Joseph Haydn

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Joseph Haydn (oil painting by Thomas Hardy, 1791)
Italian signature of Joseph Haydn: di me giuseppe Haydn
("from me Joseph Haydn")

Franz Joseph Haydn (born March 31 or April 1, 1732 in Rohrau , Archduchy of Austria ; † May 31, 1809 in Vienna ) was an Austrian composer of the Viennese Classic .

The brother of the composer Michael Haydn and the tenor Johann Evangelist Haydn spent the greater part of his professional career as a court musician at the country estate of the wealthy Hungarian Esterházy family , whose orchestra and opera he directed. He described the isolation from other composers and musical currents with the words: "I was separated from the world, no one in my vicinity could mislead and torment me, and so I had to become original."

Haydn's setting of the poem Gott! receive Franz, the Kaiser, our good Kaiser Franz! , the Kaiserlied , became the Austrian Imperial Anthem and later became the German national anthem with a different text .


Childhood and Adolescence (1732–1749)

Location of the birthplace Rohrau and other places in the region where Haydn spent most of his life (today's borders)

Joseph Haydn was born as the second of twelve children of the Wagner and later market judge Mathias Haydn and his wife Maria Haydn (née Koller) in Markt Rohrau , Obere Hauptstrasse 25, in the Archduchy of Austria , today's Lower Austria . Both parents could not read sheet music, but according to Haydn's memories, his family and neighbors often sang. His musical talent was discovered when he was a small child.

In 1738, at the age of six, Haydn was sent to live with relatives in nearby Hainburg an der Donau . In 1740 he was noticed by Georg von Reutter , the musical director of St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna , when he was traveling through the provinces to find talented choirboys. Reutter took Haydn with him to Vienna, where he lived as a choir singer for nine years, the last four of which were in the company of his younger brother Michael. The false claim that Haydn sang at Antonio Vivaldi's funeral in 1741 was made in 1978 by Alan Kendall , who erroneously referred to the “6 Kuttenbuben” listed as “choirboys” in the loan book of the Vienna Cathedral Parish. These "Kuttenbuben" (altar boys) only folded their hands and made no sound. Since Vivaldi only received a "Kleingleuth" and no music had been paid for, there was no music when he was consecrated , and Haydn had nothing to do with Vivaldi's consecration.

Haydn received singing, piano and violin lessons in the cathedral chapel. Reutter corrected Haydn's first compositions, but gave him no regular composition lessons. Nevertheless, Haydn learned a lot - largely in self-tuition and probably just because he was a professional musician at a place that was important for music at a young age. Whether he already studied Johann Mattheson's The Perfect Capellmeister and the Composition Theory Gradus ad Parnassum by Johann Joseph Fux during this time or later cannot be clearly determined from the sources. The adult composer named both works as fundamental for his development.

Stephansdom (watercolor on lithograph by Eduard Gurk , 1830)

Freelance musician (1749 - approx. 1757)

In 1749 Haydn's voice break was complete, so that he could no longer sing the high voices in the choir. He was fired from his position and began a career as a freelance musician. During this arduous ten-year period, Haydn pursued many different activities, including as valet and companion of the Italian composer Nicola Porpora . He tried to fill in the gaps in his education and eventually wrote his first string quartets and his first opera . During this time, Haydn's professional reputation gradually rose.

Between 1754 and 1756 Haydn also worked as a freelancer for the Viennese court. He acted as "Extra Musicus" at balls of the imperial family during the carnival and was also used as a supplier singer in the court orchestra during Lent .

From 1754 the young Haydn gave piano lessons to the later composer Marianna Martines, who was born in Vienna in 1744 . At the beginning of this training, Marianna Martines is said to have played brilliantly. Haydn lived in the same house and gave her daily lessons for free.

Music director at the Count of Morzin (approx. 1757 - 1761)

Probably in 1757, Haydn received his first important position as music director of Count Karl von Morzin at Dolní Lukavice Castle near Pilsen . This year Haydn dated his first symphony composed for Morzin. As music director, he conducted a small orchestra, and for this ensemble he wrote his first symphonies , string trios , cassations and string quartets. These soon spread, often in transcripts; they did not get into print.

