The Moscow State P. I.-Tchaikovsky Conservatory ( Russian Московская государственная консерватория имени П. И. Чайковского , Moskovskaya Gossudarstwennaja Konserwatorija Imeni PI Tschaikowskogo ) was founded in 1866 and is the best known musical training facility in Russia . The rector is Alexander Sokolov. It is the second oldest conservatory in Russia after the Saint Petersburg Conservatory .
In 1860, Nikolai Rubinstein and Wasilij Kologriwow founded the Moscow Department of the Russian Music Society ( Russkoe muzykal'noe obščestvo , RMO) with the aim of opening a conservatory for the training of professional musicians. For this purpose, he also organized concerts and collected donations. Classes initially took place in Rubinstein's private apartment. At first, lessons were given in music theory and choral singing, later the subjects piano, violin, cello, trumpet, flute and solo singing were added. In 1864 there were already 200 pupils being taught. From these music classes, the Conservatory was founded in 1866 as the Moscow Imperial Conservatory with the support of Prince Nikolai Petrovich Trubetskoi . Nikolai Rubinstein was in charge of the company until his death in 1881. Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky taught there as early as 1866 and was a lecturer in theory and harmony until around 1878 . In his honor the conservatory was named Tchaikovsky Conservatory in 1940 .
Almost the entire elite of Russian musicians was trained at the Moscow Conservatory. Famous graduates are e.g. B. Sergei Rachmaninow , Alexander Scriabin , Reinhold Glière , Andrei Gawrilow , Alfred Schnittke , Nikolai Medtner , Aram Chatschaturjan , Alexander Dawidenko , Mstislaw Rostropowitsch , Gidon Kremer , Dmitri Bashkirow and Svyatoslaw Richter .
The building originally dates from the 18th century and was built for Princess Katharina Romanovna Daschkowa by the architect Vasily I. Baschenow . It was leased from the Conservatory in 1871 and acquired in 1878. Under the directorate of Vasily Safonow , extensive renovations and extensions took place between 1893 and 1901 according to plans by the architect WP Sagorski. The three-building complex has several halls, including the Great Hall (opened in 1901), the Small Hall (opened in 1898), the Conference Hall, the Rachmaninov Hall, and the Myaskovsky Concert Hall . The Nikolai Grigoryevich Rubinstein Museum is also housed in the buildings.
The hall is one of the acoustically best concert halls in the world and can accommodate 1,800 spectators. There is room for 130 orchestral musicians and 250 singers at the same time on the stage. The acoustic peculiarity of the hall is based on ceramic hollow bodies that are inserted into the vaulted ceiling.
In the 1920s to 1930s, the hall was used not only for concerts, but also as a cinema . In 1936 the State Symphony Orchestra of the USSR (now the State Academic Symphony Orchestra of Russia ) gave its first concert in this hall. In 1940 the chess championship games of the XII. USSR chess championship held.
Concerts and festivals as well as important international music competitions such as the Tchaikovsky Competition take place in this hall , orchestras from all over the world and internationally renowned artists perform here.
The hall is decorated with portraits of 14 composers made by Nikolai Bodarewsky . Depicted are Michail Glinka , Johann Sebastian Bach , Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , Joseph Haydn , Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy , Richard Wagner , Alexander Borodin , Peter Tschaikowski , Ludwig van Beethoven , Georg Friedrich Händel , Franz Schubert , Robert Schumann , Christoph Willibald Gluck and Anton Rubinstein . In 1953 the portraits of Mendelssohn, Gluck, Haydn and Handel were replaced by portraits of Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov , Frédéric Chopin , Alexander Dargomyschski and Modest Mussorgsky . The portraits of Mendelssohn and Haydn are now hanging in the foyer of the conservatory. The portraits of Gluck and Handel were lost.
The small hall offers space for 436 spectators and was opened on November 6, 1898. At the opening, on the occasion of the fifth anniversary of the death of Peter Tchaikovsky, his works were performed. A bas-relief portrait of Nikolai Rubinstein is placed above the arch above the stage in the small hall . The walls of the hall are decorated with stucco pictures of musical instruments.
- Official website (Russian and English)
- Tchaikovsky Conservatory: Rector's Office. Retrieved May 22, 2020 (English).
- Bayerischer Rundfunk: September 13, 1866: The Moscow Conservatory is founded | BR classic. Retrieved May 23, 2020 .
- 115 years Moscow Conservatory. In: MosKultInfo. April 29, 2016, accessed on May 20, 2020 (German).
- moskau.RU, City Journal: Conservatory. In: Moscow.RU. Retrieved May 20, 2020 (Russian).
- The Moscow Conservatory Past, Present, and Future, Moscow 2016. Accessed May 20, 2020 .
- Helmut Mauró: The best concert halls in the world. In: Süddeutsche Zeitung. Retrieved May 20, 2020 .
- Piano Inforum: Moscow State P. I.-Tchaikovsky Conservatory. In: Piano InForum. December 22, 2012, accessed May 24, 2020 .
- Theater in Moscow, Tchaikovsky Conservatory. In: OstWest.com. Retrieved May 24, 2020 .
- Малый зал Московской консерватории - афиша концертов 2020-2021. Retrieved May 26, 2020 (Russian).
- Small Hall of the Moscow Conservatory. Retrieved May 26, 2020 (Russian).