Viennese flak towers

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The battle tower in the Augarten

The Viennese flak towers are six large defensive and protective structures made of reinforced concrete in Vienna , which were built between 1942 and 1945 as huge air defense systems with mounted anti-aircraft guns and fire control systems. Such aboveground shelters were and are also called high bunkers . The architect of the flak towers was Friedrich Tamms (1904–1980). In contrast to the Berlin and Hamburg flak towers , the Viennese flak towers are largely unchanged.

Composition of the facility and function

Location of the Vienna flak towers in the triangle around the city center

The system of the Viennese flak towers consists of a total of six structures, three combat towers, each with a fire control tower . The three pairs of bunkers are arranged in a triangle with St. Stephen's Cathedral in the approximate center . The towers are of different heights, but their upper platforms are at the same level , which makes it easier to coordinate the data obtained by the radar systems ( fire control radar ) (for the state of German radar technology at that time, see Würzburg (Radar) ).

The maximum operational radius of the four main guns ( 12.8 cm Flak-Zwilling 40 ) of each tower was 20 km under ideal conditions. The smaller platforms of the combat and fire control towers were intended for 2 cm anti-aircraft guns, but they were never used in Vienna, as low-flying planes no longer appeared in the last years of the war. In addition to their military occupation, the flak towers in Vienna served as makeshift hospitals , housed radio stations and, in some cases, technical operations that were important for the war effort, and provided large air raid shelters for the population.

The towers were not removed due to their proximity to residential areas. Nowadays, the towers can be removed. In the meantime, however, all six buildings are under monument protection (a decision only exists for the two flak towers in Augarten (GZ 39.086 / 2/2000 of April 5, 2000)).

Today the towers are partly owned by the City of Vienna and partly by the state. There have been several attempts to convert the flak towers and make them usable. The ideas range from a depot for backup copies of important data to a coffee house or hotel .


During the Second World War it became clear that the British and Americans considered air strikes  - especially area bombing  - to be a means of bringing Germany to its knees (see also Area Bombing Directive , Feb. 14, 1942, aim of moral bombing ). The capacity of bombers increased, as did their range. Nonetheless, Vienna was out of the reach of British long-range bombers until 1944 . That changed with the conquest of Italy.

On September 9, 1942, Hitler ordered the construction of flak towers in Vienna. The Luftwaffe leadership envisaged the Schmelz , Prater and Floridsdorf as building sites . However, Hitler rejected these places because the city center would not have been adequately protected by the large distances. The final locations were determined after discussions with Reich Governor Baldur von Schirach . Three pairs of towers with a defense gun radius of about 20 km were to form a defensive triangle, the center of which was St. Stephen's Cathedral: in Augarten , in Arenbergpark in III. District (Landstrasse) and a third one in Esterházypark near Mariahilfer Strasse and in the courtyard of the collegiate barracks in VI. District. Instead of the Augarten, however, the Roßau barracks were initially discussed. Decisive for the choice of the places were the easy availability of the land and the possibility of making rail connections. The plan provided for the flak towers to be clad in marble after the victorious end of the war and to be dedicated to the fallen German soldiers as memorials .

As with all flak towers, Friedrich Tamms was responsible for the planning, he was represented in Vienna by Anton Ruschitzka, and Franz Fuhrmann from the Vienna City Building Office was in charge of construction . Major Wimberger was in charge of the military, but he had no task force. The material was procured by the Nazi construction organization Todt . Each pair of flak towers consisted of the large combat tower with heavy and light artillery and a smaller control tower for communications and searchlights. Towards the end of the war the towers were only just fully functional. In addition to military control centers, they also housed hospitals and manufacturing facilities. They also served as an air raid shelter for the people in the area: each tower had space for up to 30,000 people.


The companies Philipp Holzmann and Gottlieb Tesch were commissioned with the construction of the flak towers , with smaller companies being involved in working groups. Since the availability of local workers was constantly decreasing due to conscription , more and more prisoners of war , foreign and forced laborers were used in the course of the war .

