|coat of arms||Germany map|
|County :||North Saxony|
|Management Community :||Torgau|
|Height :||78 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||102.81 km 2|
|Residents:||19,883 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||193 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postcodes :||04860, 04861|
|Primaries :||03421, 034221|
|License plate :||TDO, DZ, EB, OZ, TG, TO|
|Community key :||14 7 30 310|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Romina Barth ( CDU )|
|Location of the district town of Torgau in the district of Northern Saxony|
Torgau is a large district town with around 20,000 inhabitants and the administrative seat of the district of North Saxony in Saxony . Together with Dreiheide , Torgau forms the Torgau administrative community .
The city of Torgau is located in the north of the Free State of Saxony on the western bank of the Elbe at an altitude of about 85 meters above sea level . The Düben Heath begins to the west of Torgau and extends to Eilenburg in the west and Graefenhainichen and Kemberg in the north . To the southwest of the city is the large pond , which is fed by the Schwarzen Graben , coming from the direction of Audenhain . The Torgauer Ratsforst adjoins the lake to the south .
The next larger cities are clockwise starting in the west: Eilenburg (27 kilometers, further to Leipzig 50 kilometers), Bad Düben (28), Bad Schmiedeberg (22, further to Lutherstadt Wittenberg 45), Herzberg (23), Bad Liebenwerda (28) and Riesa (37).
The city is divided into the core city and the districts:
The average air temperature in Torgau is 10.7 ° C, the annual precipitation 541 millimeters.
The beginnings up to the division of Leipzig
The place was first mentioned under the name Torgove in a document from the year 973. When the place became a town is not dated. At least from the year 1267 there is a note that speaks of the city of Torgau.
Origin and meaning of the name of the city
In the course of the years the spelling of the name von Torgau varied only slightly in contrast to many other place names. For example, in numerous documents and files:
- 973 Turguo
- 1004 Torgua, Turgua
- 1119 Thurgovve, it is called a mercatus (mercatus is trade, market, fair).
- 1181 Thurugowe
- 1204 A noble family is named after the town, von Torgau
- 1234 Torgowe
- 1243 Turgowe
- 1350 Turggo, civitas Turgow (civitas is civil right or citizenship )
- 1406 Thurgaw, Turgaw, Torgau
- Since 1791 Torgau has been written and spoken as it is today.
Torgau during the Reformation
Ernst made Torgau the residence of his sphere of influence. Hartenfels Castle became the main residence of the Ernestine electors: Friedrich the Wise , Johann the Steadfast and Johann Friedrich resided here . At the time, Torgau, along with Hartenfels Castle, was the political center of the Reformation and is now an important Luther site in Saxony. The saying goes down: "Wittenberg is the mother, Torgau the wet nurse of the Reformation". In March 1530 Martin Luther wrote the Torgau articles here together with Jonas , Melanchthon and Bugenhagen . Johann Walter , the editor of the first Protestant choir hymn book, worked as city cantor in Torgau from 1526.
In the Schmalkaldic War from 1546 to 1547, the Protestant princes were defeated by Emperor Charles V. As a result of the Wittenberg surrender , Torgau came from Ernestine Saxony under Johann Friedrich to Albertine Saxony under his cousin Moritz in Dresden . Due to the simultaneous change of electoral dignity, it remained in Electoral Saxony. From then on, Hartenfels Castle was only a secondary residence, but never lost its symbolic significance for the Reformation movement.
In 1552 Luther's widow Katharina von Bora traveled to Torgau to get away from the plague that broke out in Wittenberg . In a carriage accident , however, she broke her pool and died of the consequences on December 20, 1552 in Torgau. There is a museum dedicated to her in the house where she died . Her tomb in the church of St. Marien is one of Torgau's sights.
The time up to National Socialism
In 1811, on the orders of Napoleon, the Torgau fortress was expanded, but this did not prevent his defeat. According to the will of the victors and the resolutions of the Congress of Vienna in 1815, Torgau fell to Prussia .