On November 26, 1760, Joseph Haydn married Maria Anna Theresia Keller, two years older than him, in Vienna's St. Stephen's Cathedral, the daughter of Johann Petrus Keller, a wig maker from Hamburg who was still wealthy at the time and who was exempt from court . The marriage soon turned out to be unhappy: his wife had little understanding of his music, and the marriage remained childless, which Haydn regretted very much.

Count Morzin soon got into financial difficulties, which forced him to give up his musical ventures.

Kapellmeister at the Esterházys (1761–1790)

Haydn's house in Eisenstadt

Haydn was quickly offered a similar position to the Esterházy family , one of the wealthiest and most important magnate families in the Kingdom of Hungary , initially as vice conductor. When the Kapellmeister Gregor Joseph Werner died in 1766, Haydn was promoted to first Kapellmeister. Now he could also compose sacred works, which Werner had reserved until then. His Stabat Mater , written in 1767, stands out from other settings of this sequence both in terms of time and instrumentation .

Haydn's livery
View of Eszterháza Castle
Bronze sculpture of Joseph Haydn in the park of Esterháza Palace (2013)

As a liveried musician with the rank of house officer of the Esterházys, Haydn followed the family to the three main residences: the family seat in Eisenstadt , about 50 km from Vienna; the Winter Palace in Vienna ; and Eszterháza , a large palace built in rural Hungary in the 1780s .

Haydn's enormous workload included composing, conducting the orchestra, playing chamber music for and with his patron, and arranging operas. The Esterházy princes (first Paul Anton , then especially Nikolaus I ) were music connoisseurs who valued his work and gave him the space for his artistic development, including daily access to his own small orchestra. In the season between February and November there were 100 to 150 performances (conductors).

Haydn had a long affair with Luigia Polzelli, a singer in the Esterházy company. Without evidence, it is repeatedly speculated that he is the father of her son Anton.

During almost thirty years in the Esterházy house, Haydn produced a flood of compositions and his musical style continued to evolve. Its popularity in the outside world also increased. Gradually Haydn wrote as much for publications as he did for his employer, and several important works of this period, such as the Paris Symphonies (1785–1786) and the original orchestral version of the Seven Last Words of Our Savior on the Cross (1786), were commissioned from abroad given.

From around 1781 a close friendship developed between Haydn and Mozart , whose work he had influenced for years. Both composers enjoyed playing together in string quartets . Haydn was impressed by Mozart's work. He now wrote fewer operas and concerts. Mozart endeavored to write six string quartets at the level that Haydn had reached with his recently completed series op. 33; when Mozart was done with it, he dedicated the quartets to his friend.

Like Mozart, Haydn belonged to the Viennese Freemason lodge Zurrue Eintracht , into which he was accepted on February 11, 1785.

Self-employment (1790–1809)

Prince Nikolaus died in 1790; his unmusical successor dismissed all court music and sent Haydn into retirement. He accepted a lucrative offer from the German impresario Johann Peter Salomon to go to England and perform his new symphonies with a large orchestra.

The trips (1791–1792 and 1794–1795) were successful. The audience stormed Haydn's concerts, and he quickly acquired fame and fortune. Music written for the visits to England generated some of his most famous works, including the Symphony with the drumbeat , the Military Symphony , the London Symphony , the Rider Quartet and the gypsy trio . Haydn even considered becoming an English citizen and settling permanently, but he returned to Vienna.

In July 1792 he met Ludwig van Beethoven in the Godesberger Redoute near Bonn. The 21-year-old Beethoven played Haydn; Both agreed that he should undertake a second study trip to Vienna to become a master student of Haydn.

Haydn's house in the suburb of Windmühle (lithograph, 1840)

1793 Haydn bought in the western Vienna Upper Windmill (a narrow area that the suburban windmill belonged and almost completely from the much larger suburban Gumpendorf was enclosed) a house with a garden in the Lower Stone Street no. 73, which he by conversions 1797 related. There the two oratorios The Creation and The Seasons as well as six masses were written for the Esterházy family, who at that time were again led by a musically inclined prince. Haydn composed the last nine a long series of string quartets, including the fifth quartet , the Sunrise Quartet and the Emperor Quartet . The latter was a commission from the Imperial Court of the Holy Roman Empire based on Lorenz Leopold Haschka's poem “Gott! receive Franz, the emperor, our good emperor Franz! ”. This imperial hymn was premiered in 1797 on the birthday of Emperor Franz II in the presence of his and both creators in the Burgtheater on Vienna's Michaelerplatz. The aging Haydn wrote in a letter: "Oh God, how much is still to be done in this wonderful art!"

