VI. Viennese district
|coat of arms||map|
|Geographic location :||48 ° 12 ' N , 16 ° 21' E|
|Residents:||31,651 (January 1, 2020)|
|Population density :||21,753 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||1060|
|Address of the
|Address of the
|District Head :||Markus Rumelhart ( SPÖ )|
|A total of 40 seats|
The Mariahilf district was created in 1850 through the incorporation of five former suburbs as the 5th district of Vienna , became the 6th district in 1861 due to the division of the Wieden and has existed since 1862 after territorial assignment to the northern neighboring district Neubau . The district has existed in its current size since a border correction in 2009, when a small part of the Naschmarkt was ceded by the 4th district, so that the market is now entirely in the area of the 6th district.
Mariahilf is limited as follows:
- North: New building (7th district), border: Mariahilfer Straße
- East: Inner City (1st district), border: Getreidemarkt ( two-way line )
- South: Meidling (12th district), Margareten (5th district) and Wieden (4th district), border: Wienfluss , right bank edge, or Naschmarkt , sidewalk edge to right Wienzeile
- West: Rudolfsheim-Fünfhaus (15th district), border: Mariahilfer Gürtel and Gumpendorfer Gürtel
Mariahilf belongs to the inner districts of Vienna, to the enlarged city center, and is the second smallest district of Vienna with an area of 1.48 km². It takes up 0.36% of the area of Vienna. The district is one of the most densely built-up districts in Vienna.
The terrain slopes down significantly towards the Wien River and the Inner City; the difference in height between Mariahilfer Straße and Wienzeile is almost 30 m, so that Mariahilf has one of the steepest topographies of the inner districts next to the Alsergrund . Several staircases were built to bridge the height differences .
Mariahilf was formed in 1850 from five suburbs, which correspond to today's district parts. These are:
- Windmill ( Upper and Lower Windmill )
The parts of the Laimgrube and the old town of Mariahilf to the north of Mariahilfer Strasse fell to the Neubau district in 1862. The eastern parts of the district Laimgrube, Windmühle and - in part - Mariahilf belong to the outer zone of the World Heritage Site of the Historic Center of Vienna .
There is also a breakdown of the district area into the counting districts of the official statistics, in which the counting areas of the municipality are summarized. The three counting districts in Mariahilf are Laimgrube, Mollardgasse and Stumpergasse.
Already around 2,000 years BC The Wiental in the area of Gumpendorf was settled by Indo-Europeans , which is indicated by archaeological finds. During the Roman Empire , the Romans built their military camp Vindobona in what is now the Inner City to guard the northern border of the empire . A street leading from there to the southwest corresponded to part of today's Gumpendorfer Strasse; the first medieval settlements arose there around the year 1000. There was a watchtower on the Römerstrasse crossing the Vienna River .
The villages of Gumpendorf and Laimgrube were first mentioned in a document in the 12th and 13th centuries. Due to the location on the Vienna River and the loamy soil, viticulture and the extraction of loam were the most important sources of income for the population. The first Turkish siege in 1529 left monasteries, houses and vineyards destroyed, but reconstruction began soon after the Turks withdrew - despite a building ban. The second Turkish siege in 1683 also brought devastation and destruction to the villages. The line wall built in 1704 should now also protect the villages that were developing into suburbs.
In the 18th century, building activity began, in the course of which numerous craft businesses settled and factories were built. At the same time, agriculture gradually lost its importance, as many former vineyards and fields were sacrificed for the construction of buildings.
On March 6, 1850, the five suburbs Gumpendorf Mariahilf, windmill, Magdalenengrund and Laimgrube were as 5th district named Mariahilf incorporated . With the division of Wieden from 1861, Mariahilf became the 6th district. In 1862 the parts north of Mariahilfer Straße were assigned to the 7th district, Neubau.
After the suburbs had been incorporated, the construction of the Gürtelstrasse began with imperial approval in the former construction prohibition zone of the line wall. The Mariahilfer Gürtel was officially named that way in 1864/1869, the Sechshauser Gürtel in 1894. The Gumpendorfer Gürtel did not follow until 1965, as it was not continuously passable until then. The line wall, which became obsolete as a tax boundary after the suburbs outside the belt were incorporated in 1892, was removed from 1894. The vacated area was used to widen the belt and for building purposes.