From 1854 there was a Catholic church primarily for the Catholic soldiers in Prussian service; it burned down in 1906. In 1909 the larger successor building was inaugurated elsewhere.
At the time of National Socialism , from 1943 to 1945, Torgau was the seat of the Reich Court Martial . In the Torgau Wehrmacht prison on Fort Zinna, over 1,000 death sentences were imposed and carried out. The executions included conscientious objectors , Jehovah's Witnesses , resistance fighters and American prisoners of war . Today there is a museum managed by the Saxon Memorials Foundation .
From February 1941 to April 1945, Torgau housed the administration of the prisoner-of-war camp Stalag IV D in a former print shop on Naundorfer Straße . While around 800 prisoners of war lived in the camp in Torgau, on October 1, 1944, a total of 45,223 prisoners of war were registered in Stalag IV D in Torgau. Almost all of them were distributed to work details in the surrounding area.
The memorial book of the Federal Archives for the victims of the National Socialist persecution of Jews in Germany (1933–1945) lists three Jewish residents of Torgau who were deported and murdered .
The encounter on the Elbe
Torgau became the end of the Second World War international fame when at 25 April 1945 , Soviet and American troops met on the Elbe in the city and this on April 26, 1945 Elbe Day for the cameras on the destroyed Elbe bridge put in scene .
The first contact between the two armies was during the war in Europe on April 25, 1945 on the Elbe near Strehla , 30 kilometers upstream from Torgau. The Elbe Day commemoration commemorates this event. One of the US soldiers attending the meeting at the time, Joe Polowsky , later campaigned for April 25th to be recognized as "World Day of Peace". According to his last will, he was buried in the Protestant cemetery in Torgau in 1983.
Post-war until 1989
Between 1964 and 1989 there was a closed youth work center in Torgau .
After the end of the Second World War, Torgau, which previously belonged to the former Prussian administrative district of Merseburg , became part of the newly founded state of Saxony-Anhalt . In 1952, as part of the administrative reform in the GDR, it was assigned as a district town to the Leipzig district .
Torgau becomes Saxon again
On January 1, 1994, Torgau became the administrative seat of the Torgau-Oschatz district and on August 1, 2008 of the northern Saxony district . The former district town of Delitzsch has significantly more inhabitants, but is decentralized.
On January 1, 2009, it was raised to the status of a major district town .
On July 1, 1950, the previously independent municipality of Werdau was incorporated. On January 1, 1994 Graditz and Melpitz were incorporated. On 1 January 2009, the incorporation of the previously independent municipality took place Pflückuff , the city area was characterized km² 90.33 km² of 42.08 more than doubled. With the incorporation of Zinna with effect from January 1, 2013, the area of the city increased to over 100 km².
|Former parish or manor district||date||annotation|
|Altenau||Feb 9, 1857||Partial incorporation (4.1 ha) of the desert region into the Repitz estate|
|Beckwitz||Jan. 1, 1994||Merger with Loßwig, Mehderitzsch, Staupitz and Weßnig zu Pflückuff|
|Bennewitz||July 20, 1950||Incorporation after Weßnig|
|Borack (Boragk)||June 24, 1865||Incorporation of the desert mark to Mehderitzsch|
|Eiserkuth||July 30, 1860||Incorporation of the desert mark to Staupitz|
|Graditz||Jan. 1, 1994|
|Graditz, manor district||between 1928 and 1930||Incorporation after Graditz|
|Kranichau||July 20, 1950||Incorporation to Mehderitzsch|
|Kranichau, manor district Rittergut||between 1928 and 1930||Incorporation to Kranichau|
|Kunzwerda, Guts Bezirk Liberut||between 1928 and 1930||Incorporation after Weßnig|
|Loßwig||Jan. 1, 1994||Merger with Beckwitz, Mehderitzsch, Staupitz and Weßnig zu Pflückuff|
|Mahla, Liberut Manor||between 1928 and 1930|
|Mehderitzsch||Jan. 1, 1994||Merger with Beckwitz, Loßwig, Staupitz and Weßnig to Pflückuff|
