|Height above MSL||179 m (587 ft )|
|Distance from the city center||18 km southeast of Vienna|
|Street||A4 Ostautobahn ,
B9 Pressburger Strasse
|operator||Flughafen Wien AG|
|Air freight||283,806 t (including alternative air freight traffic , 2019)|
( PAX per year)
|Employees||5,385 (2019, annual average in the Flughafen Wien Group )|
|11/29||3500 m × 45 m bitumen|
|16/34||3600 m × 45 m bitumen|
The Vienna International Airport ( IATA : VIE , ICAO : LOWW ) English, Vienna International Airport called, is the largest and most famous Austrian airport. It is the home airport and hub of Austrian Airlines , Ryanair ( Lauda ) and Wizz Air . It is mainly located in the area of the city of Schwechat, which borders on Vienna to the south-east, and was initially commissioned as a military airfield in 1938. After the Second World War he took over the role of airport for Vienna from Aspern Airport . The airport is a hub for flights mainly to Eastern Europe and the Middle East and the largest employer in Austria's eastern region. In 2019, it connected 77 airlines with 217 destinations in 68 countries worldwide. The listed Flughafen Wien AG operates the airport.
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic in Austria , far fewer aircraft have taken off and landed than before. On June 24, 2020, the airport announced that it would completely abolish landing fees in 2020 and reduce passenger-related fares on departure in 2021.
Established as a military airfield
The airport was on May 14, 1938 (breaking of ground by the Air Minister Hermann Goering ) on the "Heidfeld" between Fischamend and Schwechat as a military airfield of the German Air Force by Christoph Miller built and known as "Air Force Base Schwechat-Ost" / "Heidfeld". Five halls, an aircraft yard , several crew buildings and a large garage were built. The fighter pilot school 5 was housed here; active flying units such as II./JG 27 (II. Group of Jagdgeschwader 27), II./JG 52 and parts of III./KG 51 were also located here.
In 1942, parts of the plant were handed over to the Heinkel works (Rostock), which produced aircraft here ( Heinkel He 219 and He 162 "Volksjäger"). For this purpose, a compensation area and a shooting facility were built, and the 1,500 meter long runway 12/30 paved. (It is now known as runway 11/29 ) There were also several halls. The entire Heinkel planning office was moved here. From December 7, 1944, parts of the airport served as a satellite camp of the Mauthausen concentration camp (Schwechat II "Santa"), which housed prisoners who had to do forced labor for the Heinkel works and for the Liesing / " Ostmärkische Brau AG " brewery . Two administrative buildings (objects 610 and 620) and a hangar on the runway (object 230) are still preserved from the time before 1945. On April 6 and 7, 1945 , Red Army troops captured the airport and its surroundings.
In autumn 1945, the facility was taken over by British occupation troops as agreed , although it was in the Soviet-occupied zone of Austria. The British set up the Royal Air Force Station Schwechat (RAF Schwechat); from 1946 British European Airways flew to Vienna on a scheduled basis. The French occupying power also used the airfield. The Soviets used the historic Aspern Airport in Vienna , while the Americans used the Langenlebarn military airfield . From 1953, the handling took place through the Austrian Handling Unit .
Civil expansion from 1954
The Vienna Airport Operating Company emerged from the same Austrian Handling Unit , which was founded on December 11, 1953 and took over administration and handling on January 1, 1954; Vienna Airport was the first privately managed airport in Austria. In the same year the first terminal building was built. The striking structure with control tower (object 240) housed fire station 1 until 2009 and was demolished in 2016. The first shareholders of today's Flughafen Wien AG were the Republic of Austria (50%) and the federal states of Vienna and Lower Austria (25% each) until 1992 . In the first year of operation, 53,786 people were handled; Around 100 people were employed at the site at that time.
From December 1954 to May 1955 an ideas competition for a general expansion plan took place in order to prepare the handling facilities for the air traffic to be expected in the following decades. The most important projects in this were the extension of the runway and the construction of a new terminal building . On March 27, 1956, the Ministry of Transport issued a permit for the construction and operation of an airport intended for general traffic. The then only runway was extended to 2000 m in 1954/1955, to 3000 m in 1959 and to 3500 m in 1997. The new terminal building, today's Terminal 2, was built between 1956 and 1960 and opened on June 17, 1960. At this time around 409,000 passengers were counted.
The entire system had already been designed in the expansion plan for a tandem parallel runway system. With regard to the approach and departure routes in connection with the increasing air traffic, however, the original plan for a parallel runway was abandoned. In 1962, planning began for a second runway in a different location (direction: 16/34), which was approved by the Ministry of Transport in 1972 and opened on October 6, 1977 by Federal President Rudolf Kirchschläger . It was the last project in the general expansion plan and meant the final cessation of flight operations at Aspern Airfield on April 30, 1977. Otherwise, the air traffic would have been too close to the new approach routes. In 1977 a General Aviation Center (GAC) was put into operation to replace the facilities in Aspern and in 1979 a VIP and business center.
The most important local means of transport to the airport at that time were the ÖBB bus buses, which departed every 20 minutes at the City Air Terminal at the Hilton Hotel next to what is now the Wien Mitte train station . Further investments in the 1970s were the first shipyard building for Austrian Airlines, a cargo import hall and the underground airport station .
In the 1980s, a master plan for the year 2000 was commissioned, which - instead of large-scale new buildings - provided for the gradual expansion of the existing building. In 1982 the airport was connected to the A 4 eastern motorway . In 1986 the extended arrival area was opened. (It was in operation in this form until June 5, 2012.) In the time before the opening of the Iron Curtain , the airport was often used by passengers from the Eastern Bloc because of Austria's neutrality . In August 1986 construction began on Pier East, which went into operation on April 14, 1988. At that time it was connected to the existing check-in hall by means of a slim bridge (similar to the one at Pier West). In 1992 Terminal 1 and the adjacent “Shopping Arcade”, a business arcade, were built. Further expansion of the terminal area was planned for the first time in 1988. At that time around 4.6 million passengers were handled annually. In 1989, more than 5 million passengers were counted for the first time. Since the growth estimates and the strategic goals for the year 2000 were significantly higher than originally assumed, the planned extensions were redesigned, from 9,000 m² to 25,000 m² of usable space.
The first part of this extension (the so-called "South Hall Extension" with the "Plaza") was handed over to its destination in 1993; on March 28, 1996 the Pier West was completed. All of these systems were designed by the Lower Austrian architect Franz Fehringer. In 1992, from the operating company Flughafen Wien mb H. , the Flughafen Wien AG .
The 2015 master plan was presented in April 1998 and its implementation began the following year. In order to minimize the occupancy time of runway 16/34, five new high-speed taxiways were built in 1999, two in landing direction 16 and three in landing direction 34. In the course of this, a second parallel taxiway was built.