By the end of the 19th century, Mariahilf had developed into an important business district in Vienna. Mariahilfer Strasse had become an important shopping street, but the large department stores were across the district border in the 7th district, on the north side of the street. On the Mariahilfer side, mainly small and medium-sized businesses shaped the street scene.
From 1890–1907 there was a steam power station in Kaunitzgasse , one of the first power stations in Vienna. After the initially privately operated power plant was taken over by the municipality of Vienna, it was shut down and converted into a substation.
In 1895–1899, the southern district boundary was greatly changed by the Vienna river regulation . The river, which was previously provided with overgrown embankments, which could overflow its banks during floods, was given a brick bed that was completely vaulted in the area of the Naschmarkt (see also: Linke Wienzeile ). The Lower Wiental Line of the Vienna Steam City Railway was built on the southern bank as an underground railway, which opened on June 30, 1899 and opened up the southern part of the district with the stations Margaretengürtel , Pilgramgasse and Kettenbrückengasse (the name is reminiscent of the Vienna river bridge dismantled on the occasion of the arching). It was replaced by the Viennese electric light rail in 1925 , today the U4 runs here . On the western district border, the belt, the belt line of the light rail with the elevated railway station Gumpendorfer Straße was built until 1898 ; today the U6 runs here .
In 1897 the first electrically operated tram line ran in Vienna . It had one of its two terminus in the 6th district: in Wallgasse opposite the Westbahnhof . It connected this station, circling the city center to the north, with three other terminal stations in the city; their other terminus was the Volksprater at the Praterstern (2nd district). In 1907 the line was given the number 5. (Since the last renovation of Mariahilfer Straße, the "loop" of the "5er" is no longer in the 6th district, but, immediately adjacent, in the 7th)
From 1907 onwards, Adolf Hitler lived as a subtenant in Vienna, including with a Czech woman at 31 Stumpergasse in Mariahilf. In 1931 the strengthened Viennese NSDAP under Alfred Frauenfeld bought house 6, Hirschengasse 25, three streets away, set up their district administration here and called it Adolf Hitler House .
From 1938 on, Jewish Mariahilfer were persecuted, robbed, expelled and murdered by the Nazi regime. Political opponents, Roma and Sinti as well as the disabled and homosexuals were also exposed to this persecution. To commemorate this, the project “ Remembering for the Future ” was launched in 2007 on the initiative of District Councilor Kilian Franer. Mariahilf is the only district in Vienna and the only "municipality" in Austria to have placed memorial objects across the board, specifically for all those who were deported and murdered who last lived here.
1943–1944, the Viennese flak towers were built to ward off air attacks , including the so-called Leitturm in Esterházypark , from which the anti-aircraft cannons (hence the abbreviation Flak) mounted on the associated combat tower in the collegiate barracks (7th district) the coordinates of the most possible aircraft that hit the target. The tower, which was owned by the City of Vienna from 2000 to 2015, houses the Haus des Meeres , the current owner.
In occupied post-war Austria, the 6th district belonged to the French sector from 1945 to 1955. The neighboring districts were occupied by Russian (4th), English (5th) and American (7th).
The Theater an der Wien has had a very eventful history since its completion in 1801. In 1805 the world premiere of the opera “ Fidelio ” by Ludwig van Beethoven took place here. In 1962, the theater had to be bought by the City of Vienna to save it from demolition. After being the city's first musical stage for a long time, it has been Vienna's “third opera house” since the Mozart year 2006 .
The Kaunitz Garden Palace and the Marianum High School was located on Amerlingstrasse in the middle of the district for over 270 years . It was demolished in 1970 and replaced by a new school building.
In the 1990s there were two smaller changes to the district boundaries, namely in 1995 in the area of the belt concerning the border to the 15th district and in 1996 in the area of Europaplatz in front of the Westbahnhof , where the 6th, 7th and 15th districts meet to meet. Traffic structures in particular were affected by both boundary changes, the district affiliation of residential areas did not change. In 2009 a small part of the 4th district fell to Mariahilf, which means that the Naschmarkt has since been entirely in the area of the 6th district.