|Melpitz||Jan. 1, 1994|
|Obernaundorf||July 30, 1860||Incorporation of the desert mark to Staupitz|
|Picking puff||Jan. 1, 2009|
|Repitz||July 20, 1950||Reclassification from the municipality of Döbern to Torgau, (between 1928 and 1930, the Repitz estate district was incorporated into the municipality of Döbern)|
|Castle meadows||July 30, 1860||Incorporation of the parish-free land to Staupitz|
|Staupitz||Jan. 1, 1994||Merger with Beckwitz, Loßwig, Mehderitzsch and Weßnig zu Pflückuff|
|Welsau||July 20, 1950||Incorporation to Zinna|
|Werdau||July 20, 1950|
|Weßnig||Jan. 1, 1994||Merger with Beckwitz, Loßwig, Mehderitzsch and Staupitz zu Pflückuff|
|Weßnig, manor district Rittergut||between 1928 and 1930||Incorporation after Weßnig|
|Zinna (hallway 5)||around 1980||Reclassification of approx. 36.5 ha (part of the Zinna Flur 5 district) to Torgau (Torgau Flur 41 district)|
|Zinna (hallways 11 and 12)||Jan. 1, 1999||Reclassification of 190.0902 ha (Zinna Flur 11 and Zinna Flur 12) to Torgau|
|Zinna||Jan. 1, 2013|
Development of the population (from 1960 to December 31st) :
Local election 2014
After the local elections on May 25, 2014, the city council was composed as follows:
|Party / list||CDU||SPD||LEFT||FWG||Green||total|
Local elections 2019
Since the local elections on May 26, 2019, the city council has been composed as follows:
|Party / list||CDU||FWG||SPD||LEFT||AfD||total|
coat of arms
|Blazon : “ Quartered , of silver and blue ; Field 1 and 4 : each with four red rafters in stacks , field 2 and 3: each a left-facing, rising silver lion with red reinforcement and a knocked-out tongue. "|
|Foundation of the coat of arms: Elector Friedrich III. , also called the Wise, gave his hometown the coat of arms that is still valid today on June 11, 1514.|
A Torgau coat of arms, which does not correspond to the city one, belongs to the Brandenburg noble family von Torgau . Friedrich Udo is the first to name the city of Torgau around 1204. You had u. a. Property in Graditz.
Torgau maintains city partnerships to
There are also friendly relations with the Finnish city of Hämeenkyrö .
The town twinning to Strzegom (Striegau) was terminated by Torgau in November 2019. The reason for the termination was the behavior of the Polish delegation during the city festival in October. The partnership had existed since 1997.
Culture and sights
→ see also: List of cultural monuments in Torgau
Around 500 late Gothic and Renaissance monuments represent an urban ensemble of international standing. Hartenfels Castle , the best preserved early Renaissance castle, which was the seat of the Ernestine Wettins and now houses changing exhibitions, is located near the Elbe . From May 2012 to October 2013 the exhibition of the Dresden State Art Collections “Churfürstliche Guardie” was on view. In 2015 one of the four central exhibitions for the Luther Decade was presented in Torgau .
The Torgau Castle Chapel was the first Protestant church to be built. Martin Luther praised them with the words: “ Solomon has nowhere built such a beautiful temple as Torgau has.” Luther's ideas of worship gatherings shape this church space. He himself inaugurated the chapel of the Saxon electors at Hartenfels Castle on October 5, 1544.
The Torgauer Museumspfad includes six important stations with numerous museum educational offers:
- the Electoral Chancellery with the City and Cultural History Museum, whose permanent exhibition was reopened in 2005
- the Katharina-Luther-Stube, the house where Katharina von Bora , Luther's widow, died
- the brewing museum, which vividly documents the importance of Torgau's art of brewing in the 15th and 16th centuries
- the lapidarium and the Hausmannsturm of Hartenfels Castle , once the residence of the court jester Claus
- the extensively restored Bürgermeister-Ringenhain-Haus, one of the most important Renaissance town houses in Central Germany
- the historic craftsman's house, the restoration of which was completed in May 2010
Furthermore, the oldest toy store in Germany ( Carl Loebner ) is located in the center .