Operation in the 21st century
Since the EU enlargement in 2004 , the number of passengers and the amount of freight have risen sharply; the airport is the logistical center of many companies that serve the entire area of the former Eastern Bloc from here. The airport has also developed into an aviation hub to Eastern Europe, the Near and Middle East and for long-haul flights. Korean Air has been serving Seoul-Incheon three times a week with a direct flight since September 15, 2007 . In 2016, 34 destinations in Eastern Europe were served directly (for comparison: in Frankfurt there were 30). In addition, the presence of many low-cost airlines has increased. For example, the British airline easyJet has been flying to Vienna since 2007 . On July 18, 2017, she founded an Austrian subsidiary called easyJet Europe , which started flight operations a few days later.
In 1999 there were 11 million passengers, in 2011 it was twice as many. The capacity of the airport infrastructure was expanded in accordance with the 2015 master plan.
From 2000 to 2006, these related to the parking areas, for example: the old car parks 1 and 2 were demolished, car park 3 was increased by three storeys, car park 4 was doubled in capacity with a southern extension, and car parks 7 and 8 were completely rebuilt; the latter are primarily intended for people employed on site. In 2003, the expansion of the airport train station into a long-distance train station began. The Office Park was built between 2004 and 2007 and put into operation in stages.
From 2002 to 2005, parts of the western apron in the area of the AUA base were expanded and a new apron area was created in the northeastern airport area. In addition to the expansion of the taxiway system and the creation of new parking positions, the loss of space caused by the (then imminent) construction of Terminal 3 was compensated for. In 2005, the check-in capacities were expanded with Terminal 1A. In the same year the Handling Center West and the new air traffic control tower were opened. At 109 m, it is the highest in Europe and the fourth highest in the world - after Bangkok (132.2 m), Kuala Lumpur (132 m) and Atlanta (121 m).
In 2006, the expanded Air Cargo Center went into operation, the completely newly built VIP and General Aviation Center was inaugurated, and a Lufthansa Flight Training pilot training center was built on the AUA base . This center is also available for Austrian pilots who had previously had to complete their training abroad. Today it is part of the Vienna Aviation Campus .
The best-known project of the 2015 master plan, however, is the terminal expansion known under the project name “Skylink”, the cornerstone of which was laid in 2006. The new building, which doubled the terminal area and also replaced the old arrival area, went into operation in June 2012 after a six-year construction period. The construction scandal surrounding the terminal attracted a large media and political presence.
The structural expansions of the airport in the coming years are defined in the master plan 2020, which provides for investments of around 5 billion euros. This also includes the construction of the third runway .
At the VIP-GAC, a new maintenance and adjustment hangar was built for Vienna Aircraft Handling in 2014 . The new hangar 7 has an area of 4,300 m².
By the end of 2014, two additional parking positions for cargo aircraft had been built in front of the Air Cargo Center on an area of 16,000 m². Two Code F (65– <80 meters wingspan) or four Code C (24– <36 meters wingspan) machines can be placed on it. For this purpose, two smaller round hangars from 1977 and two large maintenance hangars (objects 210 and 220) from before 1945 had to be demolished.
On December 14, 2014, the airport train station, which had been converted into a long-distance stop , was put into operation. Since August 10, 2015, the newly founded Eurowings Europe has been flying from its base in Vienna to destinations in the route network of its German parent company Eurowings. Since July 1, 2016, Emirates has operated one of its two daily scheduled connections to Dubai with the Airbus A380 . (See also: Capacity of the airport infrastructure )
From November 28, 2003 to December 14, 2017, Vienna Airport was the home base and hub of NIKI , the Austrian subsidiary of the insolvent Air Berlin. The successor company Laudamotion opened its base at Vienna Airport with four machines from June 2018. In June, the parent company has Ryanair announced that Lauda only as wetlease will serve operator and scheduled flights instead'OE' with'FR' flight numbers are performed.
On December 22, 2017, the 24 million mark was reached for the first time in the airport's passenger history. By the end of 2017, the Air Cargo Center was also expanded by around 13,000 m².
In 2018 the Hungarian low-cost airline Wizz Air opened a base at Vienna Airport. In 2019, Wizz Air welcomed 2.2 million passengers on board in Vienna. In July 2020, nine Airbus aircraft will be stationed in Vienna. In the 2020 summer flight schedule, at least 55 destinations are to be served.
Location and transport links
Vienna Airport is located in Schwechat in Lower Austria , a municipality 16 kilometers southeast of the center of Vienna , and 49 kilometers west of the Slovak capital Bratislava (Pressburg) at an altitude of 183 meters above the Adriatic Sea .
As a special feature, the airport has had its own postcode since April 16, 1966 , which begins with the number 1 used for Viennese postcodes. The address is A-1300 Vienna Airport . The telephone code is 01, place-name signs bear the name "Airport".
Overview of transport connections
Depending on the destination in Vienna and the chosen means of transport, the journey from the airport to Vienna takes around 15 to 45 minutes.
|Transportation to the airport||2012||2013||2014||2015||2016||2017|
|Private car / company car||26.80%||26.1%||26.7%||25.6%||25.0%||24.0%|
|Taxi and rental car with driver||30.63%||29.0%||22.5%||20.8%||22.3%||19.3%|
|City Airport Train (CAT)||7.55%||8.8%||10.9%||10.9%||9.5%||8.8%|
|Long-distance transport ÖBB||-||-||-||4.3%||7.8%||9.2%|
The airport is connected to the S-Bahn , regional and long-distance transport network of the ÖBB via the Pressburger Bahn . The City Airport Train (CAT) also has its own express connection to the city center. The trains run from early morning until around midnight.
Public transport in Vienna, Lower Austria and Burgenland is part of the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region (VOR) . The S-Bahn, regional and long-distance trains are the cheapest connection to the airport. The fare is based on the distance traveled, with a fixed price being charged for the Vienna city area (the so-called "core zone"). The CAT is not included in the tariff system; a special price applies to it.
The Vienna Airport train station is located under the K3 short-term car park. It has three 450-meter-long platform edges and is located in a roughly two-kilometer-long tunnel which, among other things, passes under parts of the apron and runway 16/34. Between 2003 and 2014, the station was expanded to make it suitable for long-distance trains and completely redesigned.
The airport has been served by long-distance trains since December 2014. Railjet trains offer a half-hourly connection to Vienna Central Station , Vienna Meidling and beyond to the west and south of Austria. The travel time between Vienna Airport and Vienna Central Station is 15 to 18 minutes. In cooperation with ÖBB, Austrian Airlines and other airlines are offering combined ticket offers under the names AIRail and Rail & Fly .
S-Bahn and regional trains
The trains of the S-Bahn line S7 run between Laa an der Thaya or Mistelbach and Wolfsthal . Between Vienna Floridsdorf and the airport they run every half hour (with deviations) and stop at all stations. The travel time between the airport and Wien Mitte is 25 minutes. During the rush hour, four S-Bahn trains per hour and individual regional trains run between Vienna Floridsdorf and the airport or Wolfsthal. These do not stop in all stations.