Mariahilf was already very densely populated after it was founded in 1850, which is why 67,642 inhabitants lived in the district area in 1869, a value that has never been exceeded. Until the beginning of the First World War, the population fell only slightly and remained largely stable. After the First World War, however, the population began to decline almost continuously. Due to the increasing demand for living space combined with the merging of apartments, the number of inhabitants in Mariahilf decreased by more than half. In the last census in 2001, the population reached its low of 27,867, but has been rising slightly since then. At the beginning of 2015, 30,910 people lived in Mariahilf.
The age structure of the Mariahilfer population in 2001 deviated from the Viennese average in several areas. Fewer children and more young and younger adults lived in Mariahilf than the average in Vienna. The proportion of residents under 15 years of age was 12.4% in 2001, below the Vienna figure of 14.7%. The population between the ages of 20 and 39 in Mariahilf was 34.4%, more than the Vienna average of 30.9%. The proportion of the population aged 60 or over was 19.2%, slightly below the average of 21.7%. The gender distribution in the district was in line with the community trend with a share of 47.1% men and 52.9% women, while the Mariahilfer were significantly less often married than the average Viennese with 35.8% compared to 41.2%.
Origin and language
The proportion of foreign residents in the district was 19.6% in 2005 (Vienna: 18.7%), and compared to 2001 (17.8%), as in the entire federal state, shows an upward trend. The highest proportion of foreigners in 2005 was made up of around 3.6% of the district population, citizens of Serbia and Montenegro . Another 2.4% were German , 1.5% Turkish , 1.3% Polish and 0.8% each of Croatian or Bosnian citizens. In 2001, a total of 26.6% of the Mariahilfer population were not born in Austria. Therefore, 5.6% spoke Serbian as the colloquial language , 3.5% Turkish and 2.3% Croatian .
The religious beliefs of the population of Mariahilf hardly differed from the average in Vienna in the 2001 census, only the proportion of people with a Roman Catholic or Islamic denomination was slightly below the average. In 2001, 47.4% of residents stated that they belonged to the Roman Catholic Church (Vienna: 49.2%). There are three Roman Catholic parishes in the municipality, which belong to the city dean's office 6/7 . 6.4% of the residents were of the Islamic faith, 6.0% belonged to the Orthodox Church and 5.2% were Protestant . 26.8% of the district population did not belong to any religious community, 8.2% had given no or a different religion.
|District chairman since 1945|
|Dr. Leather (unknown)||4/1945|
|Franz Löwner ( SPÖ )||4 / 1945-1946|
|Karl Bittner ( ÖVP )||1946-1954|
|Rudolf Krammer (ÖVP)||1954-1969|
|Hubert Feilnreiter (SPÖ)||1969-1977|
|Werner Jank (SPÖ)||1977-1988|
|Franz Blauensteiner (ÖVP)||1978-1984|
|Kurt Pint (ÖVP)||1984-1997|
|Erich Achleitner (ÖVP)||1997-2001|
|Renate Kaufmann (SPÖ)||2001-2014|
|Markus Rumelhart (SPÖ)||2014–|
The Mariahilf district was always contested between the ÖVP and the SPÖ . While the ÖVP was the party with the most votes after the Second World War until 1969, it was replaced by the SPÖ that year. However, as early as 1978 the SPÖ lost the district chairman to the stronger ÖVP, which subsequently dominated the elections.
With the entry of the Greens into district politics in the late 1980s and the appearance of the Liberal Forum (LIF) in 1996, the ÖVP and SPÖ increasingly lost votes. The ÖVP also lost massive votes in the 2001 elections. The SPÖ was able to make up for the losses of 1996 and became the party with the largest number of votes, which means that it also regained the post of district chairman. The Greens ended up just behind the ÖVP in 2001, the Liberal Forum suffered heavy losses , the FPÖ heavy losses.
The trend continued in the 2005 elections. The FPÖ lost again heavily in votes, the Liberal Forum flew out of the district representation. The SPÖ and the Greens benefited from the shift in votes, both of which grew strongly. In 2005, the Greens overtook the ÖVP for the first time, which incurred slight losses, and thus achieved the post of deputy district head.