South of the center is the large pond , which was built in the 15th century and covers an area of 175 hectares.
Close to the Elbe, at the historic site of the closed youth work center, is the Torgau closed youth work center memorial . With her permanent exhibition she documents the repressive power structures of the GDR education system, commemorates the young victims of the socialist re-education practice and addresses current processes of coming to terms with the history of home education in the GDR, the Federal Republic of Germany and Europe.
Every year in August, the Endless Summer Open Air , a two-day music festival with two stages and a camping area, takes place in the duck catching area . Another annual festival is In Flammen Open Air, which is primarily designed for bands from the Death Metal sector.
In bridgehead Torgau rock concerts take place several times a month to organize these youth-oriented social-club from IG rock e. V. The culture bastion Torgau is a popular meeting point for the citizens of the city during the weekend.
Every two years since 1542, with an interruption due to the wars, the armor- wear festival takes place. From Ascension Day until the following Sunday, Germany's oldest vigilante group celebrates the traditional festival to commemorate the Wurzen feud . Part of the festival are costumes, a parade through the city and weapons exercises.
- War memorial for soldiers who died in both world wars in the Melpitz district.
- War memorial for soldiers of the Thuringian Hussar Regiment No. 12 who fell in World War I from 1922.
- War memorial for soldiers killed in World War I in the Mehderitzsch district.
- War memorial for soldiers killed in World War I in the cemetery in the Weßnig district.
- A memorial stone from 1948 in the Evangelical Cemetery on Dommitzscher Strasse commemorates 160 men who were victims of the Wehrmacht justice system as inmates of the Torgau Wehrmacht prison during World War II .
- A grave with a memorial plaque in the same cemetery commemorates the communist district council member Alfred Holzweißig , who committed suicide in 1935 after being arrested and tortured. A memorial plaque on his last house at Holzweißigstrasse 14 also reminds of him.
- The Soviet Cemetery of Honor with its obelisk commemorates the forced laborers buried there (and their children), prisoners of war who were victims of forced labor, and Red Army soldiers who were killed .
- A memorial on a green area at Friedrichplatz is dedicated to all victims of fascism .
- The memorial on the banks of the Elbe commemorates the meeting between Soviet and US troops in April 1945.
- A memorial stone on Harnack-Ring commemorates the leading head of the resistance organization Rote Kapelle Arvid Harnack , who was murdered in Berlin-Plötzensee .
- A memorial for the victims of war, flight and displacement with the coats of arms of the former German provinces, erected in 1995 and donated by the Federation of Expellees .
- The memorial for closed youth work centers in Torgau commemorates over 4,000 young people who were to be re-educated from 1964 to 1989 in the disciplining facility of the GDR youth welfare service .
- The Torgau Documentation and Information Center memorial documents the history of the Torgau detention centers during National Socialism, the Soviet occupation and the GDR.
- On February 27, 2020, eleven stumbling blocks were laid at four addresses in Torgau for the first time .
The Torgau March , composed at the beginning of the 19th century, was named after the city.
In 1996 and 2018 the three-day state festival Day of the Saxons took place in Torgau.
From May to October 2004 the second Saxon State Exhibition took place in Torgau under the title “ Faith and Power - Saxony in Europe during the Reformation ” . The focus was on the history of the Reformation.
For the 500th anniversary of the Reformation and as part of the subsequent Luther Decade , Torgau will be the location of the 1st National Special Exhibition with the title “Luther and the Princes” from May to October 2015. In 2015, Torgau was awarded the honorary title of “ Reformation City of Europe ” by the Community of Evangelical Churches in Europe .
Economy and Infrastructure
The four largest employers in Torgau are the auto supplier Flachglas Torgau GmbH with 550 employees, the porcelain manufactory Villeroy & Boch , the prison Torgau and HIT Holzindustrie Torgau GmbH & Co. KG .
The Torgau District Hospital "Johann Kentmann" gGmbH is a public law house with 250 beds a house of standard care , it has a certified breast , bowel and trauma center . With its name it is reminiscent of the city physician who worked in Torgau in the 16th century.