In 1800 Haydn's wife died during a spa stay in Baden near Vienna . From 1802 onwards, Haydn was no longer physically able to compose or perform in public due to an illness from which he had suffered for some time. Even so, the stream of fresh musical ideas waiting to be worked out did not tear him off. The sick Haydn was well looked after by his servants and received many visits and public honors.

Death and burial

Haydn died of old age in 1809 while the French army invaded Vienna under Napoleon (see History of Vienna ). One of his last words was trying to reassure the servants when cannon shots rang out in the neighborhood.

The former tomb in Vienna

Haydn was buried in the Hundsturmer Friedhof (today Haydn Park in Vienna- Meidling ). In 1814, his pupil Sigismund von Neukomm donated the tomb, which shows a five-part riddle canon Neukomm on the words "Non omnis moriar".

The Esterházy family initially showed no interest in paying tribute to the deceased. Only the admiration of Adolphus Frederick, 1st Duke of Cambridge , reminded Prince Nicholas II of the former servant. He had Haydn exhumed in 1820 and transferred to the Bergkirche (also Haydnkirche) in Eisenstadt . When the coffin was opened during this work, the skull was missing. Research revealed that Prince Esterházy's secretary -  Joseph Carl Rosenbaum , a follower of Franz Joseph Gall's skull theory  - bribed the grave digger, a prison administrator and two Viennese officials to secretly open the grave eight days after the burial and steal the skull . The hiding place of the skull could not be determined at first, and so the corpse without skull was transferred to Eisenstadt and buried there. Later, the prison administrator, Johann Peter, handed over an alleged Haydn skull to the police. The secretary Rosenbaum left the real skull to his friend Peter when he was asked to bequeath it to the Conservatory of Music . But neither Peter nor his widow dared to publish it; the skull still wandered through several hands until it came into the possession of the Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Vienna in 1895 . Shortly before the First World War , the skull was examined by Professor Julius Tandler , described in detail and compared with Haydn's death mask.

The Haydn mausoleum in the Eisenstadt mountain church

In 1932, Paul Esterházy had the Haydn mausoleum built under the north tower in the left wing of the Eisenstadt mountain church according to plans by the architect Franz Kraus, in which Haydn's remains were initially buried. In 1954, the sculptor Gustinus Ambrosi solemnly placed the skull with the rest of the bones in the sarcophagus.

Character and appearance

Haydn was known among his contemporaries for his amiable and optimistic personality. He had a strong sense of humor that stood out in his love of pranks and is often audible in his music. He was particularly valued by the court musicians of the Esterházys, who were subordinate to him, because he maintained a warm working atmosphere and effectively represented the interests of the musicians vis-à-vis their employers.

Haydn was a devout Catholic who often picked up his rosary when he got stuck with a composition, a habit he found helpful. When he finished a composition he would write “Laus Deo” (Praise be to God) or a similar phrase at the end of the manuscript. He loved hunting and fishing for diversion.

Haydn was short in stature. His face was covered with scars from having survived smallpox. So he was quite surprised when the women swarmed around him during his visit to London. The portrait painters who drew or painted Haydn during his lifetime tried in different ways to express his attractive personality instead of his ugly face; therefore no two of the traditional portraits are alike.

Haydn was also an art lover and left numerous copperplate engravings from his collection, 140 of them from his time in London, mostly from contemporary art.


Haydn is traditionally regarded as the “father” of the classical symphony and the string quartet and was an innovator in the writing of piano sonatas and piano trios . Although other early classical composers, such as Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach in the piano sonata and Johann Christian Bach and Leopold Mozart in the symphony, played an important role, Haydn's influence is seen as predominant.


Excerpt from a copper engraving published towards the end of the 18th century by an English organist who also published Bach's Well-Tempered Clavier . The author counted Haydn among the best composers.

In addition, Haydn also contributed to the development of the sonata form from a simple form scheme derived from the "Sonata bipartita" to a subtle and flexible musical form of expression. He also invented the sonata rondo form, the variation form with two themes, and he was the first major composer to incorporate fugue and contrapuntal elements into the classical form.

