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Znojmo znak.svg
Znojmo (Czech Republic)
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Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Historical part of the country : Moravia
Region : Jihomoravský kraj
District : Znojmo
Area : 6589.1481 ha
Geographic location : 48 ° 51 '  N , 16 ° 3'  E Coordinates: 48 ° 51 '19 "  N , 16 ° 2' 55"  E
Height: 290  m nm
Residents : 33,780 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 669 02
License plate : B.
Street: Vienna - Jihlava
Railway connection: Hrušovany nad Jevišovkou – Znojmo , Vienna – Znojmo and Znojmo – Kolín
Status: city
Districts: 9
Mayor : Vlastimil Gabrhel (as of 2016)
Address: Obroková 2/10
669 22 Znojmo
Municipality number: 593711
Website : www.znojmocity.cz

Znojmo (German Znaim ) is a city in the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic with 33,780 inhabitants (2019). It is located on a rock tongue on the left, steeply sloping bank of the Thaya (Dyje) , 55 kilometers southwest of Brno and 75 kilometers northwest of Vienna , not far from the border with Lower Austria .


middle Ages

South view of the old town of Znojmo
Masaryk Square in the old town

Already during the times of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th century there was a fortress on this site. The old Znoima , also Znojem , since 1055 one of the main places of the Brno-Znojmo Principality , which later split into the two separate Apana duchies Brno and Znoimo , was destroyed in 1145 by the Bohemian King Vladislav II . The Louka monastery was founded in 1190 for the Premonstratensians . In 1197 the Znojmo principality ceased to exist and Znojmo became a German settler town. The newcomers received numerous advantages from the then applicable German settlement law, such as ten years of tax exemption.

In 1226 Znojmo was re-established and the Přemyslids I. Ottokar Premysl to the royal city levied. In 1278 the town charter was confirmed by the Roman-German King Rudolf I. In 1292, 1303 and 1307 other deeds of grace of the Bohemian kings followed and in 1314 a formal town charter. On August 18, 1308, Frederick of Austria made a peace with Heinrich of Carinthia in Znojmo, in which he renounced the rights to Bohemia . Likewise, Sigismund of Hungary , Jobst of Moravia and Albrecht III allied here on December 18, 1393 . of Austria against King Wenceslaus . 1404 lay before Znaim, as the seat of the Moravian privateers under "Dürrteufel" Hynek von Kunstadt auf Jaispitz , King Sigismund and Duke Albrecht IV of Austria . During the Hussite Wars , the city belonged to the Catholic Federation of German Cities of Moravia .

Emperor Sigismund died on December 9, 1437 in Znaim. After being laid out for three days in the St. Niklas Church, his body was transferred to Oradea . His death and the intrigue that was still being played during his lifetime inspired Max Mayer-Ahrdorff to write his book “ Kaiser Sigismunds Tod auf der Znojmo Castle ” , published in 1923 .

Modern times

In 1526 a sect appeared in South Moravia that had arisen in those years, whose followers were called Anabaptists because they rejected infant baptism . Shortly after the Anabaptists, the new teaching of Martin Luther also found its way into South Moravia. By 1550, Lutheranism had established itself in Znojmo and Catholicism is being pushed back by Protestantism . The time of the Reformation found many followers. In 1556 the Sankt Michaelskirche had a Protestant pastor. In 1570 the Counter Reformation began. After a successful recatholicization by the Jesuit Father Michael Cardaneus , a number of churches in Znojmo that had been lost to the Catholics were rededicated

A number of significant events are connected with the name of the city: In Znaim, for example, at the beginning of December 1631, the decisive negotiations between an envoy of Emperor Ferdinand II and Albrecht von Wallenstein were held, which ultimately led to the (re) appointment of the general to imperial service . From December 1631 to April 1632 Wallenstein stayed in the house of Privy Councilor Count Braida , which later became the Starhemberg Palace.

Indication sketch (1824)

Also through the battle of Znojmo between the troops of Archduke Charles and the French under Auguste Frédéric Louis Viesse de Marmont and André Masséna , as well as through the armistice of Znojmo concluded the next day, which led to the Peace of Schönbrunn on October 14, 1809 , the City meaning.