Cement was mainly supplied from Mannersdorf on the Leithagebirge , and in smaller quantities from Rodaun . The gravel came from the Padlesak gravel pits in Felixdorf and Gustav Haager near Heidfeld on the Pressburg Railway , roughly in the area of ​​today 's Vienna-Schwechat Airport . Sand was delivered in ships via the Danube Canal ; In the area of ​​the Weißgerberlände sand silos of the United Baustoffwerke AG were built. A siding for the tram through Drorygasse was already in this area from 1918 . This had been shut down since 1925; it was restored in 1941 and two tracks were added the following year after another silo was built. For the waste that had accumulated during the excavation of foundations, (then Weissenbach street) in in the Kratochwjlestraße 22nd district a landfill created, which also received a tram connection.

Couple VIII: Arenbergpark

Battle tower Arenbergpark
Model of the Arenbergpark battle tower as part of the CAT art project

The flak pair in Vienna's Arenbergpark ( Landstrasse district ) is codenamed “Valerian”. The construction took place from December 1942 to October 1943, whereby both towers were constructed in type II with nine floors. To erect the towers, additional sidings were laid in the Aspang station . From there, a field railway ( gauge 600 mm) led over the Aspangstraße – Steingasse – Klimschgasse – Eslarngasse – Barmherzigengasse to the construction site. Another field railway with a track width of 900 mm ran over Wassergasse and Neulinggasse (then Schredtgasse) to the flak towers. To do this, it was necessary to demolish the house on Landstrasser Hauptstrasse 94 in order to allow a passage to Neulinggasse. This was also used for a siding of the tram that turned off Landstraßer Hauptstraße. In the years 1954/55 the Kurt-Steyrer-Hof municipal housing was built at this point , although the connection to Neulinggasse remained. The associated workers' camps were in the northern part of Brigittenau .

The battle tower is the largest of all Viennese flak towers. Its walls are generally two meters thick, but about seven meters on the top three floors. There is a corridor outside around the ground floor, which means that the total area is 57.0 m × 57.0 m, while the actual side length of the tower is 10 m less. The walls surrounding the gun posts are four meters thick. The protective cover over the eighth floor is between 3.80 m and 4 m thick. Originally there were 8.8 cm twin guns on the turret, then 10.5 cm guns, which were later replaced by the 12.8 cm guns. The flak tower was used as a bunker for civilians up to the third floor, a hospital on the fourth floor, a heating and ventilation system on the fifth and part of the Ostmark aircraft engine plant on the sixth . Only the seventh and eighth floors were used by the military, and the seventh floor also housed the premises of the Gaupropagandaleitung, the Kreisleitung, the Vienna radio station and Siemens & Halske . It was originally planned that the Reich Defense Commissioner and his task force should move in here, but the Gauleitung insisted on a bunker in the outskirts of the city.

After the war, the tower was used briefly by a pharmaceutical company and then used as a warehouse for medical supplies for the armed forces, which managed it for a long time. On August 31, 1990, the administration was transferred to the Federal Building Administration. Today the object owner of the battle tower is the Bundesimmobiliengesellschaft (BIG), although it is in Arenbergpark due to the City of Vienna ( Superädifikat ).

Arenbergpark fire control tower

The walls of the guide tower are between 2 m and 2.50 m thick, the ceiling is about four meters thick. In the basement there were facilities for waste disposal and supply, the ground floor served as an infirmary, which could only be used by the military and for wounded persons from the nearby Rudolfstiftung Hospital . Floors two to five served as shelters for the civilian population, but the third floor was occupied by a water tank, electrical systems and ventilation. On the sixth floor there were crew rooms, the telephone exchange, the ammunition store for the light anti-aircraft guns and other technical rooms. The seventh floor was reserved for calculating machines. There is also a shaft up to the roof, which was probably intended to lower the radio measuring device. The actual command center was on the eighth floor. The control tower is now fully owned by the City of Vienna,  and MA 34 (construction and building management) is responsible for it .

The guidance tower has housed an equipment store of MA 42 (Stadtgartenamt) on the ground floor since 1992 and has been used for an antenna system since 2002. Because of the high humidity, a request from the Vienna Architecture Center and 2000 from the AKH had to be rejected to use it as a storage room. The planned use as a data center could not be realized.

In 2005 and 2006 exhibitions of current artists were shown in the tower, organized by the factum Flakturm association. Furthermore, a group of historians was commissioned with research work. The finds that were made in the course of this were already able to close the glaring gaps in knowledge about the history of the towers' origins and uses, but had to be abruptly abandoned: due to the lease agreement for the group that expired in March 2007 and the lack of safety equipment for exhibitions, the Tower closed by the competent authority (MA 34). Now the group is fighting for access to the tower again.

