hymn to St. Adalbert for mixed choir (SATB) and orchestra

Solo voices, choir and instrumental ensemble or orchestra

  • 1965–1966: Passio et mors Domini nostri Iesu Christi secundum Lucam (St. Luke Passion) for soprano, baritone, bass, speaker, boys' choir, three mixed choirs (SATB) and orchestra; First performance in 1966 in the St. Paulus Cathedral in Münster
  • 1967: Dies Irae - Oratorio in memory of the victims of Auschwitz for soprano, tenor, bass, mixed choir (SATB) and orchestra: I Lamentatio, II Apocalypsis and III Apotheosis ( oratorio )
  • 1970: Kosmogonia for solos (soprano, tenor, bass), mixed choir and orchestra; Commissioned by the Secretary General of the United Nations on the occasion of the 25th anniversary
  • 1969–1970: Utrenja I (Entombment of Christ) for solos (soprano, alto, tenor, bass, basso profondo), 2 mixed choirs and orchestra
  • 1970–1971: Utrenja II (Resurrection) for solos (soprano, alto, tenor, bass, basso profondo), boys' choir, 2 mixed choirs and orchestra
  • 1973–1974: Magnificat for bass solo, vocal ensemble (7 male voices), 2 mixed choirs (24 pieces each), boys' voices and orchestra: I magnificat, II fuga, III et misericordia eius ..., IV fecit potentiam, V passacaglia, IV sicut locutus est, VII gloria.
  • 1979: Prelude, visions and finale from “Paradise Lost” for 6 soloists, large mixed choir and orchestra
  • 1979–1980: Te Deum for 4 soloists (soprano, mezzo-soprano, tenor, bass solo), 2 mixed choirs and orchestra
  • 1980: Lacrimosa from the Polish Requiem for soprano solo, mixed choir and orchestra
  • 1980–1984: Polish Requiem for four soloists (SATB), mixed choir and orchestra (revised 1993)
  • 1988: Two scenes and a finale from the opera The Black Mask for soprano, mezzo-soprano, mixed choir and orchestra
  • 1995: Agnus Dei for four solos, mixed choir and orchestra from Requiem of Reconciliation in memory of the victims of the Second World War
  • 1994 (?): Sanctus from the Polish Requiem for alto and tenor solo, mixed choir and orchestra
  • 1996: 7th Symphony Seven Gates of Jerusalem for 5 solos (SSATB), speaker, 3 mixed choirs and orchestra: I Magnus Dominus et laudabilis nimis, II Si oblitus fuero tui, Jerusalem, III De profundis, IV Si oblitus fuero tui, Jerusalem , V Lauda, ​​Jerusalem, Dominum (Psalm 147), VI Ezekiel 37.1-10 , VII Haec dicit Dominus: Ecce ego do coram vobis viam vitae, et viam mortis; Commissioned by the City of Jerusalem , the Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra and the Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra on the occasion of the “Jerusalem 3000 year” celebration
  • 1997–1998: Credo for 5 solos (soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, bass), children's choir, mixed choir and orchestra
  • 2002–2003: Phaedra for speaker, solo voices, choir and orchestra
  • 2004–2005: 8th Symphony Songs of Transience for 3 soloists (soprano, mezzo-soprano, baritone), choir and orchestra based on poems by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Achim von Arnim , Joseph von Eichendorff , Karl Kraus , Rainer Maria Rilke and Hermann Hesse . Commissioned by the Luxembourg Ministry of Culture. World premiere: June 26, 2005 Luxembourg (new versions 2007 and 2008)

Prizes, awards and honors

Honorary doctorates and professorships
Honorary memberships

Discography (selection)

  • Seven Gates of Jerusalem - Symphony No. 7 for five soloists, speaker, three mixed choirs and orchestra - First recording of the original version (live recording on November 16, 1999) with the National Philharmonic Orchestra Warsaw, the National Philharmonic Choir Warsaw and the soloists Bozena Harasimowicz-Haas, Izabella Klosinska, Wiesław Ochman , Jadwiga Rappé, Romuald Tesarowicz and Henryk Wojnarowski under the direction of Kazimierz Kord.
  • Threnos - The Victims of Hiroshima (original title: 8'37 ″, after the duration of the attack on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 ) for 52 string instruments (1960) - ("Music from Six Continents"), with the Polish Radio National Symphony Orchestra conducted by Szymon Kawalla.
  • Stanzas for soprano, speaking voice and ten instruments on original texts by Menander , Sophocles , Isaiah , Jeremia and Omar El-Khayám (1959) with the Amadeus Chamber Orchestra Poznań under the direction of Agnieszka Duczmal with Olga Szwajgier, soprano.
  • Concerto for violin and orchestra No. 2 “Metamorphoses” with Anne-Sophie Mutter , London Symphony Orchestra, Krzystof Penderecki at DGG