The manner of Haydn in 1797 composed imperial anthem "God save Franz, the Emperor, our good Emperor Franz" (s. Above) underlaid August Heinrich Hoffmann von Fallersleben be in 1841 on the then British Helgoland sealed Song of the Germans , which with alternating verse using the national anthem of German Empire during the Weimar Republic and the National Socialist dictatorship as well as the Federal Republic of Germany .

Structure of music

A central characteristic of Haydn's music is the development of larger structures from very small and simple musical motifs . The music is formally often quite concentrated, and the important musical events of a movement can unfold quickly.

Many of Haydn's works are based on the sonata form , albeit with some peculiarities compared to Mozart and Beethoven. In the exposition, Haydn often does not use a contrasting “second theme” when reaching the dominant; instead he repeats the opening topic or a similar topic. In the recapitulation he often changes the order of the themes compared to the exposition.

Haydn's compositional practice influenced both Mozart and Beethoven . The special thing about the way the three Viennese classics were composed were three highly developed methods: obligatory accompaniment , openwork style and motivic-thematic work .

Perhaps more than any other composer, Haydn is known for the jokes he put in his music. The best known example is the sudden loud chord in Symphony No. 94 "with the bang". Further examples: the simulated end in the quartets op. 33 No. 2 and op. 50 No. 3 or the rhythmic illusion that he placed in the Trio op. 50 No. 1.

Development of Haydn's style

Joseph Haydn (painting by Ludwig Guttenbrunn , around 1770)

If one follows Haydn's work over the five decades (around 1749 to 1802) in which it was created, one finds a gradual but steadily increasing complexity and musical refinement that evolved as Haydn developed from his own experience and that of his colleagues learned. One can identify some important milestones in the evolution of Haydn's musical style.

In the late 1760s and early 1770s, Haydn wrote works that can be classified as “ Sturm und Drang ”, characterized by a passionate musical language and daring harmonies. In 1814, Anton Reicha wrote that Haydn had subjected his compositional style to a thorough revision:

“Haydn was constantly studying his art. […] After many works, at the age of 40 he began completely with the composition technique in order to consolidate himself in this skill and to better understand its secrets.

Most of the symphonies with numbers between 35 and about 55 are of this type. During this time he was engaged in contrapuntal studies and experimented with the writing of fugues that are in the Viennese tradition of Italian origin (JJ Fux) and less with the fugue of JS Bach's have to do, conspicuously in the final movements of the six string quartets (sun quartets ) op. 20 (1772).

In 1781 Haydn published six string quartets op. 33, with an announcement to potential buyers that they were written “in a completely new, special way”. Charles Rosen has discussed that this declaration on the part of Haydn is not only meant for marketing, but also very seriously; he points to a number of important advances in Haydn's style that appear in these quartets. Among other things, these are the flowing style of phrasing in which each motif emerges from the previous one without interruption; the custom of allowing accompanying material to develop into melodic material, and the type of “classical counterpoint” in which each instrument part retains its own integrity, which corresponds to the procedure Beethoven called “obligatory accompaniment”. These characteristics continue in the many quartets that Haydn wrote after Op. 33.

From 1781/1782, Haydn had a lively exchange of ideas with WA Mozart. Both recognized each other as equal masters, became friends and learned from each other. In musicology, Haydn therefore also speaks of a pre-Mozartian and a post-Mozartian period. An older contemporary whose work Haydn recognized as an important influence on his work was Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach , the second son of Johann Sebastian Bach .

Haydn was also friends with the Viennese lutenist Carl Kohaut , who also played compositions by Haydn for the lute (solo compositions, lute duos and other works).

In the 1790s, inspired by his travels in England, Haydn developed what Rosen calls his "popular style", a mode of composition that produced music with unprecedented success that had great popular appeal and yet possessed a learned and rigorous musical structure. An important element of the popular style was the frequent use of Austrian or Croatian folk (or invented pseudo-folk) material. Haydn endeavored to use such material in suitable places, for example at the end of sonata expositions or as opening themes for finals. In such places, the folkloric material serves as an element of stability that helps anchor the larger structure. Joseph Haydn's popular style can be heard in almost all of his later works, such as the twelve London symphonies, the late quartets and piano trios, and the two late oratorios.