On the one hand, the battle tower now houses a depot of the Museum of Applied Art ; on the other hand, the flak tower itself functioned as an art project, called CAT - Contemporary Art Tower, and was accessible as part of exhibitions and events. Due to unforeseen renovation work, the Arenbergpark battle tower is closed until further notice.

Technical specifications
description Combat tower Guide tower
Foundation size [m²] 3,844 1.938
Built-up area [m²] 3,249 885
Usable area [m²] 12,630 3,565
Base area [m × m] 47.0 x 47.0 38.0 x 19.0
Height [m] 42 39
Tower mass / payload [t] 178,400 62,800
Geo coordinates 48 ° 11 '55.2 "  N , 16 ° 23' 34.2"  E 48 ° 11 '53.7 "  N , 16 ° 23' 26.6"  E

Couple V: Stiftskaserne / Esterházypark

Battle tower Stiftskaserne

This pair of flak towers consists of the guidance tower in Esterházypark ( Mariahilf district ) and the combat tower in the Stiftskaserne ( Neubau district ). The towers were erected between October 1943 and July 1944. Due to the advancing war, steel and concrete had to be saved, which led to the development of type III , which is only available in Vienna. With its eleven floors, the guiding tower is built higher than the combat tower with nine floors, so that both towers are at the same altitude despite the different ground levels.

As far as the construction of the tower in Esterhazypark is concerned, no special transport facilities are known. For the battle tower, a reloading facility was built on the north side of the Westbahnhof , from which a field railway with 600 mm gauge ran to the monastery barracks. The route was Neubaugürtel – Seidengasse – Zieglergasse – Lindengasse – Stiftskaserne. The detour via Seidengasse was necessary because there was no direct connection between Lindengasse and Stollgasse. In order to save the construction of an intersection with the tram, the tram tracks in the Stiftgasse were simply interrupted. But there were two sidings for the tram directly into the barracks, one from the northern Stiftgasse and one directly from Mariahilfer Straße .

The new design of the battle tower has a sixteen-cornered floor plan, above the platform the building has 32 corners. It lies exactly in the axis of Michaelerplatz , Burgtor and Maria-Theresien-Monument . Little is known about its use, as the documents are incomplete. From the first to the fourth floor it was used for civil air raid protection, with the fourth floor also housing the Reichspost and the mayor's express command. The rooms above were reserved for the military. The gun posts were covered with a dome.

Guiding tower in Esterhazypark with the tropical house of the House of the Sea

The battle tower is owned by the Republic of Austria, after all the Stiftskaserne is a federal military facility on federal property. Thus it is administered by the army buildings administration. It is used by the command support command of the Austrian Armed Forces and is intended as a quickly accessible emergency shelter for the Austrian government. Because of this military use and the associated secrecy, little is known about its current state.

The new design of the control tower also resulted in material savings, but the differences to design II are less than those of the combat tower. Most noticeable is the position of the cantilevers on the platform (“swallow nests”) at the corners instead of in the middle. The walls are 2.50 m thick, the protective cover over the ninth floor is 3.50 m thick, but the top ceiling is only 60 cm.

View from the climbing wall at the Haus des Meeres in southeastern direction

The entrance on the east side was used by the military; the entrances on the west side lead to the civil protection rooms on the third floor. On the seventh floor there is a square opening (side length 80 cm) that was used for ventilation. A shaft leads down from the opening, with the cold, fresh air flowing through openings into each floor and rising again as used, warm air and leaving the tower through an exhaust air opening.

The guiding tower, which stands in the Esterházypark on public property of the City of Vienna, was initially completely owned by the municipality. Accordingly, MA 34 (construction and building management) was responsible for him. In the 1950s and 1960s , an underground youth hostel was housed in the air raid shelter, which today houses the torture museum . From 1954 to 1962, the Volkshochschule Wien West operated an observatory here . From 1956 it was adapted for the Haus des Meeres , which has been based here since 1958. In 1999 it received an extension on the outside to include the "tropical house" according to plans by Wilhelm Holzbauer . In 1991, as part of the Wiener Festwochen, based on a project by the American artist Lawrence Weiner, a striking anti- war slogan ( Smashed to pieces in the still of the night in both German and English ) was made at the top Part of the facade attached.