In the 2010 district council elections, the Greens and ÖVP suffered heavy losses, while the SPÖ, FPÖ and BZÖ gained percentage points.
In the 2015 district council elections, the ÖVP had to accept absolute losses and the SPÖ percentage losses, while the NEOS generated the strongest increase in votes. The FPÖ and the Greens were able to record further profits. Markus Rumelhart , who was sworn in in 2014, remains district chairman .
coat of arms
The district coat of arms represents the five formerly independent municipalities from which the district was formed in 1850. The heart sign stands for the Mariahilf district and shows a brown ship on a surging sea with a silver sail. A flag with a double-headed eagle flies at the stern . Don Juan de Austria stands on the ship in golden armor, who is said to owe his victory over the Turks in the sea battle of Lepanto to the help of St. Mary .
The upper left part of the coat of arms represents the Laimgrube district. It shows Saint Theobald in a brown monk's habit in front of an altar with a crucifix , on the right there is a church. The coat of arms goes back to a chapel that was consecrated to St. Theobald in 1621 .
The right, upper part of the coat of arms stands for the district part of windmill. It also shows Saint Theobald, here on a silver background in the bishop's robe. To his left there is also a red-roofed church. The lower left part of the coat of arms symbolizes the Magdalenengrund district. The namesake of the district, Saint Mary Magdalene kneels in front of a silver background under the crucified on her left.
The right, lower part of the coat of arms stands for the Gumpendorf district. It shows a curved, golden tip with three lilies of yellow and black color on a black background. It is the coat of arms of the Muschinger family, who ruled Gumpendorf in the 16th century.
Culture and sights
The Mariahilfer Church on Mariahilfer Strasse houses a copy of the miraculous image of Mariahilf by Lucas Cranach the Elder , to which the district's name can be traced. The crypt has been located in the lower church since 1986 , a care center for the homeless run by Caritas .
A little out of the way is the Laimgrubenkirche called St. Josef's Church. From 1906 to 1907 it was "relocated" from Mariahilfer Straße to Windmühlgasse due to its traffic-blocking location. A copy of the old church was built at the new location, and after the interior furnishings were moved, the original church was demolished.
Other churches in Mariahilf include the documentary mentioned in the 13th century parish church Gumpendorfer ( Giles Church ) and on plans by Ludwig Förster and Theophil Hansen built Protestant Gustav Adolf Church .
The parish hall of Austria's oldest Baptist congregation is located in Mollardgasse (built in 1924).
At Linken Wienzeile 38 and 40 and at Köstlergasse 1 and 3 are the so-called Wienzeilenhäuser designed by the architect Otto Wagner . The three houses, completed in 1899, are designed in Art Nouveau style, Wagner lived in the house at Köstlergasse 3 himself at times. The Arik-Brauer-Haus on Gumpendorfer Straße is very modern and colorful . This house designed by Arik Brauer and completed in 1993 is kept in the style of Fantastic Realism .
The Fillgraderstiege, built from 1905 to 1907 according to designs by Max Hegele in Art Nouveau style, is one of the most architecturally interesting staircases in Vienna. Also worth mentioning are the Rahlstiege with the Gänsemädchenbrunnen , which connects Rahlgasse with Mariahilfer Strasse, as well as the animal drinking fountain at the other end of Rahlgasse . Close to the Rahlstiege is the Semper Depot , built in 1877 according to plans by Gottfried Semper and Carl Hasenauer , which originally served as a stage depot for the State Opera and the Burgtheater and is now used as an event location.
A cinema with twelve halls is now housed in the former Apollo Theater on Gumpendorfer Strasse. The building complex built in 1904 based on designs by Eduard Prandl included a theater, a hotel and three apartment buildings. In 1929 - in place of the theater - the Apollo Kino opened there , with 1,500 seats next to the Busch-Kino in the Prater, at that time the largest Viennese movie theater.
The Bernhard-Ludwig-Haus at Münzwardeingasse 2, built in the 1880s, was commissioned by the cabinet-maker Bernhard Hieronymus Ludwig from the architect Carl Langhammer . The Wilhelminian style house is now a listed building.