In Torgau there are several elementary schools, the Katharina-von-Bora-Oberschule and the Oberschule Nordwest Torgau, the Johann-Walter-Gymnasium and the Vocational School Center Torgau.
The great attraction of the city (Renaissance architecture, Lutherstätte, Elbe Cycle Path) for various target groups is flanked by an extensive range of accommodation, restaurants and cultural offers.
The city is located in the network area of the Central German Transport Association and is connected by the Omnibus transport company Heideland and the Schulze travel company with two PlusBus and other regional bus routes.
In rail traffic there is a connection to the S-Bahn Central Germany via the Torgau station on the Halle – Cottbus line , which was opened in 1872 as a section of the Halle-Sorau-Gubener Railway with the Elbe bridge at Torgau . In the past, Torgau was the starting point for the Torgau – Belgern railway , which connected the district town of Torgau with the city of Belgern between 1915 and 1995 , and the Pratau – Torgau railway , which was operated by passenger trains between 1895 and 1997 from Torgau to Pretzsch (Elbe) . The station is used by more than 1,500 travelers a day. The city bought the reception building in 2016 for 250,000 euros. It is to be demolished and replaced by a new building by 2021.
The Elbe Cycle Path continues past the city.
Older representations, sources
- Benjamin Bieler: A brief chronica of the famous city of Torgau. Christian Gottlob Hilscher, Leipzig 1769, OCLC 311790881 ( facsimile in the Google book search; in Fraktur ).
- Püschel: Brief historical and geographical news from the city of Torgau. o. O. 1760, OCLC 258100003 ( facsimile ; in fracture ).
- Karlheinz Blaschke : Delitzsch - Eilenburg - Torgau. Land and cities in the history of Saxony. In: Sächsische Heimatblätter , 39, 1993, pp. 265-270.
- Karlheinz Blaschke: The historical development of the city of Torgau from the beginnings to the beginning of the 19th century. In: Findeisen / Magirius, 1976, pp. 13–37; Reprint (excerpt) in: Peter Johanek (Hrsg.) With the collaboration of Uwe John: Stadtgrundriß und Stadtentwicklung. Research into the development of central European cities. Selected essays by Karlheinz Blaschke (= urban research. Series A, representations. Vol. 44). Böhlau, Cologne / Weimar / Vienna 1997, ISBN 3-412-06897-7 , pp. 257-266; 2nd Edition. Ibid. 2001, ISBN 3-412-02601-8 .
- Peter Findeisen , Heinrich Magirius (Ed.): The monuments of the city of Torgau (= The monuments in the Leipzig district ). VEB Seemann, Leipzig 1976, .
- City of Torgau (Ed.): 20 years of urban redevelopment in Torgau 1991–2011. Torgau 2011.
- Torgau website
- Torgau in the Digital Historical Directory of Saxony
- Literature about Torgau in the Saxon Bibliography
- Luther and the princes. 1st national special exhibition for the 500th anniversary of the Reformation in Torgau . ( Memento from April 6, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) skd.museum, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden
- Torgau Museum Path
- Torgau city views
- Population of the Free State of Saxony by municipalities on December 31, 2019 ( help on this ).
- Eileen Jack, Nico Wendt: Romina Barth cheers, Andrea Staude speechless . In: Torgauer Zeitung . June 28, 2015, accessed January 6, 2017.
- German Weather Service, normal period 1961–1990
- Ernst Eichler , Hans Walther (ed.): Historical book of place names of Saxony. Volume II: M-Z. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin 2001, ISBN 3-05-003728-8 , p. 512.
- Bernhard J. Müller (Ed.): Paperback Latin, Latin - German (= Compact Silverline Dictionary ). Among employees by Domingo Avilés. Emphasis. Compact, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-8174-9026-4 .
- The fire disaster in Torgau. In: City of God. Family magazine of the Steyler missionaries. Edition Germany. Steyler Missionaries, Mission Printing Office Steyl, Nettetal / Steinhausen 1906, p. 517.