On July 1, 2015, the Vienna City Council unanimously decided to sell it to the Haus des Meeres for a symbolic amount of one euro. Even after the flak tower was sold, the City of Vienna is still the owner of the artwork by Lawrence Weiner and remains responsible for its maintenance. In 1998 the PES had a climbing wall built on the outside. A torture museum has been housed in the basement since 2000 .

At the beginning of 2018 it was announced that a glass extension would be installed in front of the entrance facade of the Haus des Meeres by the beginning of 2020. This will add 3000 square meters of floor space and the Lawrence Weiner lettering will be painted over.

Technical specifications
description Combat tower Guide tower
Foundation size [m²] 2.120 651
Built-up area [m²] ? 488
Usable area [m²] ? 1.915
Floor space 47 m Ø 31.0 m × 15.0 m
Height [m] 45 47
Tower mass / payload [t] 132,000 50,250
Geo coordinates 48 ° 12 ′ 6.3 "  N , 16 ° 21 ′ 22"  E 48 ° 11 '51.6 "  N , 16 ° 21' 10.6"  E

Pair VII: Augarten

Arrangement of the flak towers in pairs in the Augarten
Battle tower Augarten
The damaged battle tower in Vienna's Augarten - aerial view
Damaged parts of the battle tower

The flak pair in Vienna's Augarten (district: Leopoldstadt ) bears the code name "Peter". Combat and fire control tower were built from July 1944 to January 1945 according to type III . The battle tower, with its 13 floors, is two meters higher than the twelve-story guide tower, in order to bring its platforms to the same level. These are the most recently built and therefore most advanced anti-aircraft towers of the Third Reich . Planning only took place in Tamms' Vienna office. The reinforced concrete cantilevered girders on the outside for easier maintenance and repair of the platforms are particularly striking .

Both a railroad and a tram connection were built for the construction. The railway track branched off from the north-west station, crossed the tracks of tram line 5 and then ran directly inside the Augarten along its edge. In order to save a second crossing with the tram, a track loop of the tram was removed. There was a junction in the Augarten that led directly to the guide tower. On the opposite side of the Augarten, for example at Scholzgasse, a tram siding began, which led directly into the railway tracks. In order to be able to drive on the tracks with tram vehicles, adapters were inserted into the heart of the points as required. On October 23, 1944, however, there was an accident in which eight people were injured. Since the battle tower was not directly on the tracks, a field railway was also built. Some of the facilities were removed again in 1944, the USIA had the rest removed in 1948.

The battle tower is the highest of all flak towers. Originally only ten floors were planned, this was not changed until early 1944. The outer wall is 2.50 m thick, the thickness of the inner circular wall is between 1.40 m below and 1 m above. This inner wall includes two staircases and two elevators. Two ammunition lifts were installed outside, which led to the eleventh floor and the platform. There were gas locks , shower rooms and a detoxification system. Four flights of stairs lead from here to the higher floors and the gun positions. The ceiling was 3.50 m thick and spiral reinforced. There was a crane here to transport ammunition and gun barrels . The lower floors were used by armaments factories, in the originally not planned three floors the Wiener Radiowerke-Aktiengesellschaft ( WIRAG ) produced electron tubes according to a Führer decree of May 30, 1944 .

In the spring of 2006, the tower was cordoned off on a large scale for months, because an external wall was pushed outwards as a result of an explosion as a result of a shifting rubble inside. As a result, there was a risk that a platform could collapse.

Guiding tower in the Augarten

The distance between the control tower and the battle tower is about 400 m. The floor space is 31 m × 18 m, while the dimensions on the upper floors are only 31 m × 15 m. Two stairs lead from the south side through locks to the first floor. On the north side there are two emergency exits that did not appear in the original plans. The protective cover was again 3.50 m thick, the radio measuring device could not be lowered onto this flak tower. On the west side of the tower there are openings from the second to the ninth floors, the meaning of which is not entirely clear. A bullet hole can be seen on the twelfth floor.

Both towers - like the land on which they stand - are owned by the Republic of Austria and are administered by the Burghauptmannschaft. Both the control tower and the battle tower are empty and not in use.

