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Jihlava coat of arms
Jihlava (Czech Republic)
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Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Historical part of the country : Moravia
Region : Kraj Vysočina
District : Jihlava
Area : 7,885 ha
Geographic location : 49 ° 24 '  N , 15 ° 35'  E Coordinates: 49 ° 23 '46 "  N , 15 ° 35' 18"  E
Height: 525  m nm
Residents : 50,845 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 586 01
License plate : J
Street: Dálnice 1-Znojmo
Railway connection: Znojmo – Kolín
Veselí nad Lužnicí – Jihlava
Status: Statutory city
Districts: 16
Lord Mayor : Karolína Koubová (as of 2018)
Address: Masarykovo nám. 1
586 01 Jihlava
Municipality number: 586846
Website : www.jihlava.cz

Jihlava ( pronunciation ? / I ; German Iglau ) is a medium-sized town in the Czech Republic , which lies directly on the Bohemian - Moravian border. It is a center of the Vysočina region and the oldest mountain town in the Bohemian lands. Audio file / audio sample


The city is located on the Bohemian-Moravian Highlands at the confluence of the Jihlávka ( Little Hedgehogs ) with the Jihlava ( Hedgehog ) River , which forms the old border between Bohemia and Moravia , about 78 kilometers west-northwest of Brno . The European route 59 (l / 38) leads through the city, which starts north of Jihlava on the D 1 / E 50 motorway .


Jihlava, Masaryk Square with Neptune Fountain

Jihlava is an old Moravian mountain town where, according to legend, silver was mined as early as 799.

King Ottokar I set up a mountain chancellery and a mint. The city enjoyed a very early stage extensive privileges and was in 1250 by I. Wenceslas Premysl to the royal city levied.

The city and mining law Jura civium et montanorum , granted by the king in 1249, is the oldest known legal system that was enacted for a city administration whose economic basis was mining.

In the town hall there is a collection of old municipal and mining laws that can be dated to 1389. Iglau is also an old cloth-making town , whose cloths were famous for centuries.

Parts of the city fortifications have been preserved
Iglauer coat of arms in the Codex Gelnhausen

During the Hussite Wars , Iglau was - like Pilsen and Brüx - a center for Catholics. The city was spared from conquest and destruction, although the imperial-Catholic troops suffered a heavy defeat in January 1422 not far from Deutschbrod . The Iglauer Kompaktaten of July 5, 1436, a treaty with the moderate wing of the Hussites , marked the end of the Hussite Wars. This treaty recognized Emperor Sigismund as King of Bohemia, but had to make far-reaching concessions on his part.

A granite column near the town marks the place where Ferdinand I swore allegiance to the Bohemian landowners in 1527. From 1596 the town expanded its property considerably by purchasing the former Seelau monastery property on the left side of the hedgehog in Bohemia from the Trčka of Lípa . The acquired areas were combined as the New Good in Bohemia .

In 1625 the city sold the step-by-step part of the new property . During the Thirty Years War , Jihlava was conquered by the Swedes twice .

In 1742 Iglau fell into Prussian hands during the Silesian War . In December 1805 the Bavarian Army was defeated under Wrede near the city.

Up until the First World War Iglau was the location of the Austro-Hungarian Army . In 1914 the staff, the I., II. And III. Battalion of the Moravian Infantry Regiment No. 81 and the 2nd Battalion of the Landwehr Infantry Regiment No. 14 their garrison.

Before 1945, Iglau and its surroundings formed the second largest German language island in Moravia and adjacent to the Bohemian side of the border after the Schönhengstgau . In 1910 the city had 27,927 inhabitants, of which 21,756 were German or German-speaking and 5974 were Czech.

Population development until 1900
year Residents Remarks
1804 10,948
1834 16,553 without the garrison, mostly German Catholic residents (including 599 foreigners)
1852 18,100
1857 17,427
1900 24,385 mostly German Catholic residents (4,228 Czechs )

After the establishment of Czechoslovakia , the number of Czech inhabitants increased and in 1930 there were 31,028 inhabitants in Jihlava / Iglau, of which 17,968 were Czechs and only 12,095 were Germans. In the Jihlava language island and in some Czech and mixed villages in the area, a specific folk culture was preserved until the end of the Second World War. Musicians used original homemade instruments and groups of four fiddles and ploschperment . Typical dances were Hatscho / Hatschou, Indian ink and Radln . Peasant women liked to wear old “Pairic” costumes with little Šárkas , shiny dark aprons and large red scarves.