- Team Moosburg Online: POW camp (list). Military District IV - Dresden [Germany, Czech Republic]. In: moosburg.org. March 26, 2014, accessed January 14, 2017 .
- Stefan Geck: The German prisoner-of-war system 1939-1945. (PDF; 649 kB) (No longer available online.) In: hbz-nrw.de. University of Münster, January 14, 2009, p. 34 , archived from the original on March 23, 2014 ; accessed on December 20, 2017 (Master's thesis 1998).
- Memorial Book. Search in the name directory. Search for: Torgau - residence. bundesarchiv.de; accessed on January 7, 2017.
- See also over 40 films on youtube.de, accessed on January 7, 2017.
- Torgau-TV: Encounters on the Elbe on YouTube (2:05 min, film excerpt), accessed on January 7, 2017.
- homepage . Memorial for the closed youth work center Torgau; accessed on January 6, 2017.
- 2014 municipal council elections. State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony , accessed on June 16, 2019 .
- Municipal council election 2019. State Statistical Office of the Free State of Saxony , accessed on June 16, 2019 .
- town twinning . torgau.de; accessed on January 7, 2017.
- Torgau: "Leave Excrement" - Delegation dismantles hotel room. In: bild.de . December 3, 2019, accessed December 3, 2019 .
- Torgau dissolves town twinning with Strzegom
- Elisa Perz: Partnership between Torgau and Striegau has ended in Torgauer Zeitung (accessed on December 1, 2019)
- Kristin Engel: Renewed war memorial inaugurated . In: Torgauer Zeitung. December 16, 2013, accessed January 6, 2017.
- Jürgen Wagner: Torgau (Thuringian Hussar Reg. No. 12), Northern Saxony District, Saxony . denkmalprojekt.org, online project fallen memorials; accessed on January 7, 2017.
- Torgau-Mehderitzsch, Northern Saxony district, Saxony . denkmalprojekt.org, online project fallen memorials; accessed on January 7, 2017.
- Torgau-Weßnig, Northern Saxony district, Saxony . denkmalprojekt.org, online project fallen memorials; accessed on January 7, 2017.
- Memorials and memorials - Saxony / Silesian Lusatia. (PDF; 883 kB) (No longer available online.) BdV - Association of Expellees, archived from the original on December 25, 2016 ; accessed on November 28, 2015 .
- DIZ, Office of the StSG: Homepage . stsg.de; accessed on January 6, 2017.
- Elisabeth Kohlhaas: Stolpersteine relocated in Torgau. Documentation and Information Center (DIZ) Torgau, February 27, 2020, accessed on April 2, 2020 .
- First stumbling blocks in Torgau . Torgau participates in the Europe-wide memorial project. In: Torgauer Stadtzeitung . News from the city of Torgau. No. 3 , February 22, 2020, p. 1 ( torgau.eu [PDF; 2.7 MB ; accessed on April 2, 2020] Official Journal appears in Torgauer Zeitung ).
- Luther and the princes. 1st national special exhibition for the 500th anniversary of the Reformation in Torgau . ( Memento from April 6, 2017 in the Internet Archive ) skd.museum, Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden ; Retrieved December 20, 2017.
- Luther 2017 . torgau.eu; accessed on January 7, 2017. See the city portrait of the project “Reformation Cities of Europe”: Reformation City Torgau . In: reformation-cities.org/cities, accessed on January 6, 2017, as well as the city portrait of the project “European Station Path” : Torgau . r2017.org/europaeischer-stationweg; accessed on January 6, 2017. For information on Torgau's significance in the history of the Reformation, see also the sections on Torgau in the time of the Reformation and personalities .
- Christian Wendt: Will an ugly duckling soon become a proud swan? In: Torgauer Zeitung. December 10, 2016, accessed November 27, 2018 .
- Nick Leukhardt: Torgau's train station is threatened with demolition. In: Torgauer Zeitung. November 23, 2018, accessed November 27, 2018 .
- Saxon newspaper . 23 May 2018.