City Airport Train (CAT)
The City Airport Train (CAT) runs every half hour without intermediate stops with a journey time of 16 minutes between the airport and Wien Mitte train station. The train uses the tracks of the parallel S-Bahn, but stops on separate platforms in both stations. The ticket for the CAT not integrated in the Verkehrsverbund Ost-Region costs around 14 euros, around ten euros more than the ticket for the parallel S-Bahn, price including the core zone of Vienna (single journey and as of 2019). In the City Air Terminal (at Wien Mitte train station) passengers of the Star Alliance and several other airlines can check in for their flight and also check in their luggage.
The airport is connected to the road network by the A 4 eastern motorway and the former federal and now state road 9 ( Pressburger Strasse ). A camera system determines the current travel time to and from the airport on selected sections of the route along the A 4 (Prater junction - Vienna Airport) and the B 9 (Hainburg Donaubrücke - Schwechat Ost). The calculated data is published, among other things, on the overhead displays along the A 4 and on the Internet pages of the airport and Asfinag; an update takes place every five minutes.
Three lines of the Vienna Airport Lines operated by ÖBB-Postbus run from early morning to midnight every half hour or hour from the airport to the urban area of Vienna. One line runs every two hours at night. A total of 14 stops are served in the city center , at Westbahnhof and in districts 2 ( Leopoldstadt ) and 22 ( Donaustadt ). The travel time is between 20 and 60 minutes, depending on the route, a special rate applies.
In addition, the Blaguss company operates a line that runs 14 times a day between the airport and the Vienna International Bus Terminal (VIB) in Vienna Erdberg. The so-called AIR-Liner runs every hour or two hours, with the journey taking around 15 minutes. Since March 2016, a long-distance bus route from the Dr. Richard von Graz via Pinggau to the airport and back again. There are also long-distance bus connections to Budapest , Bratislava , Brno , Prague and Bratislava Airport . All buses stop at the bus station in front of the arrival hall.
A chargeable bus ("Airport Shuttle") runs every half hour as a round trip on the airport site. This serves stops in the central airport core around the terminal, the office park, the company premises, the Austrian base and the VIP-GAC.
Car rental, car sharing, taxis
All common car rental companies have their offices in the rental car center in car park 4. Car sharing companies also offer rental options at the airport. The rental cars can be picked up or parked in the reserved parking spaces in multi-storey car park 4. Taxis are also available around the clock in front of the arrivals hall.
In the vicinity of the terminal there are multi-storey car parks 3 and 4, open-air car park C, short-term car park K3 (arrivals level) and the terminal driveway for departure with two parking zones and one exit zone. Parking garage 4 can also be reached directly from the departure level and can accommodate 44 coaches in addition to cars . These parking areas are connected to the terminal underground or protected from the weather, offer parking spaces for 21,252 cars (11,038 of which are in the parking garages and 10,214 in the outdoor areas) and can also be booked in advance.
Additional parking options with a shuttle service are offered at the “Mazur parking lot” (at the VIP-GAC ) or by businesses in the surrounding area.
In car park 4 there is the possibility to charge electrically powered vehicles. There are six charging plugs there. (2 × Type 2 11 kW, 4 × Schuko) The charging process is carried out using an authorization card from Wien Energie Tanke, WienMobil, ChargeNow or intercharge.
The airport is located on a newly created footpath and cycle path that leads from Vienna via the city of Schwechat and the airport to Fischamend and from there towards Lake Neusiedl . The route is linked to other cycle routes. Nextbike rental stations are located on the airport premises at the Handling Center West and at Office Park 1 , as well as bicycle parking facilities. The 17 kilometer long cycle route was implemented by the communities of Schwechat and Fischamend in cooperation with the airport and with the support of the Province of Lower Austria.
The Flughafen Wien AG is installer, owner and operator of the terminal building . It is divided into four check-in areas (called terminals ) and five gate areas.
In order to meet the request for short transfer times, the parts of the building are connected to one another on the land side . At Vienna Airport there is a minimum transfer time of 25 minutes (within Star Alliance flights) to 30 minutes.
The terminal is divided into the following levels from bottom to top: The airport train station is on level -2, the arrivals hall on level 0 and the check-in, security controls and most of the departure gates on level 1. Continuous levels 2, 3 and 4 are only available in Terminal 3 and North Pier. Level 2 is intended for those arriving here, while Level 3 is the non-Schengen area. The visitor terrace is on level 4.
Most of the passengers from companies that do not belong to the Star Alliance are handled at the 42 counters. The service counters of the airlines based here are located opposite the check-in zone along the driveway. A row of shops and the access to multi-storey car park 3 connect directly to the west of the counter hall.
Due to the increasing number of passengers, additional temporary check-in capacities were created in August 2005. Originally only intended for a period of three years, the temporary solution was built in a four-month construction period on a parking deck directly opposite Terminal 1. The 22 counters are now mainly used for charter and low-cost airlines .
The building, completed in 1960, was the only reception building at the airport until Terminal 1 was built. In the beginning, arriving and departing travelers were handled here, but later only those departing. There is currently no passenger handling here. The last remaining airlines in Terminal 2 moved to other check-in areas in January 2012. In spring 2013, check-in and ticket counters were shut down and the baggage sorting area in the basement was dismantled. Terminal 2 now only serves as access to Gates B, C and D, with only the newly designed eastern boarding pass control point in operation. To make it easier for passengers to move into Terminal 3, a temporary ramp and stairway system was installed by mid-July 2014.
The building will be extensively modernized from 2018 and will mainly house a second central security check in the future. (See: Expansion and planning )
Austrian Airlines and a large number of the Star Alliance members have been using the new building under the project name Skylink since June 5, 2012 . According to information from January 2017, 60% of all passengers at the airport are handled in Terminal 3.
The terminal area is 270 meters long and has an area of 76,000 m². The sickle-like building is divided into two halls, which are separated by a building wing along the longitudinal axis. The one on the driveway side is 19 meters high and is used on level 0 as the central arrivals area of the airport. There are also several business and restaurant areas and a direct connection to the airport train station. It is spanned by four bridges on level 1, via which departing passengers can reach the second hall from the driveway. It contains 64 check-in counters arranged in islands and the central security check (see picture on the right). A visitor terrace extends over the entire roof edge.
Gate areas B, C and D are attached to Terminal 1 and Terminal 2, and they are accessed via a boarding pass control point in Terminal 2. This is followed by the so-called plaza with retail and catering establishments. They lead to the actual security areas with the gates, where there are other shops and restaurants. All B and C gates share a central security control, area D has decentralized control points directly in front of the individual gates; central controls are only provided at the bus gates.
The gate areas F and G can be reached via Terminal 3. After checking the boarding pass, the security check is passed here immediately afterwards. Areas B, C, D and F, G are connected to one another by a connecting passage between the D and G gates. However, this is not in the security area. Therefore, the two areas are also connected by a transfer bus across the apron.