Web links

Commons : Krzysztof Penderecki  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ The composer Krzysztof Penderecki has died. In: Baden's latest news . March 29, 2020, accessed March 29, 2020 .
  2. Marek Janowski in the obituary for Penderecki's death by nmz (Neue Musik-Zeitung) 5/20, p. 6.
  3. Ruth Seehaber: The "Polish School" in New Music; KlangZeiten Volume 5, Cologne / Weimar (Böhlau) 2005
  4. ^ Obituary for the composer Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish psalms. In: Der Tagesspiegel . March 29, 2020, accessed March 29, 2020.
  5. ^ Sigrid Brinkmann: On the death of Krzysztof Penderecki . Deutschlandfunk, March 29, 2020
  6. ^ ISCM Honorary Members
  7. Penderecki is dead., March 29, 2020.
  8. Martin Demmler: Article Krzysztof Penderecki in: Composers of the 20th Century, Stuttgart (Reclam) 1999, p. 332
  9. Martin Demmler: Article Krzysztof Penderecki in: Composers of the 20th Century, Stuttgart (Reclam) 1999, p. 333
  10. Klaus Hinrich Stahmer: Art. Penderecki 1st String Quartet, in: Reclams Kammermusikführer, Stuttgart (Reclam) 2005, p. 1154
  11. Peter Michael Hamel: Controversial popularity - undisputed world validity; Questions of style with Krzsysztof Penderecki; first published in Das Orchester 10/96; quoted based on the collection of articles "A New Sound", Munich (Allitera) 2007, p. 136.
  12. Klaus Umbach: With Gloria and Glykol in reverse gear; in: Der Spiegel, January 5, 1987; quoted to ; viewed on May 3, 2020
  13. ^ Hans Vogt, New Music since 1945, Stuttgart (Reclam) 1972, p. 349
  14. No life in an ivory tower. In: Der Tagesspiegel . November 22, 2013, accessed January 13, 2020.
  15. “Music without order is chaos” - Krzysztof Penderecki takes stock. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung . November 23, 2018, accessed January 13, 2020.
  16. Ulrich Dibelius: Modern Music II - 1965 - 1985, Munich (Piper) 1988, p. 138
  17. Klaus Schweizer and Arnold Werner-Jensen: Reclams Konzertführer, Stuttgart (Reclam) 2000, p. 1070
  18. Quoted from: ; accessed on May 4, 2020
  19. Quoted from: Martin Demmler: Article Krzysztof Penderecki in: Composers of the 20th Century, Stuttgart (Reclam) 1999, p. 334
  20. Michael Ernst: In the labyrinth of time - To the death of the composer Krzysztof Penderecki; in: nmz (Neue Musik-Zeitung) 5/20, p. 6.
  21. Wolfgang-Andreas Schultz: Was that progress ?; in: Avantgarde, Trauma, Spiritualität, Mainz (Schott) 2014, p. 16 f.
  22.ösungen.htm?we_objectID=50862 ; viewed on May 1, 2020
  23. Press release of the Berlin Academy of the Arts from March 30, 2020
  24. ; viewed on May 1, 2020
  25. -1.html ; viewed on May 1, 2020
  26. Michael Ernst: In the labyrinth of time - To the death of the composer Krzysztof Penderecki; in: nmz (Neue Musik-Zeitung) May 2020, p. 6.
  27. Mensura sortis for 2 pianos. In: Ninateka. Retrieved September 21, 2019 .
  28. Julia Sachse: "Bach is still beaming today!" In: Torgauer Zeitung . February 13, 2019, accessed September 21, 2019 .
  29. Solo Piano Work of Penderecki - World Premiere. In: Hello Stage. March 19, 2019, accessed on September 21, 2019 .
  30. Maak & Albertz with "Resplendences ..." and world premiere of Penderecki. In: Vienna News. March 20, 2019, accessed September 21, 2019 .
  31. ↑ A sensational success for Maak & Albertz with the world premiere of Penderecki's music. In: Florentyn Music. March 28, 2019, accessed on September 21, 2019 (at openPR ; press release).
  32. ^ Estonian State Decorations. Bearers of decorations. President of the Republic of Estonia, accessed January 11, 2020 .
  33. Honorowi Obywatele Bydgoszczy (honor citizen of Bydgoszcz). In: Website of the city of Bydgoszcz.
  34. List of all decorations awarded by the Federal President for services to the Republic of Austria from 1952 (PDF; 6.9 MB).
  35. Krzysztof Penderecki at the IAU Minor Planet Center (English).
  36. Volker Schulte: Krzysztof Penderecki receives an honorary doctorate. University Communication / Media Department of the University of Leipzig, press release from September 30, 2003 at Informationsdienst Wissenschaft (, accessed on March 23, 2016.