A complete listing of the well-known works of Joseph Haydn was compiled by Anthony van Hoboken and is known as the Hoboken Directory . The work numbers from this directory are prefixed with the abbreviation Hob . The impresario and respected music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler printed some works by Joseph Haydn between 1783 and 1795. Haydn enjoyed a privileged position in Boßler's publishing house and was personally acquainted with the impresario of Marianne Kirchgeßner .

Orchestral works

See also: List of Joseph Haydn's symphonies

Stage works

24 operas including:

  • Acide e Galatea (1762, Hob. XXVIII: 1); Libretto by Giovanni Ambrogio Migliavacca after Pietro Metastasios La Galatea
  • La canterina (1766, Hob.XXVIII: 2)
  • Lo Speziale (The Pharmacist) (1768, Hob.XXVIII: 3)
  • Le pescatrici (The Fisherwomen) (1769, Hob.XXVIII: 4)
  • L'infedeltà delusa (The foiled infidelity) (1773, Hob.XXVIII: 5)
  • L'incontro improvviso (The Unexpected Meeting ) (1775, Hob.XXVIII: 6)
  • Il mondo della luna (The world on the moon) (1777, Hob.XXVIII: 7)
  • La vera costanza (1777/78, Hob.XXVIII: 8)
  • L'isola disabitata (1779, Hob.XXVIII: 9)
  • La fedeltà premiata (Loyalty rewarded) (1780, Hob.XXVIII: 10)
  • Orlando paladino (The Knight Roland) (1782, Hob.XXVIII: 11)
  • Armida (1784, Hob.XXVIII: 12)
  • L'anima del filosofo, ossia Orfeo ed Euridice (1791, Hob.XVIII: 13)

measure up

14 fairs:


3 sacred oratorios:

1 secular oratorio:

Solo concerts

  • 3 horn concerts
  • 6 organ concerts
  • 11 concerts for keyboard instrument (piano or organ), some of which are not considered authentic
  • 5 lyre concerts
  • 4 baryton concerts
  • 1 trumpet concert
  • 4 violin concertos
  • 2 cello concertos verifiably originating from Haydn (the authorship of 7 others is disputed):

Chamber music

Amongst other things:

  • 68 string quartets, for example Quintenquartett, Kaiserquartett, Larkquartett, Vogelquartett and Sunrise Quartet
  • 46 piano trios
  • 21 string trios
  • 126 baryton trios
  • 1 quartet in D major for lute, violin, viola and violoncello
  • 1 cassation for lute, violin and violoncello

Piano music

  • 52 piano sonatas
  • Piano pieces, capriccios and piano variations

See also: List of Joseph Haydn's piano music works

Vocal works

  • Motets and cantatas
  • Songs in different line-ups
  • numerous arrangements of Scottish and Welsh folk songs



During his lifetime

Haydn bust in the house where he was born in Rohrau
Haydn Monument in Budapest (1959)

Joseph Haydn received many honors during his lifetime. In 1791 he was awarded an honorary doctorate from the University of Oxford , in 1798 a member of the Royal Swedish Academy, in 1801 a foreign member of the Académie des Beaux-Arts , in 1803 he received the gold Salvator Medal of the City of Vienna, in 1804 he became its honorary citizen, in 1805 he was appointed to the Conservatoire in Paris. In 1808 he became an honorary member of the Philharmonic Society in St. Petersburg .

Posthumous honors

Building with namentlichem related to Joseph Haydn, the Haydn's birthplace in Rohrau, the Haydn House in Vienna Mariahilf , the Haydn Church in Eisenstadt, the Haydn House Eisenstadt and the Haydn house in Eisenstadt. In addition, the Haydn Inlet , a bay on the coast of the West Antarctic Alexander I Island, bears his name.

Various monuments were erected for Haydn and memorial plaques were attached. In addition, squares and streets were named after him, including Haydngasse in Vienna- Mariahilf (6th district) in 1862 .