In 1855 the city became the seat of a district court . Industry also settled here, if only to a small extent. The Znojmo cucumbers have become famous . Besides viticulture, beer was also brewed in Znojmo. In 2009/2010, the last brewery in town, the Hostan brewery, was closed.

The increasing national division of the city in the second half of the 19th century is also reflected in its club life. In 1870 the liberal Znojmo citizens 'association was founded, which in 1882 established a citizens' association building. As a result of increasing tensions, the association changed its name to Association German House in 1913 . Also in 1870, Jan Vlk founded Beseda znojemská, the first and still active Czech association in Znojmo. In 1881, the association also received its headquarters with the Beseda House on Unteren Platz (today: Masarykplatz). Due to the right to vote in the curia , only German parties were elected to the municipal council until 1918.

Twentieth century

After the break-up of Austria-Hungary in 1918, Znojmo and all of Moravia became part of the newly founded Czechoslovakia . In the interwar period, the appointment of civil servants led to an increase in the influx of people of Czech nationality. Around 1925, Znojmo had around 254 clubs and a population of around 23,000. There was a German and a Czech association for almost every area of ​​interest. The proportion of the German population fell from 85 percent to 39 percent between 1910 and 1930, while the percentage of the Czech population rose from 12.7 percent to 62 percent within the 20 years, also due to the influx of people from nearby villages. The tensions between the two ethnic groups increased. Under pressure from the Hitler regime, the Western powers forced the Czechoslovak government in the 1938 Munich Agreement to cede the outlying areas inhabited by Germans to the German Reich. As a result of the agreement, Znojmo became part of the Reichsgau Niederdonau on October 1, 1938 . The invasion of German troops led to the flight and expulsion of the Czech, Jewish and anti-fascist German population. In November 1938, the National Socialists destroyed the city's synagogue .

Stumbling blocks for two members of the Weinberger family at 859/21 Rudoleckého Street

Between 1939 and 1945, eight Thayaboden villages were incorporated under Nazi rule. The city became the seat of the German district of Znojmo , the administrative area of ​​which consisted of the judicial districts of Markt Frain ( Vranov nad Dyjí in Czech ), Joslowitz ( Jaroslavice in Czech ) and the city of Moravian-Kromau ( Moravský Krumlov in Czech ) and a total of 950 square kilometers, as well as 94 municipalities , of which 16 had market rights. On the night of April 19-20, 1945, the city was bombed by the Allies, with the train station as the main target. Further serious damage was caused to the Unterring, where the Jungnickelsche House and the southwestern part of Füttergasse with the town hall were destroyed.

Znojmo was liberated from the Red Army . After the unconditional surrender of the Wehrmacht on 8/9 May 1945 the city came back to Czechoslovakia. Many German South Moravians fled the violent acts of self-proclaimed Revolutionary Guards and national militias across the nearby border to Austria and believed they would soon be able to return. Others were driven across the border or interned in barracks camps. The victims among the German civilian population are documented. Around 200 people could remain in the city; the remaining Germans were forcibly resettled to Germany between February 28 and September 18, 1946, and their property was confiscated. Most of the former Znojmo in Austria were brought to Germany.

Recent past

As a result of the February coup in 1948 and the development of Czechoslovakia into a socialist state, the city was at the so-called Iron Curtain until 1989 .

Due to its location, Znojmo has to struggle with floods again and again in spring. To get this problem under control, the reservoir was enlarged and better fortified. Nevertheless, there were again evacuations and floods in 2006, but these were limited.

Jewish community

The Jewish community in Znojmo is one of the oldest in the region. Jews have probably lived in the city since the middle of the 11th century, and the ghetto is known from the 13th century . In the 15th century there was a significant immigration of Jews from Lower Austria, the Moravian region and Galicia . In 1454 King Ladislaus expelled all Jews from Znojmo; apart from a few exceptions, they were only allowed to settle in the city from 1848.

The Jewish community in Znojmo reached its highest number in 1921 with 749 people, after which it decreased again, other sources confirm this with slightly different numbers.


Parish registers have been kept in Znojmo since 1623. You can search online via the Brno State Archives.