Since March 2002, both towers have been leased to the data processing company DCV, which they wanted to convert into an IT data center. The originally negative decision of the Federal Monuments Office (both the flak towers and the Augarten itself are under monument protection) was repealed after a long back and forth by the higher-level Federal Ministry for Education, Science and Culture. Nevertheless, this project is likely to have finally failed: the City of Vienna is not making any efforts to rededicate parts of the historic park into building land. The project also met with widespread rejection from the local population, as the expansion of the battle tower into an IT data center would also have resulted in the addition of three fully glazed floors that were brightly lit at night. Further points of criticism were the necessities associated with the project, such as the opening of parts of the Augarten to delivery traffic and the pollution caused by diesel emergency power generators.

Technical specifications

description Combat tower Guide tower
Foundation size [m²] 2.120 651
Built-up area [m²] 1,475 510
Usable area [m²] 11,000 2,925
Floor space 43.0 m Ø 31.0 m × 18.0 m
Height [m] 55 53
Tower mass / payload [t] 149,100 55,550
Geo coordinates 48 ° 13 '33 "  N , 16 ° 22' 23.8"  E 48 ° 13 '40.4 "  N , 16 ° 22' 42"  E



In Floridsdorfer Rechtsgasse 1B ( 48 ° 15 ′ 41 ″  N , 16 ° 23 ′ 48 ″  E ) there is an unfinished bunker , which is sometimes referred to as a flak tower and sometimes as a bunker by the Vienna graphics department (Stadtkartographie). The original purpose of the building was to protect the surrounding industrial and plant areas, especially Siemens and the refinery , against attacks by low-level aircraft. The construction of our own bunker systems for defense would probably not have been economical in this area anyway due to the surrounding open meadows with regard to the structural and operational costs of a flak system. For the purpose of building this building, a tram track was laid from Peitlgasse throughgerichtgasse in 1944, which ran sideways on Vignol rails .

The building has an octagonal floor plan with a side length of approx. 8.30 m, the outer walls are 1.50 m thick. Inside there is a staircase with four flights of stairs and a round shaft with a diameter of 1.30 m. The false ceilings are 30 cm thick, the top one has collapsed and rests on the formwork, the condition of the formwork indicating a fire. Since the top ceiling is not a protective cover, additional floors were probably planned. The building has numerous openings on the outside and five of the six entrances are now walled up. According to its external appearance, the bunker is empty today.

Failed proposals for conversion

There is a long history of fruitless efforts to convert the anti-aircraft towers after 1945. This mainly affects the pair of towers in Arenbergpark and the tower in Esterhazypark.

  • Arenbergpark 1990: residential project with rooftop swimming pool. Since the planned tower cladding would have cost a lot of park land, there was a citizens' initiative and, as a result, a "pause for reflection"
  • Esterhazypark. In 1969 a conversion to a parking garage was ventilated here. Since the beginning of the 1990s, the Kronen Zeitung in particular has been campaigning for massive increases - but so far in vain. A high-rise project on the Esterhazy flak tower was already propagated in the early 1990s. A similar project was presented by the "Krone" on February 28, 2000 and August 2, 2000. In March and April 2003, the “Krone” propagated an ideas competition on the subject of flak towers among its readers; the report was not published until January 22, 2004. In 2007, the architect Wolf Prix was associated with a similar project. However, according to Die Presse on October 1, 2007, there was another “rejection”.

The proponents of such conversion projects are usually (with the exception of Augarten) more or less financially strong private individuals, and Vienna's urban planning also seems benevolent. The Federal Monuments Office has distinguished itself as an opponent of such projects in recent years. The demolition, which was often requested at the beginning, turned out to be too expensive.