From March 16, 1939 to May 9, 1945 Iglau / Jihlava was a district town in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the seat of a regional councilor . The German residents became German citizens, and a German local politician was appointed mayor. The aim of the National Socialist rulers was to turn Iglau into a German city . The Czech residents became members of the Protectorate .

A few weeks after the end of the Second World War , the German citizens were expropriated due to the Beneš decrees and, in some cases, were forcibly resettled on foot marches south to Austria, which were costly. The remaining German inhabitants of the Iglauer Sprachinsel were evacuated in 16 rail transports by September 26, 1946. Only a few were allowed to stay. The number of Germans from the Iglauer Sprachinsel who perished in 1945 is put at 2,000.

The assets of the Evangelical Church were liquidated by the Beneš Decree 131 and the Catholic Churches in Czechoslovakia were expropriated .

Recent history

From 1951 Jihlava was the site of several communist show trials : They were directed against the influence of the church on the rural population and their cause was the murder of three local communist functionaries in Babice . In the trials, 11 defendants were sentenced to death and 111 defendants received long prison terms. Because of the speed of the trials, there is speculation as to whether the raid was commissioned by the State Security Service. All convicted persons were rehabilitated after the Velvet Revolution of 1989.

In protest against the Soviet occupation in 1968, Evžen Plocek burned himself on the market square during the Prague Spring . A plaque there commemorates his self-immolation .

Town twinning


Our Lady Gate

The historic city center was declared an urban monument reserve in 1982 .

The Jesuit Church of St. Ignatius with two towers and the Jesuit college next to the town hall were built by the Italian architect Jacopo Braschi between 1680 and 1727. In the nave, flat side chapels and oratorios are arranged in the typical Jesuit style on both sides.

The Mariensäule (plague column) at the Ringplatz was erected in the years 1686–1691 in place of the medieval pillory out of gratitude for overcoming the plague by Jacopo and Agostino Braschi. The statues of St. Francis Xaverius, St. Joseph, St. Sebastian and St. James are by Antonio Laghi.

The St. Jakobskirche is a Gothic three-aisled hall church with two towers, it is the main church of the city and was founded in 1243. In the south tower there is a large bell (approx. 7,400 kg) from 1564.

The Church of the Assumption of Mary is a monastery church of the former Minorite monastery near the Mother of God Gate, built in the 13th century with a three-aisled choir and ribbed vault.

Jihlava Town Hall

The town hall was built in the 16th century through the expansion and inclusion of several houses with arcades from the 13th century, it is located on Masaryk / Ringplatz (36,653 square meters).

There are also town houses from the 13th to 16th centuries.

The city walls from the 14th century have largely been preserved. Of the original five city gates, only the Mother of God Gate remains. The fortifications were abolished in 1755.

The Mother of God Gate is the city's landmark and the only gate that has survived from the five medieval gates. It was built together with the fortifications in the 13th century and was renovated in 1853.


The catacombs make another cultural monument of the city. Its total area is 50,000 square meters and its length is 25 km, they are thus to Znojmo ( Znojmo ) is the second largest underground labyrinths in the Czech Republic. The tunnels are carved in the rock below the city on two to three floors at a depth of 2 to 14 m. Construction began in the 14th century and was carried out by experienced miners.

Other sights include the Church of St. John the Baptist , the former Dominican monastery with the Holy Cross Church, the Evangelical Paul Church , the Mount of Olives and the Holy Spirit Chapel , the Neptune Fountain and the Amphitrite Fountain on Ring- / Masaryk-Platz.

In Gustav Mahler house in the Znojmo Str. 4 (Znojemská ul.) Is Gustav Mahler grew up. There are notable tombs in the Jewish cemetery , including the gravestone of Gustav Mahler's parents.