Population development
year Residents Remarks
1834 05.010 in 773 houses, almost all of them German residents of Catholic faith (eight Evangelicals)
1857 08,676
1866 11,000 with Mannsberg , Thajadorf and Neustift
1880 12,772 thereof 11,012 Germans, 1,528 Czechs and 232 others
1890 15,167 thereof 12,936 Germans, 1,982 Czechs and 249 others
1900 16,239 mostly German residents (1,854 Czechs)
1910 19,683 thereof 16,812 Germans, 2,496 Czechs and 375 others
1921 21,197 of which 7,988 Germans, 11,691 Czechs and 1,518 others
1930 25,855 thereof 16,139 Czechs, 8,347 Germans and 1,369 others (442 Jews), according to other information 30,967 inhabitants
1939 23,770 of which 807 Protestants, 22,126 Catholics, 319 other Christians and 38 Jews
1971 26,126
1981 39,263
1991 39,949
2001 35,773
2011 34,122 thereof 16 Germans, 19,061 Czechs and 15,045 others (including 4,928 Moravians , 8,081 without information)

City structure

The town of Znojmo consists of the districts Derflice (Dörflitz) , Kasárna (Kasern) , Konice (German Konitz) , Mramotice (Mramotitz) , Načeratice (Naschetitz) , Oblekovice (Oblas) , Popice (Poppitz) , Přímětice (Brenditz) and Znojmo ( Znojmo) . Basic settlement units are Cínová hora, Derflice, Dolní Leska, Dukelská, Horní Leska, Hradiště (Pöltenberg) , Kasárna, Ke Chvalovicím, Konice, Louka (Klosterbruck) , Masarykova Kolonie, Městský les, Thaykova Kopy , Načeratickyí, Načer Dáčer , Nad Gránicemi, Nová hora, Nová nemocnice, Oblekovice, Padělky, Pod Kraví horou, Popice, Pražské sídliště, Přímětice, Stará nemocnice, Střed, U kamenného mostu, Za nádražím jádro, and Zickéhožím, Zelnice. Other locations are Bohumilice (Pumlitz) , Nesachleby (Esseklee) and Starý Šaldorf (Alt Schallersdorf) .

The urban area is divided into the cadastral districts of Derflice, Konice u Znojma, Mramotice, Načeratice, Oblekovice, Popice u Znojma, Přímětice, Znojmo-Hradiště, Znojmo-Louka and Znojmo-město.


The historic city center was declared an urban monument reserve in 1971 .

St. Nicholas Church with the Wenceslas Chapel (right)
Plague column on Masarykplatz in Znojmo

As an old castle and royal town, Znojmo has a very well-preserved medieval town center . Although the rotunda of St. Catherine (also known as the pagan temple ) is the historically most valuable monument, the 80 meter high town hall tower from 1445 became the city's landmark. The town hall itself was destroyed in 1945. Together with the Gothic cathedral of St. Nicholas (also St. Nicholas Church or Nikolaikirche), it formed a characteristic silhouette of the city. The Old City houses numerous other churches and monasteries such as St. Elizabeth's Church , the Capuchin monastery , the Minorite , the Dominican monastery (Czech Kostel Nalezení svatého Kříže ), the Clarissinnenkloster which Pöltenberg (Hradiště sv. Hypolita) and the Premonstratensian monastery Bruck (Czech Louka ), also important Renaissance bourgeois houses ( Palais Daun , Starhembergpalais or the Palais Ugarte ), under which a labyrinth of underground passages extends, the Wolf Tower (Vlkova věž) and other buildings.

The history of the city of Znojmo and the South Moravian region is presented in the South Moravian Museum at several locations in the city and the surrounding area. East of the city center on Komenského náměstí (Komenský Square) is the former copal monument , which was built in honor of Karl von Kopal . The city ​​theater , which opened in 1900, is located south of the center .

The Znojmo railway bridge over the Thaya, which was placed under protection as a cultural monument in 1988, is a technical attraction .

In the course of the Josephine reforms , but also during the communist period, numerous churches and chapels in the city were destroyed. a. the Sankt-Katharina-Kirche , the Sankt-Peter-und-Paul-Kapelle , the Sankt-Johann-Kapelle and the Mariahilf-Kapelle .


sons and daughters of the town

The following personalities were born in Znojmo / Znojmo. They are listed chronologically according to the year of birth.

Lived and worked in Znojmo

The listing is alphabetical.