All gates are equipped with automatic isolation systems for automatic boarding. Vienna Airport was the first operator of these readers, which can be used for boarding passes from all airlines. The gate names in the terminal (such as C33, F04) are based on the parking positions on the apron .
Passengers arriving at Gates C and D arrive at the baggage claim area via the departure level. People arriving in areas F and G are directed to the baggage hall via a separate arrival level. The B-gates are not used for arrivals.
In area B (Gates B31-B42), which is on the run level under the access bridge to area C, flights are in the Schengen area cleared. The passengers are brought to the aircraft here exclusively by bus. In June 2011, extensive renovation work was completed on the twelve B-bus gates. The renovation took eight months and gives the interior of the B-Gates a new, modern design. The new concept includes, among other things, an open room design and new seating. Since the security control for area C has also been carried out centrally on this level since 2012, six B-gates had to be closed in the course of the enlargement and repositioning of the control streets.
Area C ("Pier West")
In Area C, flights to the Schengen area are handled. There are twelve passenger boarding bridges (Gates C31 to C42) and five bus gates (C71 to C75). These additional gates were created in 2008 in a specially converted equipment storage hall.
Pier West was revitalized and redesigned by November 2014. The glass partitions between the waiting rooms of the gates were removed and the furniture was renewed. The retail space was also rearranged and a food court was set up.
Area D ("Pier East")
In Area D, flights to non-Schengen countries are handled. The necessary passport control for departing (and arriving) passengers takes place at the pier root. Passengers can get to the aircraft either via eight passenger boarding bridges (Gates D21 to D29) or via 16 bus gates (Gates D31 to D37 and D61 to D70). Gates D31 to D37 were built between 2002 and 2004 as a capacity increase. The previously slim bridge to Pier East (similar to the one at Pier West) was provided with an extension on both sides and thus widened. Depending on requirements, two bridges can be used for handling at individual piers.
Area F ("Pier North")
Flights to the Schengen area are processed in area F (gates F01 to F37) on level 1. There are 17 bridge and 12 bus gates here, 4 additional gates are optionally designed for bridge or bus boarding. There are two passenger boarding bridges at a total of five positions. Four unmarked gates are intended as special gates for bus transfers or emergency exits.
Area G ("Pier North")
Flights to the non-Schengen area are handled in area G (Gates G01 to G37) on level 3. Passengers enter the aircraft via 15 bridge gates, 14 of which can also be used as bus gates. However, since this departure area uses the same pier fingers as area F, passengers must first switch to level 1 via escalators and lifts.
VIP Terminal and General Aviation Center
The building complex of the VIP terminal with an adjoining area for general aviation (also called General Aviation Center , VIP-GAC for short ) was built completely new between 2004 and 2005 and separated from the main terminal. It serves as a replacement for the old VIP and Business Center, which had to be demolished in the course of the construction of Terminal 3 and which no longer met today's requirements. The newly created area is now on the western edge of the airport site.
Individual passengers, groups, honorary and state guests with increased security needs can be looked after, while our own staff takes care of the luggage and all handling modalities. The terminal fulfills all the essential tasks of an airport in a confined space.
The site now includes the three-storey terminal with attached storage boxes for apron vehicles, hangars 5, 6 and 7 for private aircraft as well as a workshop and storage area. In front of it there is a separate apron with a connection to the taxiway system and a connection to the threshold of runway 11. The facilities can accommodate aircraft up to the types Airbus A321 and Boeing 737. Larger machines are parked on the Main Apron. The three hangars were built in stages.
There is a large car park in front of the reception building. Towards the apron is the “Ehrenhof”, a non-visible access area designed for the reception of guests of honor, away from the main entrance, which is separated from the apron or parking area by sliding gates. The urban design concept also shields the apron areas from the surrounding area as much as possible.
There is also a separate company exit on the A 4 east motorway, which enables the VIP convoys to quickly access the building. Regular operations began with the start of the Austrian EU presidency on January 1, 2006.
The airport has two runways that intersect in their extension. Measured against the capacity of the runway system , there are only 1.6 runways, as they cannot be operated entirely independently of one another.
Both slopes have 7.5 m wide shoulders (paved shoulder strips) made of bitumen at their edges. The taxiways are 23 meters wide and their shoulders are 4.5 meters wide. In the period from April 8 to May 26, 2013, the surface and binder course of runway 16/34 was renewed and the load-bearing capacity of its shoulders increased. The inner curves of individual taxiways have also been widened. The last comparable renovation was carried out in 1993. The work took place exclusively during the night and on weekends. The last large-scale work on the first runway (11/29) was carried out from April 6 to June 15, 2016. During this period, around 210,000 m² of surface area was renewed over 35 nights and six weekends.
|designation||geogr. direction||Dimensions||Height of threshold (above the sea level)||surface||Rolling time in minutes|
|to apron positions||to pier positions|
|29||296 °||3500 m × 45 m||183.0 m||bitumen||3||4th|
|11||116 °||175.0 m||4th||5|
|16||164 °||3600 m × 45 m||182.0 m||bitumen||7th||10|
|34||344 °||178.7 m||5||7th|
The designation is generally based on its position in relation to the magnetic north pole, which, however, is not stationary and is therefore constantly shifting. For this reason, the name of today's runway 11/29 had to be changed in the 1980s. It was previously run as runway 12/30.
Since sales from the non-aviation business are becoming increasingly important for the airport, the business areas in this area are constantly being expanded. The settlement of non-aviation-specific companies at and around the airport is just as much a focus as the travelers themselves, their accompanying persons and those working on the area. They are all now increasingly viewed as service customers who can use the entire infrastructure at the location. The latter has recently been bundled and marketed under the term “Airport City”. Together with the neighboring communities, the airport also appears as the “Vienna Airport Region”. The corresponding segment “Retail & Properties” of Flughafen Wien AG generated sales of 126.2 million euros in 2017. The revenues of the retail and catering businesses are the most important source of income. In 2016, the shops totaled 11,180 m² and the restaurants and bars 8,205 m².
In addition to the structures on the actual airport site, there is also a commercial site near Fischamend part of the airport city. The operating company plays a profitable role as a real estate developer. Since 2004 there has been an office location called “Office Park” on the site. The three building sections, erected in stages, house the headquarters of Austrian Airlines and Flughafen Wien AG . Another office building (object 645) is in the immediate vicinity. In 2016 there was a total of 48,074 m² of lettable office space.
The first airport hotel opened in 1983 as part of the Novotel chain and has been expanded several times since then. For some time it operated as the Hotel Sofitel , today it is the 4-star hotel NH-Vienna Airport of the Spanish hotel chain NH Hoteles . It now consists of three components and offers 500 rooms of various categories as well as rooms for events and conferences. A second hotel with 405 rooms was opened in early 2017. The house is part of Marriott International and operates under the Moxy brand . The property at parking lot C was made available by the airport as a superordinate certificate ; the investment costs amounted to 25 million euros.