City structure



  1. Antonínův Důl (Antonienthal),
  2. Červený Kříž (Red Cross),
  3. Henčov (Heinzendorf),
  4. Heroltice (Hilbersdorf),
  5. Horní Kosov (Obergoss),
  6. Hosov (Hossau),
  7. Hruškové Dvory (pear tree farm ),
  8. Jihlava (Iglau),
  9. Kosov (Gossau),
  10. Pávov ( Peacock Village ),
  11. Pístov (Pistau),
  12. Popice (Poppitz),
  13. Sasov (Sachsenthal),
  14. Staré Hory (Altenberg),
  15. Vysoká (Hochdorf) and
  16. Zborná (Waldhof) .

Cadastral areas

  1. Antonínův Důl (Antonienthal),
  2. Bedřichov u Jihlavy (Friedrichsdorf),
  3. Helenín (Helenenthal),
  4. Henčov (Heinzendorf),
  5. Heroltice u Jihlavy (Hilbersdorf),
  6. Horní Kosov (Obergoss),
  7. Hosov (Hossau),
  8. Hruškové Dvory (pear tree farm ),
  9. Jihlava (Iglau),
  10. Kosov u Jihlavy (Gossau),
  11. Pančava, Pávov ( Peacock Village ),
  12. Pístov u Jihlavy (Pistau),
  13. Popice u Jihlavy (Poppitz),
  14. Sasov (Sachsenthal),
  15. Staré Hory (Altenberg),
  16. Vysoká u Jihlavy (Hochdorf) and
  17. Zborná (Waldhof) .


The share of employment in agriculture has been falling steadily since the 1990s. 65 percent of the workforce is employed in the industrial sector. So he plays the most important role.


Important companies are:

  • Mechanical engineering :
    • BOSCH Diesel sro, founded in 1993, manufacture of automotive components for diesel engines, 4,100 employees
    • Motorpal as, founded in 1949, production of automotive parts and accessories including engine parts, 2,750 employees
    • Automotive Lighting sro, founded in 1999, manufacture of vehicle headlights, 1,750 employees
    • Moravské kovárny as, founded in 1953, processing of pig iron and steel; Drop forgings 900 employees
    • Sixt Umformtechnik sro, founded in 1999, manufacture stamped, drawn and pressed parts for the automotive industry
  • Other industries:
    • Silnice Jihlava as, road and bridge construction, 364 employees
    • Kronospan ČR sro, founded in 1883, until 1994 Jihlavské dřevařské závody , wood production, production of chipboard and doors, 668 employees
    • Jihlavské sklárny Bohemia as, glassworks (manufacture of hollow glass), 1,086 employees

From 2018, Kronospan built Europe's first wood recycling plant in Jihlava. Here, old wood, for example from old furniture, should be prepared and processed into chipboard. In the city of Jihlava and the surrounding region, this project was viewed extremely critically, as increasing pollutant emissions from the release of formaldehyde and other chemicals in the waste wood to be processed were expected. Even before the plant was expanded, several residents complained of skin rashes and breathing problems. An increased number of cancers is associated with the Kronospan plant by the population. An environmental organization named Kronospan the second largest emitter of carcinogenic substances in the Czech Republic. In 2019 it was revealed that it is in the plant expansion Kronospans under Czech law a Schwarzbau to act. Kronospan denies these allegations. In the event of a legal violation, Kronospan would face a fine of the equivalent of 40,000 euros. In recent years, the company has had to pay twelve such fines for other offenses.


Jihlava Polytechnic , a non-university public university with around 600 students, has existed in Jihlava since 2004 .