“Znaim im Schnee” by Theodor von Hörmann
Old town with town hall tower, St. Nicholas Church and Thaya Valley

Town twinning


  • Gregor Wolny : The Margraviate of Moravia, topographically, statistically and historically. Znojmo District 1837.
  • Anton Huebner: Znaim's historical monuments. 1843.
  • Anton Huebner, Victor Huebner and Michael Netoliczka: Memories of the royal. City of Znojmo. Znojmo 1869 ( e-copy ).
  • Heinrich von Gontard: History of the Protestant Church in Znaim from the Reformation to the present. 1884.
  • Gregor Wolny : The Anabaptists in Moravia. Vienna 1850.
  • Loserth Johann. The communism of the Moravian Anabaptists in the 16th and 17th centuries: contributions to their history, doctrine and constitution. Carl Gerold's son, 1894.
  • Alexander Fossek: Znaim and its surroundings. 1897.
  • Johann Zabel: Church handler for South Moravia, 1941, Vicariate General Nikolsburg, Znaim pp. 83, 85, 86, 87.
  • Karl Wittek: Heimatbuch Znaim.
  • Bruno Brehm: Znaim Sudetenland homeland. A local history reader. Aufstieg-Verlag, Munich 1973, ISBN 3-7612-0103-6 , p. 199.
  • Hellmut Bornemann: Znaim - Das Stadtrechtsbuch von 1523. 1992. Publisher: Südmährischer Landschaftsrat, ISBN 3-927498-14-9 .
  • Hellmut Bornemann: Land on the Thaya. Preface: Otto von Habsburg. Publisher: Amalthea, ISBN 978-3-85002-463-1 .
  • Anton Vrbka: Memorial Book of the City of Znojmo 1226–1926. Cultural and historical images from this time. A. Bartosch Verlag, Nikolsburg 1927.
  • Georg Dehio , Karl Ginhart : Handbook of German art monuments in the Ostmark. 1941, on Znaim p. 507.
  • Ilse Tielsch -Felzmann: South Moravian Legends. Heimatwerk publishing house, Munich 1969, DNB 458281980 .
  • Wenzel Max: Thayaland, folk songs and dances from South Moravia. Geislingen an der Steige 1984, DNB 995322678 .
  • Felix Bornemann : Arts and Crafts in South Moravia. Maurer, Geislingen an der Steige 1990, ISBN 3-927498-13-0 , on Znaim p. 41f.
  • Hans Zuckriegl: The Znojmo cucumber. Vienna 1990, DNB 910447470 .
  • University of Gießen (Ed.): Sudetendeutsches Wörterbuch Vol. 1, 1988, ISBN 978-3-486-54822-8 .
  • Hans Zuckriegl: Dictionary of the South Moravian dialects. Their use in speech, song and writing. 25,000 dialect words. Self-published, 1999 (620 pages), DNB 958 310 726 .
  • Bruno Kaukal: The coats of arms and seals of the South Moravian communities. Knee, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-927498-19-X , on Znaim p. 259f.
  • Gerald Frodl, Walfried Blaschka: The Znaim district from A – Z. Maurer, Geislingen an der Steige 2009.
  • Anton Kreuzer: Early history in and around Znaim. Maurer, Geislingen an der Steige, 1971, DNB 457296259 .
  • Alfred Schickel , Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume III. Maurer, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 .
  • Aleš Filip, Jan Kozdas, Jiří Krejčí, Lenka Krejčová: Znaim - from the Middle Ages to the modern age. K-public, Brno 2012, ISBN 978-80-87028-09-4 .
  • Martin Markel : Svoboda a demokracie v regionu rakouského impéria. Politika jihomoravských Němců v letech 1848-1919 (= Země a kultura 18). Brno 2010.
  • Jiří Kacetl: 77 wonders of the city of Znojmo. Znojemská Beseda, Znojmo 2008.
  • Herta Rauscher-Emge: From Znaim to Brühl. Geest-Verlag , Vechta 2014, ISBN 978-3-86685-477-2 .