In 2001 an airport kindergarten was opened on the company premises . It is open to the children of employees of all local companies and has extended opening hours to accommodate employees who are on shift work.
There are also publicly accessible facilities for medical care at the site .
The public facilities of the airport were re-arranged and reopened in October 2017 under the name “Visitor World”. In cooperation with the children's book author Thomas Brezina , a multimedia "experience space" was designed in Terminal 3. Over an area of around 600 square meters, four stations provide insights into topics related to aviation and airport operations. From 2007 to 2016 the visitor center (then called “VISITAIR-Center”) was located in Office Park 1.
At the same time, bus tours around the airport are offered. Background information on the individual operating areas and the current air or taxi traffic is provided. Special trips with special topics are also carried out on request. The tours start in the “Visitor World Terminal”, a building between Terminal 1 and the B-Gates.
On the roof of Terminal 3 there is also a 306-meter-long and 7-meter-wide visitor terrace, which offers a total of 1,735 square meters of views to the south and northeast. This enables a 180-degree view of the airport area. The visitor deck was put into operation on September 27, 2012 and is open daily from 10 a.m. to 8 p.m. In the summer months, from May to September, the opening times are extended to 8 a.m. to 10 p.m. In 2014 the terrace recorded 32,053 admissions and 48,129 people took part in the bus tours. All participants of the tour and visitors to the terrace must undergo a security check. Entry to the visitor facilities is chargeable.
The parking garages and the area around the runway systems also offer the option of planespotting . In 2013, photo holes were created on the east side and at the south end of runway 16/34 in the airport fence. Also on the east side of this piste, a separate “spotter hill” was built in the piste cross. Further photo openings are also planned in the area of the GAC.
Handling Center West and Air Cargo Center
In the course of the construction of the terminal expansion, the former equipment center east had to be demolished. A new building therefore had to be built by 2005 to replace the space lost there by the apron handling services division. In the current Handling Center West (HCW for short), all operational activities in aircraft handling (loading and unloading, filling, emptying and towing) are coordinated and managed. It comprises a central three-storey building wing with lounge and office space and, adjoining it, a vehicle and service hall. They also contain workshops, wash boxes and the battery charging station for the electrically operated apron vehicles. A petrol station and one of the two equipment storage halls are attached to the complex.
In 2006, the Air Cargo Center (ACC for short) represented an expansion stage of the previously existing freight halls and forwarding buildings. 16,000 m² freight and 4,000 m² freight halls were added. The old freight facilities, a wing of the building with upstream halls, were each extended and combined to form an overall complex. The old stock was modernized accordingly. The new Air Cargo Center enables more flexible freight handling using modern conveyor technology. By November 2017, it was enlarged by around 13,000 m². Various special warehouses, such as a dangerous goods or perishable warehouse, as well as surfaces with different temperatures for pharmaceutical products have also been integrated into the halls.
The HCW has a total of around 20,000 m², the ACC around 49,000 m² net floor space.
The second equipment base, next to the one in the Handling Center West , is located in the north-east section , consisting of the north-east equipment storage facility ("Geno") and the north-east infrastructure building ("Igno"). Geno offers space for additional apron handling vehicles and the apron buses as well as for the employees' standby rooms. Igno is used to supply Terminal 3 and includes its refrigeration center. The architectural design of the building was carried out by Baumschlager Eberle and IttenBrechbühl , as was the case for the new terminal . The tank farm and the deicing agent filling station are also located in this area.
At 109 meters, the air traffic control tower is the highest in Europe. It was opened and commissioned in 2005. The new building was necessary to create space for the new terminal and to ensure a view of the extended apron. The operator of the tower is mainly the air traffic control company Austro Control .
Eight controller positions of the airfield control center (TWR) are housed in the cockpit. One floor below is the aviation weather service (MET). This floor also functions as an “emergency tower level”, which can be accessed in the event of an incident. The airport apron control (MOVEMENT) is located one level below . She coordinates the taxiing traffic on the apron. Those departments whose activities do not require a direct line of sight to the runway are located in the base building. These include the Vienna Arrival and Departure Control Center (APP), which organizes air traffic in the greater vicinity of the airport, the Aviation Information Service (AIM), flight data processing for all of Austria (FDU), administration and air traffic control technology (AES). Around 200 people have their workplace in the building. Since the same security level applies to the tower as to the apron, it is not open to the public. The architecture of the control tower has received several awards.
Technical basis of Austrian Airlines
The cornerstone of the technical base was laid in the western airport area in 1974 with the opening of the first 6000 m² hangar. Hangar 2 was added in 1982 with a floor area of 9700 m² and was supplemented by Hangar 3 in 1993. The three maintenance hangars are the core area to this day. Shipyards 1 and 2 are used by Austrian Technik , whereby the more extensive repair and overhaul work (such as the C-Check ) is carried out in the smaller hall . In shipyard 2, all other maintenance tasks are carried out. Up until 2010, shipyard 3 was also used by Austrian. After the Airbus A340 was phased out in 2007, the maintenance hangar was returned to the airport due to the significantly smaller space requirement. Mainly the long-haul fleet was serviced in it until 2010. Since 2011, half of the building has been used by NIKI and the other half by owners of smaller aircraft. In front of the halls is a 71,000 m² apron on which there is also a sound-absorbing engine test area.
There is also a spare parts and material store, several flight operations buildings, workshops, a multi-storey car park and garages of the AUA as well as the Austrian training center in the “Vienna Aviation Campus” (see below). Austrian Technik is also a training workshop for training aircraft technicians . Maintenance orders from external customers are also accepted at the site. The area of the Austrian base is not open to the public, but can be entered by prior arrangement (e.g. for events in the training center or during technical tours).
Vienna Aviation Campus
The training facilities, which were previously spread over several locations, were bundled in one location in 2008 with the opening of the Austrian Training Center . The building, which forms the connection between the flight simulator center of Lufthansa Flight Training (LFT for short) and the Flight Safety and Security Center (“ mock-up hall”) of Austrian Airlines, which went into operation in 2006 , offers space for training rooms, offices and a Canteen. The facade of the 4300 m² building consists of different colored glass surfaces that create a pixelated image and, according to the architects, symbolize a "cloudy sky". In the “mock-up hall”, cabin training can be completed in a replica of an Airbus A320, among other things. Two Airbus A320-200-, one DHC-8-400- and one Embraer E195 simulator are in operation in the LFT Center. All four available simulator positions are thus assigned.
The LFT Center, the Austrian Training Center and the Austrian “Mock-up Hall” form the “Vienna Aviation Campus”. This means that the entire flight operations personnel can be trained and trained here, even from external companies. The flight simulators are in operation 24 hours a day.
Between Pier West and the AUA base, in addition to the Air Cargo and Handling Center, there are other facilities that are relevant for ongoing operations, such as the central workshop with storage, parking halls (for municipal and winter service equipment), the tank service, a washing building and IT -Department. There is a separate typography printing center to produce the labels and signs. The airport works council also has its seat on the site.