On the occasion of Haydn's 200th birthday, the Haydn Foundation organized a special Haydn celebration in July 1932 in collaboration with what was then the “Mittelstelle Deutscher Jugend in Europa” (Mittelstelle Deutscher Jugend in Europa) with a clearly National Socialist, Greater German character. From all German-speaking settlement areas in Central Europe, young people brought earth to their homeland (e.g. Heligoland ), important historical sites (e.g. from the Wartburg near Eisenach ), from the graves of historically important Germans (e.g. from the imperial tombs of the Speyer Cathedral and the grave of Martin Luther ), memorials (e.g. Friedrich Schiller's birthplace in Marbach am Neckar ), battlefields (e.g. the Völkerschlachtdenkmal and the Langemarck cemetery) and workplaces (e.g. the Warndt area in Saarland ) to Eisenstadt as a commitment to national Germanness. The Haydnmal in the form of a large-sized cube urn bore the inscription "Youth came from all brands and brought earth of home, Joseph Haydn, the singer of the song of the Germans, the eternal empire of the Germans as a pledge."

The Eisenstadt Haydn Association financed a memorial, a portrait relief made of bronze on a marble block, designed by the sculptor Heidi Tschank, which was unveiled on May 1, 2018 in the Bürgerspitalgasse next to the composer's historic herb garden .

Haydn's portrait can be seen on the 20-schilling banknote from 1950 as well as on a 2-schilling, 20-schilling and 5-euro coin and on various postage stamps.


Audio books

Web links

Commons : Joseph Haydn  - collection of images, videos and audio files
Wikisource: Joseph Haydn  - Sources and full texts

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Archives of the Cathedral Parish St. Stephan, BLB 1741, fol. 177 f.
  2. ^ Dexter Edge: New Sources for Haydn's Early Biography , lecture at the AMS Congress, Montréal November 7, 1993 (cf. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians , London 2001, vol. 11, p. 265).
  3. Michael Lorenz : "Joseph Haydn's Real Wife" , Vienna 2014.
  4. ^ Michael Lorenz: "The Haydn Hamburger" , Vienna 2012.
  5. Hans-Urs Wili : Joseph Haydn: Stabat mater and La passione , PDF from May 9, 2009.
  6. Jürgen Holtorf: The lodges of the Freemasons. Nikol, Hamburg undated , ISBN 3-930656-58-2 , p. 145.
  7. ^ Communication in the article  in:  Wiener Zeitung , June 7, 1809, p. 1 (online at ANNO ).Template: ANNO / Maintenance / wrz
  8. ^ Eisenstadt Tourismus (Magistrate Eisenstadt): Haydn-Mausoleum ; Retrieved November 9, 2017.
  9. Otto Biba : Joseph Haydn: Art Friend . In: Musikblätter der Wiener Philharmoniker (2009), volume 9, pages 340–343 (a short version of this article appeared on May 31, 2009 in the Neue Zürcher Zeitung ).
  10. Freely translated from Anton Reicha, who had personal contact with Haydn: “Haydn étudiait son art sans cesse. […] Apres avoir fait beaucoup de ouvrages, il recommença à 40 ans, le cours complet de la composition, pour se affermir dans son art, et en connaître mieux les secrets. ”According to Mark Evan Bonds: Haydn's course complet de la composition and the Sturm und Drang , from W. Dean Sutcliffe: Haydn Studies , Cambridge 1998, pp. 152–176; quoted from Ludwig Finscher: Joseph Haydn und seine Zeit , Laaber 2002, p. 262.
  11. Erwin Schwarz-Reiflingen: The Haydn book for guitar. Musikverlag Hans Sikorski, Hamburg 1958, pp. 3 and 22–24.
  12. Hans Schneider : The music publisher Heinrich Philipp Bossler 1744-1812. With bibliographic overviews and an appendix by Mariane Kirchgeßner and Boßler. Self-published by Hans Schneider, Tutzing 1985, ISBN 3-7952-0500-X , p. 85-90 .
  13. Erwin Schwarz-Reiflingen: The Haydn book for guitar. Musikverlag Hans Sikorski, Hamburg 1958, pp. 3 and 23 f.
  14. Erwin Schwarz-Reiflingen: The Haydn book for guitar. Musikverlag Hans Sikorski, Hamburg 1958, pp. 3 and 22.
  15. Friedrich Heiss: The Saar book fate of a German landscape, Berlin 1934, pp 183-184.
  17. Haydn monument in Eisenstadt unveiled, May 1, 2018, accessed May 2, 2018.
This version was added to the list of articles worth reading on August 20, 2005 .