Web links

Commons : Znojmo  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. http://www.uir.cz/obec/593711/Znojmo
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. John Eberhorn: Czech Republic: German in the Czech Republic . August 24, 2016 ( planet-wissen.de [accessed May 23, 2017]).
  4. ^ Anton Vrbka: Memorial Book of the City of Znaim 1226–1926. Cultural and historical images from this time. A. Bartosch Verlag, Nikolsburg 1927.
  5. ^ Anton Kreuzer: History of South Moravia Volume 1. Maurer Verlag, Geislingen / Steige. 1997.
  6. Joseph Polišenský and Josef Kollmann: Wallenstein. General of the Thirty Years' War. Cologne, Weimar, Vienna 1997. pp. 236f.
  7. Znojemská Beseda ( Memento of the original from December 19, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.znojmocity.cz
  8. ^ Martin Markel: Svoboda a demokracie v regionu rakouského impéria. Politika jihomoravských Němců v letech 1848-1919. Země a kultura 18. Brno 2010. (Czech)
  9. ^ Johann Wolfgang Brügel : Czechs and Germans 1918–1938. Munich 1967.
  10. ^ O. Kimminich: The assessment of the Munich Agreement in the Prague Treaty and in the literature on international law published on it. Munich 1988.
  11. Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The Znaim district from A to Z. 2009.
  12. ^ Wilhelm Turnwald: Documents on the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans. Offprint: Europa-Buchhandlung. Munich 1951, on Znaim pp. 75 and 507.
  13. Federal Ministry for Expellees, Refugees and War Victims (Ed.): The expulsion of the German population from Czechoslovakia. Weltbild-Verlag, 1994, ISBN 3-89350-560-1 . On Znaim Vol. 1: pp. 6, 13, 120 and Vol. 2: 17, 71, 351ff, 358f.
  14. ^ Walfried Blaschka, Gerald Frodl: The district of Nikolsburg from AZ. South Moravian Landscape Council, Geislingen an der Steige 2006, on Znojmo p. 216
  15. ^ Alfred Schickel, Gerald Frodl: History of South Moravia. Volume III. Maurer, Geislingen an der Steige 2001, ISBN 3-927498-27-0 , on Znaim p. 259ff.
  16. Cornelia Znoy: The expulsion of the Sudeten Germans to Austria in 1945/46. Diploma thesis to obtain the master’s degree in philosophy, Faculty of Humanities at the University of Vienna, 1995
  17. ^ Znojmo , short report of the portal holocaust.cz about Jews in Znojmo, online at: holocaust.cz / ... ; accessed on February 8, 2017.
  18. From the history of the Jewish communities in the German-speaking area , section Znaim / Thaya (Moravia) , online at: www.jüdische-gemeinden.de / ... ; accessed on February 8, 2017.
  19. Acta Publica Online search in the historical registers of the Moravian Provincial Archives in Brno (Czech, German). Retrieved April 2, 2011.
  20. ^ Gregor Wolny : The Margraviate of Moravia . Volume 3: Znojmo Circle , Brno 1837, p. 37.
  21. ^ Carl Kořistka : The Margraviate of Moravia and the Duchy of Silesia in their geographical relationships . Vienna and Olmütz 1861, pp. 268–269 .
  22. ^ Gregor Wolny : Church topography of Moravia . Part II: Brno Diocese , Volume 4, Brno 1861, p. 83 .
  23. ^ Anton Huebner: Memories of the royal. City of Znojmo . Znaim 1869, p. 593.
  24. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 20, Leipzig and Vienna 1909, pp. 971–972.
  25. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. aus_znaim.html. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).
  26. Historický místopis Moravy a Slezska v letech 1848–1960, Vol. 9 1984. (Czech)
  27. Czech Statistical Office: Databáze demografických údajů za obce ČR. ( Memento from June 12, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) (Czech)
  28. Czech Statistical Office: Sčítání lidu, domů a bytů 2011. (Czech)
  29. Části obcí: Územně identifikační registr ČR. Retrieved May 23, 2017 .
  30. Základní sídelní jednotky: Územně identifikační registr ČR. Retrieved May 23, 2017 .
  31. Katastrální území: Územně identifikační registr ČR Retrieved May 23, 2017 .
  32. Hellmut Bornemann: Znaim: City on the Thaya. Living past . Amalthea Signum Verlag, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-85002-599-7 , p. 117 m. Fig. (Painting: Znaim an der Thaya ).
  33. Lenka Kudělková: Vídeňský architect Armand Weiser v meziválečném Znojmě. In: Generosum labor nutrit. Sborník k poctě Bohumila Samka. Národní památkový ústav, územní odborné pracoviště v Brně, Brno 2010, pp. 82–96.