  • Christian d'Elvert (ed.): Chronicle of the royal city of Iglau (1402–1607) by the Iglau town clerk Martin Leopold von Löwenthal . Ritsch, Brno 1861 ( e-copy ).
  • Gregor Wolny : The Margraviate of Moravia described topographically, statistically and historically . VI. Tape. Iglauer Kreis . 2nd edition, Winiker, Brünn 1846, pp. 1–35.
  • Johann Achatzi: Iglauer Heimatbuch. Community Iglauer Sprachinsel e. V., Heidelberg 1962.
  • Jiří Černý: Poutní místa jihozápadní Moravy. Milostné obrazy, sochy a místa zvláštní zbožnosti. Nová Tiskárna, Pelhřimov 2005, ISBN 80-86559-15-7 (Pilgrimage sites in Southwest Moravia).
  • Peter Ritter von Chlumecky : The registers or the chronological directories of the documents in the archives of Iglau, Trebitsch, Triesch, Gross-Bitesch, Gross-Meseritsch and Pirnitz, together with the as yet unprinted letters from Emperor Ferdinand II, Albrechts v. Waldstein and Romboalds Count Collalto (= the regests of the archives in the Margraviate Moravia, and Anton Boczek's reports on the research. Vol. 1). Volume 1, Division 1. In commission at Nitsch & Grosse, Brünn 1856, digitized .
  • Petr Hruby: The mountain town of Jihlava / Iglau in the 13th century. City and mines - citizens and miners. In: Yves Hoffmann, Uwe Richter (ed.): The early history of Freiberg in a national comparison. Urban early history - mining - early house building. Mitteldeutscher Verlag, Halle / Saale 2013, ISBN 978-3-95462-132-3 , pp. 295-314.
  • Martin Leupold von Löwenthal: Chronicle of the royal city of Iglau (1402-1607). Published by Christian d'Elvert . Commissioned by A. Nitsch bookstore, Brno 1861, digitized .
  • Alois Pokorny: The vegetation conditions of Iglau. A contribution to the plant geography of the Bohemian-Moravian Mountains. Commissioned by W. Braumüller, Vienna 1852, digitized .
  • Andreas Sterly: Tribulation of the city of Jihlava under the Swedish dictatorship. Especially during the siege in 1647. A contribution to the special history of the Thirty Years War, according to the manuscripts from that time. Beynhauer, Iglau 1828, digitized .
  • Jiří Vybíhal, Vilémem Wodákem: Jihlava pod hákovým křížem. 2., upravené vydání. Jiří Vybíhal, Jihlava 2009.
  • Viktor Velek: Iglau. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 2, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-7001-3044-9 ..

Individual evidence

  1. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  2. Jiří Majer: Businesses in the Bohemian Silver Mining of the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Era. About their causes and consequences . In: Christoph Bartels / Markus A. Denzel (ed.): Business cycles in European mining in pre-industrial times . Franz Steier Verlag, Stuttgart 2000, p. 74 ( online excerpt from Google Books [accessed May 5, 2015]).
  3. Jiří Vybíhal (with Vilém Wodák): Iglau under the swastika Nová tiskárna Pelřimov, ISBN 978-80-254-9251-2 , 2011
  4. ^ Joseph Marx von Liechtenstern : Handbook of the latest geography of the Austrian imperial state . Volume 2, Brno 1817, p. 995.
  5. ^ Gregor Wolny : The Margraviate of Moravia described topographically, statistically and historically . VI. Tape. Iglauer Kreis . 2nd edition, Winiker, Brünn 1846, p. 2 .
  6. ^ Herder's Conversations Lexicon . Volume 3, Freiburg im Breisgau 1855, p. 392.
  7. ^ Carl Kořistka : The Margraviate of Moravia and the Duchy of Silesia in their geographical relationships . Vienna and Olmüz 1861, pp. 268–269 .
  8. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 9, Leipzig and Vienna 1907, pp. 745-746.
  9. Jiří Vybíhal (with Vilém Wodák): Iglau under the swastika Nová tiskárna Pelřimov, ISBN 978-80-254-9251-2 , 2011
  10. ^ Felix Ermacora : The Sudeten German questions legal opinion. Langen Müller Verlag, 1992, ISBN 3-7844-2412-0 .
  11. Police investigate mass murder of Deutsche Welt-Online, August 18, 2010
  12. ^ Official website of the city of Jihlava. Attractions.
  13. ^ Salzburg.orf.at: Kronospan threatens a fine in the Czech Republic , July 22, 2019, accessed on July 23, 2019
  14. No more published. See: Michael O. Krieg: No more was published. A list of unfinished printed works. Volume 2: M – Z, supplements (= Bibliotheca bibliographica. Vol. 2, Part 2). Krieg, Bad Bocklet et al. 1958, p. 151.

Web links

Commons : Jihlava  - collection of images, videos and audio files