Also worth seeing are the two “through houses” (houses with public access through inner courtyards) Raimundhof and Schulhofpassage , the Beethoven House , in which Ludwig van Beethoven lived for a few months, the Naschmarkt , the main fire station Mariahilf and the Türkenkugel , one from the time of the Second Siege of the Turks in 1683, which was discovered in 1969 during construction work and today (as a replica) - with a plaque and the relief "Turkish Gunner" by Alois Lidauer - is walled into the corner of Morizgasse2 / Linke Wienzeile 172.
The Theater an der Wien on Linken Wienzeile was built in 1801 and is now part of the United Theaters of Vienna . Ludwig van Beethoven lived in the building for some time in 1803 and 1804, which was reminiscent of a memorial room until a few years ago. The Raimund Theater, named after Ferdinand Raimund , is located in Wallgasse at the other end of the district . The house was completely renovated in the mid-1980s, also belongs to the United Stages Vienna and is mainly a venue for musicals . In addition to these two stages, another important venue dedicated to entertaining music theater in Mariahilf was the former Apollo Theater on Gumpendorfer Strasse, as well as a number of smaller theaters such as Theater Gruppe 80 . Today the TAG ( Theater an der Gumpendorfer Straße ) plays in its former domicile . The Brett Theater is located in the Bernhard-Ludwig-Haus one street further .
The Mariahilf District Museum in Mollardgasse is dedicated to the Ratzenstadl (Magdalenengrund) , Theater an der Wien and Palais Kaunitz-Esterhazy . The Vienna Phonomuseum , which deals with the history of phonography, is located in the same building ; likewise the Mariahilf glass museum . A former flak tower houses the Haus des Meeres , whose biggest attractions include a 300,000 liter shark tank that opened in 2007.
The Haydnhaus, located in Haydngasse , was acquired by the composer Joseph Haydn in 1793 and lived in until his death in 1809. Today the house is a branch of the Wien Museum . Other Mariahilfer museums are the coffee museum with numerous exhibits on the subject of coffee and the sanitary history museum .
Mariahilf has a total of eleven parks. Due to the dense development of this area, most parks are only a few hundred to a few thousand square meters. In addition, there are numerous green inner courtyards, most of which, however, are not open to the public and are therefore hardly noticeable by passers-by.
The Esterházypark is the largest park in Mariahilf with around 10,400 square meters. The distinctive and highly visible landmark of the park is a 1944 erected Flakturm , which now houses the House of the Sea is located. The approximately 9,000 m² Alfred Grünwald Park was laid out in 1981 between Linker Wienzeile and Gumpendorfer Straße. The Loquaipark located on Loquaiplatz was divided into different areas, so a quiet part with lots of seats is primarily intended for the residents of the adjoining Mariahilf pensioner's house , while an area near a secondary school is intended to meet the needs of young people. Another area with a playground is intended for small children.
Other smaller parks in Mariahilf include the Franz-Schwarz-Park on the Gürtel (which was originally much larger and blocked the inner belt until 1965), the Helene-Heppe-Park, which mainly functions as a playground, and the Hubert Park, which houses a beach volleyball court . Marischka Park.
In Mariahilf, in addition to the Franz Schubert Conservatory for Music and Performing Arts, there is the central vocational school for the branches of electrical engineering , information technology , metal and glass technology as well as for sanitary , heating and air conditioning technology as well as the institute for advanced studies. Furthermore, there are lecture halls and other facilities of the Vienna University of Technology in the district area.
Mariahilf is served by numerous bus lines as well as the U2 , U3 , U4 and U6 of Wiener Linien .
The construction of the U5 is U2 future on the station Neubaugasse and Pilgramgasse stop cross Mariahilf Rich actuating the south, while the metro line 5 to station Museumsquartier from U2 will take over.
Two police stations of the Federal Police are established in Mariahilf . One is located at Kopernikusgasse 1, the other at Stumpergasse 42. Organizationally, they belong to the Margareten City Police Command, which is responsible for the districts of Wieden, Margareten and Mariahilf.