The airfield operations management (FBL), also called "Airside Operations", is responsible for the safe operation of the airfield and compliance with the associated legal regulations. The FBL also acts as the head of operations in emergencies and carries out piste checks several times a day. A main FBL and eleven deputies perform their duties in shifts. The management is located in Pier West.
Access to the airside security area and the apron is only possible via one of the checkpoints (east (near parking lot C), west (on the company premises), GAC (near VIP-GAC) and Terminal 3 (on the departure road, behind parking garage 4)) possible.
Until the end of the 1960s, there was only an inspection guard room at the airport. On January 2, 1974, an airport police station was founded, which was later renamed "Police Operations Center Airport". In 1980 the office was enlarged and its own special unit called “Alarmzug Airport” (nickname “crane”, derived from the bird crane , which symbolizes vigilance) was created. After the terrorist attack in 1985 it became a special unit, which was disbanded as such in the course of a reorganization in the early 2000s. The radio call name "Kranich" is still used today in the Schwechat city police station .
The area of Vienna Airport is subordinate to the SPK Schwechat, which is located on the airport grounds. In addition, two police inspections, a police service dog inspection and a police detention center of the federal police are housed on the airport grounds. The airport security service is mainly entrusted with the so-called "aviation security", ie the security of flight operations at the airport. The criminal investigation and security center as well as the service dog department are located on the airport premises. 450 police officers work at the airport, 42 of whom are assigned to the city of Schwechat. There are also 193 customs employees. They control 100,000 passengers from non-EU countries alone every year. The main focus is on the illegal importation of goods, animals and food. The customs office at Vienna Airport recorded 4,890 seizures in 2012.
A total of 630 employees work in defensive fire protection at the Vienna Airport Fire Brigade , which operates as a company fire brigade . (80 full-time and 550 voluntary) 18 of the full-time firefighters have to be permanently on duty. In addition to fire fighting, their tasks also include preventive measures in all buildings and technical assistance in the event of accidents. In 2016, the airport fire service deployed 1,857 across the ten square kilometer area; However, only around 25 of them were actually so-called "deployment alarms", in which the emergency services are requested by the crew of an aircraft. In the event of major incidents, the so-called auxiliary fire brigade is also alerted; this consists of a further 300 employees. External support comes from around 27 volunteer fire brigades from the airport area, which are grouped together in an alarm ring.
Since every point of the airport must be reached within a maximum of three minutes, there are two fire stations. In 2009, the renewed fire station 1 was put into operation. It is located on the company premises at the AUA base. Previously, Guard 1 was housed in Object 240 not far from Pier West, which was used as the airport's terminal building from 1954-60. Fire station 2 is located near the intersection of slopes 11/29 and 16/34.
Vienna Airport belongs to ICAO fire protection category 9 . This classification is based on the size classes of the aircraft handled in accordance with ICAO Annex 14. From 2018, the airport will be listed in category 10 and thus in the highest class. This upgrade goes hand in hand with a renewal of the fire-fighting vehicle fleet in favor of the Rosenbauer Panther model range . In 2017 and 2018, two Panther 6x6 S and four Panther 8x8 will be purchased. The number of fire engines can be reduced from the current 15 to eight in the future. In total, the fire brigade's fleet comprised around 40 vehicles in 2016.
The Vienna International Airport Security Services Ges.mbH (abbreviated VIAS), is responsible for all passengers and hand luggage. The company is a subsidiary of Flughafen Wien AG and was founded in 1992. VIAS has been commissioned by the Federal Ministry of the Interior with passenger control since 1994 ; until then this was done by the police. The total of around 1200 employees also carry out all kinds of security services for the airlines or take on the transport of physically handicapped travelers. There are 44 control lanes in the passenger area alone, 15 of them in Terminal 3. Nine employees each check up to 3000 people every hour at peak times.
On behalf of Austrian Airlines, the external company G4S has also been active in the terminal since 2014 . The employees take over the document check on USA flights and control the access to the baggage drop-off counters as well as the compliance with the hand luggage specifications.
The security center is located together with the Terminal Operation Center in Terminal 3. Passenger and airport operations are supervised from here. The security center controls the security limits and, together with the ID card office, is responsible for the various access authorizations. However, it is also responsible for monitoring the technical systems in the terminal, such as the accessibility of the emergency exits. All information from all surveillance cameras comes together here. A total of around 2,700 are activated at the airport. The particularly powerful cameras on the tower can show detailed views of planes taking off and landing as well as of the terrain, even in the dark. The Terminal Operation Center regulates the flow of passengers in the buildings. In order to counteract mass panics, employees also take care to avoid congestion in the flow of passengers.
The medical center founded in 1954 developed into today's medical center. It is located on the arrivals level (level 0) and can be reached via Terminal 2 or by car via the inland road behind Terminal 1. A qualified nurse, an emergency paramedic and an emergency doctor are on duty around the clock. In addition to working in emergency medicine / first aid and occupational medicine, passengers and employees here also receive all kinds of vaccinations as well as malaria and thrombosis prophylaxis. The WHO-recognized vaccination center is also open to non-traveling patients. There are also two ambulances operated by the airport fire brigade stationed at the site, which can be upgraded to emergency medical vehicles (NAW) by getting on the emergency doctor.
In terms of the number of employees, the ground handling services segment is the airport's largest division. In 2017, 2961 people were employed here. At the airport, a distinction is made between two types of handling services: passenger handling and ramp and apron services. The former is carried out by Austrian, ISS Ground Services , VIE Ground Handling and Celebi Ground Services ; the latter through VIE Ground Handling and Celebi Ground Services .
Around 35 pushback drivers are deployed every day ; Up to 300 aircraft are pushed every day using rod tractors or rodless aircraft tugs. A total of 75 vehicles are in use at the airport for the winter months, 15 of which are de-icing vehicles in eight de-icing positions.
The 320 employees deployed in winter service look after over two million square meters of cleared area. The “iceman” on the ground is responsible for coordinating the de-icing process with the cockpit crew (type of liquid, mixing ratios, aircraft parts to be de-iced, current outside temperature). The crew must register for de-icing at Vienna Airport no later than 30 minutes before the departure time and must also be forwarded to the respective ramp agent (also known as “Red Caps”). The coordination of the de-icing positions and precise taxiing to these are determined for the aircraft by air traffic control at the beginning of the winter season.
Since the end of 2008, 60 vehicles powered by natural gas have been supporting the work processes on the apron. They are equipped with laptops and printers and serve as a mobile workstation for the “red caps” and loading supervisors in aircraft handling. A total of around 900 tools are in use on the apron; Compliance with the maximum permitted speed of 40 km / h on the apron is monitored by the operations management. A total of 120 electric vehicles are in use on the apron and in the terminal. A maintenance option for aircraft is offered at the airport by Austrian Airlines Technik and Gate V.
Since 2011, handling services for the VIP-GAC have also been offered by a private company.