See also


  • Marcello La Speranza: Flak tower archeology, a found book on the Viennese fortress structures. Edition Berliner Unterwelten e. V., Berlin 2012, ISBN 978-3-943112-02-3 .
  • Gustav Holzmann : The use of the flak batteries in the Vienna area 1940–1945. 4th edition. Military historical series, issue 14. Österreichischer Bundesverlag, Vienna 1992, ISBN 3-215-01658-3 .
  • Michael Foedrowitz : weapons arsenal. (Magazine), 1996, special volume S-44, Podzun-Pallas Verlag, ISBN 3-7909-0575-5 .
  • Hans Sakkers: Flak towers Vienna, Berlin, Hamburg. Fortress Books, 1998, ISBN 90-76396-01-9 .
  • Peter Wegenstein: Two million tons rolled through the city - from the construction of the flak towers in Vienna. In: Rail transport currently . No. 10/2000, p. 14, Verlag Peter Pospischil, Vienna.
  • Rudolf Hauptner: On the building history of the flak towers in Vienna. In: Viennese history sheets. No. 57 (2/2002). Association for the History of the City of Vienna, ISSN  0043-5317 , p. 107.
  • Erich Pieler (Red.): Viennese flak towers. Study for MA 18, Bernstein-Pieler architecture office, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-902015-46-2 .
  • Ute Bauer: The Viennese flak towers as reflected in the Austrian culture of remembrance. Phoibos Verlag, Vienna 2003, ISBN 3-901232-42-7 .
  • Valentin E. Wille: The flak towers in Vienna, Berlin and Hamburg. History, meaning and new use. VDM-Verlag, Saarbrücken 2008, ISBN 978-3-8364-6518-2 .
  • Flavia Foradini (text), Edoardo Conte (photo): I bunker di Vienna (PDF; 1 MB). In: . From: Abitare , No. 2/2006, Milano 2006, accessed on November 5, 2017.
  • Flavia Foradini, Edoardo Conte: I templi incompiuti di Hitler - Archeologia bellica viennese . Catalogo della mostra omonima, Milano, Spazio Guicciardini, February 18 to March 13, 2009.
  • Ute Bauer: The Viennese flak towers as reflected in the Austrian culture of remembrance. Revised reprint, Phoibos Verlag, Vienna 2015, ISBN 978-3-85161-136-6 .
  • Erich Dimitz: The FLAK tower in Esterhazypark (PDF; 0.5 MB). In: , July 30, 2015, accessed on November 5, 2017.

Web links

Commons : Flak towers in Vienna  - Collection of images, videos and audio files


Individual evidence

  1. R (enato) Schirer: The Schirach bunker . In: Viennese history sheets. 2007/2 (LXII. Year), p. 33. ISSN  0043-5317
  2. ^ Flak towers in Arenbergpark blocked, ORF report from April 8, 2015
  3. No access to flak towers in the Arenbergpark ORF report from October 28, 2016
  4., Portrait of the Contemporary Art Tower (CAT), ( Memento from June 29, 2008 in the Internet Archive ) July 20, 2006.
  5., opening times of the contemporary art depot, Gefechtsturm Arenbergpark, ( memento from July 9, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) July 20, 2006.
  6. Austrian Advertising Museum (Peter Thomas Suschny) or also District Museum Mariahilf, 1060 Vienna, Mollardgasse 8 (Dr. Erich Dimitz)
  8. a b Artware Multimedia GmbH | HAUS des MEERES - Aqua Terra Zoo. (No longer available online.) In: Archived from the original on April 24, 2016 ; accessed on June 13, 2019 .
  9. For one euro: City of Vienna sells flak tower to Haus des Meeres. In: Retrieved April 30, 2016 .
  10. House of the Sea: Overpainting of the lettering fix . Article dated March 26, 2018, accessed March 26, 2018.
  11. "House of the Sea" is being expanded . Article of January 31, 2018, accessed on March 26, 2018.
  12. New lettering on the House of the Sea . Article dated April 20, 2019, accessed April 20, 2019.
  13. ^ Wiener Augarten flak tower remains a huge construction site - Retrieved February 3, 2020 (Austrian German).
  14. ^ Kronen-Zeitung, June 15, 1990 and November 9, 1990; The press, August 30, 1990.
  15. Arbeiter-Zeitung from January 23, 1991, Kronen-Zeitung from 30.-31. January 1991.
  16. ↑ Space for 500 cars in the Esterhazy Tower . In: Arbeiter-Zeitung . Vienna August 13, 1969, p. 7 ( - the open online archive - digitized).
  17. Kronen Zeitung from 30.-31. January 1991; Courier dated April 21, 1993.
  18. See also Die Presse of July 26th, 2000. Instead of a “roof café”, however, it suddenly turned to a six-story “art hotel”.
  19. Pick-up for the hotel on the flak tower.  ( Page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. On the overall problem: Dieter Klein, Martin Kupf, Robert Schediwy: Stadtbildverluste Wien. LIT-Verlag 2004, pp. 27, 301, 317, 324, 331 f.@1@ 2Template: dead link /  
  20. On this confrontation see Die Presse, November 14, 2003.
  21. For the costs, see Die Presse of July 26, 2000, Profile of July 10, 2000.
  22. Valentina Ciuffi: Eventi. (...) . In: , February 18, 2006, accessed November 5, 2017.