Personalities who were born in Mariahilf or who worked here
- Victor Adler (1852–1918), founder of the Social Democratic Labor Party
- Ludwig Anzengruber (1839–1889), Austrian writer
- David Josef Bach (1874–1947), music writer and journalist
- Otto Bauer (1881–1938), Austrian politician
- Ludwig van Beethoven (1770–1827), German composer
- Elfi von Dassanowsky (1924–2007), Austrian singer, pianist and film producer
- Fanny Elssler (1810–1884), Austrian dancer
- Selma Freud (1877– after 1933), first Austrian woman to receive a doctorate in physics in Vienna, and founder of the Vienna Salvation Army community
- Joseph Haydn (1732–1809), composer at the time of the Viennese Classic
- Arnold Köster (1896–1960), Baptist preacher
- Hans Krankl (* 1953), Austrian soccer player and pop singer
- Carl Langhammer (1840–1906), Austrian architect who designed numerous buildings in Mariahilf
- Franz Lehár (1870–1948), Austrian composer of Hungarian origin
- Siegfried Marcus (1831–1898), mechanic and inventor
- Karl Millöcker (1842–1899), Austrian operetta composer
- Karl Moering (1810–1870), Austrian officer
- Vinzenz Muschinger (16th century – 1628), owner of the Gumpendorf estate
- Ferdinand Raimund (1790–1836), Austrian actor and playwright
- Emanuel Schikaneder (1751–1812), actor, singer, director, poet and theater director
- August Sicard von Sicardsburg (1813–1868), Austrian architect
- Michael Thonet (1796–1871), successful furniture designer and producer
- Eduard van der Nüll (1812–1868), Austrian architect
- Oskar Werner (1922–1984), Austrian film and stage actor
- ↑ Statistics Austria - Population at the beginning of 2002–2020 by municipalities (area status 01/01/2020)
- ↑ District council elections 2015
- ^ Brigitte Hamann : Hitler's Vienna. Apprenticeship as a dictator , Piper, Munich 1996, paperback 1998, ISBN 978-3-492-22653-0
- ^ Adolf Hitler House on the website of the University of Vienna
- ↑ http://www.erinnern-fuer-die-zukunft.at/
- ^ Law on a change in the border between the 6th and 15th district (LGBl. For Vienna 14/1995), issued on March 20, 1995
- ^ Law on changing the boundaries between the 6th, 7th and 15th district (LGBl. For Vienna 49/1996), issued on September 25, 1996
- ↑ Census of May 15, 2001. Final resident population and number of citizens (with population development since 1869). District of Vienna: Vienna 6., Mariahilf , on Statistics.at (PDF, 12 kB).
- ↑ a b c Statistics Austria (2001 census)  (PDF; 10 kB)  (PDF; 11 kB)
- ↑ MA 5 Resident Population by Nationality and District 2001-2005 ( Memento from June 17, 2009 in the Internet Archive )
- ^ City of Vienna - Viennese municipal and district council elections
↑ The "Turk's Ball" that can be seen today is a replica, as the original was stolen.
See: Hedwig Abraham: Siege of the Turks 1683 | Turkish ball | 1060, Linke Wienzeile 172.Retrieved March 25, 2017.
- ↑ Lines U2 and U5 Website of Wiener Linien for the expansion of the U2 and the construction of the U5. Retrieved November 4, 2015
- ↑ Registration form for his apartment at Mollardgasse 69, door 8, where he lived from 1916 to 1939.
- Ernest Blaschek (Ed.): Mariahilf once and now . Gerlach & Wiedling, Vienna 1926
- Felix Czeike: Viennese district culture guide: VI. Mariahilf . Jugend und Volk, Vienna 1981, ISBN 3-7141-6234-8
- Art historical working group GeVAG (ed.): Viennese facades of the 19th century: residential houses in Mariahilf . Böhlau, Vienna 1976, ISBN 3-205-08172-2
- Carola Leitner (Ed.): Mariahilf: Vienna's 6th district in old photographs . Ueberreuter, Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-8000-7248-4
- Susanne Schestak-Hörschläger: Mariahilf - the cradle of the labor movement: History of social democracy in Mariahilf . Verl. D. SPÖ Vienna, Vienna 1989
- Mariahilf on the website of wien.at
- District Museum Mariahilf
- AZ article about Mariahilf from 1955
- Virtual Gumpendorfer Strasse