The parking positions on the apron are assigned one and two-digit numbers with a preceding letter (e.g. C33, F04). For a better overview and orientation, these are divided into the following letter blocks and are labeled accordingly on the spelling table :
- A lfa (at the VIP-GAC and in front of the AUA base)
- B ravo (in front of the Air Cargo Center)
- C harlie (on West Pier)
- D elta (at the east pier)
- E cho (along piste 11/29; near the piste cross)
- F ox (at the north pier)
- H otel (south of the tank farm)
- K ilo (north of the tank farm)
The gate names in the terminal are also based on this scheme.
An underground refueling system is in operation at Vienna Airport , which avoids the use of tankers on the apron. The fuel gets to the airport from the 5 km distant OMV - Schwechat refinery , where four tanks are a total of 30,000 cubic meters. From there, the kerosene is pumped through its own pipeline, built in 1991, with a maximum output of 240 m³ / hour into the tank farm at the northeastern airport area and then distributed to over 156 connection points. There it is pumped into the aircraft with the help of dispenser vehicles. In 2010, for example, that was 750,000 m³ of fuel with the specification Jet A-1 . The first expansion stage of the system was completed in 1995, and an expansion followed a year later. In 1998 a fifth pumping unit was created for the system.
Aviation turbine fuel can only be brought into the tank farm via the pipeline, so that there is no need for any tank truck trips to the airport. Since OMV operates the only refinery in the country, but the rail unloading station required as an alternative also belongs to the Schwechat refinery, price abuse on the part of the company cannot be ruled out. For this reason, the company has committed itself to always selling jet fuel to airlines on terms that are in line with competition. The refueling system is operated by the company FSH Schwechat Airport Hydranten Gesellschaft . Skytanking is responsible for Austrian Airlines, and ARC Aircraft Refueling Company (representing the petroleum groups Agip, Air BP, Exo Mobil, Shell, OMV, Air Total) for all other airlines .
In contrast, the fuel for the motor vehicles is brought to the three company filling stations by tanker trucks. In 2014, 2.6 million liters were refueled from there in the company's own vehicles.
Baggage sorting systems
The baggage control center in Terminal 1, 1A and 2, the Baggage Logistics Center West , is located in a separate building on the company premises. Terminal 3 has its own sorting facility in its basement, the Baggage Logistics Center East . It was put into operation in 2011 and has ten transfer baggage claim points in the vicinity of the parking positions at Pier North. The belt length of the conveyor systems, which are connected to one another, is around 14 kilometers in total. 54,000 pieces of luggage can be sorted per hour.
The on-board menus for 30 different airlines that fly to Vienna Airport are produced by Do & Co in Vienna-Simmering and then transported to the airport eleven times a day. In the catering building on the airport's premises, the meals are then assigned to the individual flights. From there, the trolleys are brought to the aircraft by apron vehicles, where they are taken to the galleys using lifting platforms. The catering logistics, such as loading and washing dishes, are handled by Skygourmet directly at the airport .
Vienna Airport operates a total of four lounges in the terminal. In the area of the B, C and D gates the “Jet Lounge” at the “Plaza” and the “Air Lounge” in the East Pier. There is a separate “Sky Lounge” for the F and G gates. Austrian Airlines offers its Star Alliance passengers and travelers a total of seven lounges. Three Schengen and three Non-Schengen Lounges, each with a Business, Senator / Star Gold and HON Circle Lounge in areas F and G and a Business Lounge at the D-Gates. The care of the catering in all lounges is subject to Do & Co.
Prayer room and pastoral care
There are a total of three interfaith devotional dreams in the terminal . One for departure areas B, C and D ( accessible via a lift after boarding card control in Terminal 2 ) and two in Terminal 3 (on level 2 landside and on level 3 airside). The airport pastoral care is taken care of by Joseph Farrugia, pastor of the Vienna Votive Church . There is a Catholic service on Sundays at 8 a.m.
Airlines and destinations
|Asiana Cargo||Frankfurt , Göteborg-Landvetter , Seoul-Incheon , Moscow-Domodedovo|
|Cargolux||Doha , Hanoi , Hong Kong , Luxembourg , Novosibirsk|
|FedEx Express||Budapest , Paris-Charles de Gaulle|
|Korean Air Cargo||Basel / Mühlhausen , Brussels-Zaventem , Copenhagen , Milan-Malpensa , Navoiy , Oslo-Gardermoen , Saragossa , Seoul-Incheon , Tel Aviv-Ben Gurion|
|Silk Way Airlines||Milan-Malpensa , Baku , Seoul-Incheon|
|TNT Airways||Ljubljana , Liege|
|Turkish Airlines Cargo||Istanbul Ataturk , Minsk , Mitiga|
|UPS Airlines||Budapest , Cologne / Bonn|
The number of passengers has increased almost constantly over the past decades. The month with the highest number of passengers since records began, August 2018 was recorded with 2,783,173 passengers, and the peak day was July 29, 2018 with 100,229 passengers.
|Year of operation||Passenger numbers||of which transfer passengers||Flight movements||Air freight without replacement air freight traffic in t|
In 2009, the number of passengers fell significantly due to the economic crisis . The forecasts for traffic development over the next ten years have been adjusted accordingly. Since then the increase in passengers has been constant again. In 2017, a new passenger record was set again. With a share of 48.4% of the total passenger volume in 2017, Austrian Airlines is the airport's largest customer.
|#||Airline||Passengers 2017||Change compared to 2016 in%||Share of total passenger volume in%|
|2.||Germanwings / Eurowings||2,258,414||77.1||9.3|
The largest proportion of passengers have destinations to Western Europe. The most frequented routes here are London , Frankfurt and Zurich . The Eastern European targets are led by Moscow , Bucharest and Sofia . The flight destinations in the Near and Middle East are led by Dubai , Tel Aviv and Doha and Bangkok , followed by Taipei and Beijing , booked the most long-haul passengers. The average occupancy rate of the flights (scheduled and charter) was 74.8%. In 2017, 195 destinations were served by 74 airlines.
|Regions||Passengers 2017||Compared to 2016 in%|
|Near / Middle East||633.335||2.3|
An increase in passenger numbers of 3% is expected for the 2018 financial year. For the period 2013 to 2020 an average passenger growth of 3.3% is assumed. Around 28 million passengers are forecast around 2020.
The airport is operated by the listed Flughafen Wien AG , a rarity in Europe. This emerged in 1992 from Flughafen Wien Betriebsgesellschaft mbH , which was founded on December 11, 1953 . The ÖIAG sold end of 2000 their share of the company; the provinces of Vienna and Lower Austria then increased their shares (bundled in a syndicate) to 20% each, and 10% was transferred to an employee foundation. The shares of the owners are distributed as follows:
- 39.8% Airports Group Europe S.à rl, an IFM Investors company
- 20% federal state of Lower Austria
- 20% City of Vienna
- 10.2% are traded on the Vienna Stock Exchange
- 10% employee foundation
Through the employee foundation, the employees participate in the company's dividend income. For the 2002 financial year, for example, 3.99 million euros were distributed to employees. In 2017, a dividend income of 5.3 million euros was paid out retrospectively. On average, this corresponds to around 60% of the average monthly basic salary per employee. The distribution is based on the annual gross base salary.
Around 20,000 people were employed at the Vienna Airport location in 2014, 4,306 of them directly in the Flughafen Wien Group. They are resident in
This makes the airport the largest employer in eastern Austria. The general rule of thumb is that there are 1,000 jobs for every million passengers per year. The airport creates around 52,500 jobs in the entire Austrian economy.
The ongoing operation at the airport brings Austria-wide tax revenue of around one billion euros per year. The airport's added value in 2007 was around 4.8 billion euros, which is around 2% of Austria's added value. In Austria around 1200 companies with 600,000 employees are dependent on Vienna Airport. Around 230 companies are based at the airport.
Expansion and planning
In addition to the major projects listed below, growth in the non-aviation sector and the development of the “airport city” are a particular focus of the airport boards. Planning work for the new Office Park 4 began at the end of 2016. The new building should contain around 20,000 m² of lettable space and will go into operation in early 2020 at the latest. The property designed by HNP architects will be erected on the entrance road - in the immediate vicinity of the tower. The investment volume for this is around 60 million euros.
At the beginning of 2017, an investment program of 1.6 billion euros (excluding the third runway) was announced until 2025; around 100 million euros were earmarked for 2017. Around 175 million euros are to be invested in the site in 2018.
Modifications in the terminal
The renovation of the old building is carried out during ongoing operations. The work was completed on Terminal 1, the B-Gates, Pier West and parts of the plaza, among others.
The concrete planning phase for the redesign of Terminal 2 and Pier East began in 2016 and should be completed in 2018. It was preceded by a two-year development phase in which different modifications were tested. As part of the modernization, a multifunctional new building is to be erected south of Terminal 3 (construction will start at the beginning of 2021, opening in 2023), which will connect the previously separate gate areas B, C, D and F, G with each other and contain around 10,000 m² of additional retail space becomes. The existing security control from Terminal 3 will also be relocated to the new building.
Passenger operations in the original Terminal 2 were shut down in January 2013. A second central security check is currently being created in this area; it will replace the separate controls at the B, C and D gates from around mid-2020. The entire building infrastructure is being completely renewed.
Pier East will be rebuilt to match the design of the modernized Pier West; the partition walls between the individual gates and decentralized security checks will also be omitted here in the future. Three additional baggage claim belts will be installed in the arrivals area. With the new southern expansion of Terminal 3, Vienna Airport will become a so-called “One Terminal Airport”. This means that passengers can go through security at any location and still reach any gate. In the case of transfer connections, there is also no need to go through a new check.
A budget of a maximum of 39 million euros was approved by the Supervisory Board for the current project planning phase. Once this has been completed, the implementation phase will take place in the years 2018 to 2023, with individual sub-projects going into operation earlier. A cost cap of a maximum of 500 million euros was decided for all projects. In view of the problems in the course of the construction of Terminal 3, Flughafen Wien AG, as the client, has restructured its construction area and, according to its own statements, implemented the recommendations of the Court of Auditors. According to the board, no more changes to the plan should be permitted after the project planning has been completed. The on-site construction supervision and accompanying control are to be taken over by in-house departments.
As part of long-term planning, the airport is also considering building an additional terminal. It is to be built between runway 11/29 and its planned parallel runway as a mid-field terminal and connected to the current structure by an underground railway. In addition to the capacity increases that are to be brought about by renewing the old stock, Vienna Airport could handle up to 50 million passengers a year thanks to the new satellite terminal.
Vienna Airport is planning to build a third runway in the form of a runway parallel to the existing runway 11/29 with a length of around 3680 meters and a width of 60 meters. The runway would be about 2400 meters south of runway 11/29 and 2600 meters west of runway 16/34 and would be designated 11R / 29L . The application to implement the project was submitted to the Lower Austrian provincial government in March 2007. In the course of the planning, many concerns arose - especially on the part of people living in the vicinity of the airport - which primarily relate to the increased noise pollution from the additional runway. In order to cater to the wishes and needs of those affected, the most extensive mediation process in Europe to date was carried out from 2000 to 2005, which was concluded in a mediation contract that is binding under civil law. This provides for regulations to relieve the population. In addition, a dialogue forum was set up, which is specifically dedicated to mediating between the airport, citizens' initiatives and other parties concerned and gives them a say in the planning of the third runway and the associated projects.
In July 2012, the positive first-instance decision of the environmental impact assessment was issued, against which there were 23 objections. The EIA notification lists 460 requirements, most of them in the ecological area. More than 200,000 square meters of forest have to be cleared for construction, but three are reforested for every square meter cleared. In addition, further green belts and noise barriers are required. Around 49.5 million cubic meters of earth have to be moved. The project also includes extensive "accompanying measures", such as the relocation of the B 10 federal road and the establishment of a third fire station. According to media reports, the construction of the third runway will cost around two billion euros.
The airport argues that the third runway is necessary in order to be able to serve the future increasing number of flight movements . With the situation of two slopes crossing each other in their extension, this is not possible in the long term. In addition, the new runway also means fewer delays, fuel consumption and noise by avoiding holdings at peak times.
With the decision on February 2, 2017, the application for the construction and operation of the runway was rejected by the Federal Administrative Court (BVwG) in the appeal proceedings. In the opinion of the responsible Senate, the project could not be approved, especially in connection with the expected additional CO 2 pollution . The results of the complaint procedure were checked again; The concerns of 28 complainants were taken into account. The present positive aspects - such as location and labor market policy effects - were, in the opinion of the BVwG, to be assessed less highly than protection against the negative consequences of climate change . Likewise, the operating company's options to reduce CO 2 emissions through its own measures are not sufficient.
The airport and the state of Lower Austria took action against the decision and turned to the Administrative Court (VwGH) . The operating company complained in particular that with the BVwG's knowledge, the consequences of climate change would be pushed solely to the airport or the planned expansion, although this was not the main cause. Environmental protection associations, on the other hand, welcomed the judgment as "groundbreaking". The Consultative Council of European Judges (CCJE) of the Council of Europe presented in the 2017 country report in connection with the reporting on the decision of the Federal Administrative Court regarding the third runway at Vienna Airport, as well as the public criticism of the governors of this decision (point 303 of the report), which Violation of European standards regarding the avoidance of unbalanced criticism (“unbalanced critical commentaries”) in court judgments (point 302 ff of the report).
On June 26, 2017, the Constitutional Court (VfGH) overturned the negative decision of the BVwG as unconstitutional; thus the case was referred back to him. According to the judgment of the VfGH, the BVwG included the aspects of climate protection and soil consumption in an unconstitutional way in its weighing of interests and also incorrectly calculated the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the project. The legal situation was thus "grossly misunderstood in several respects".
In the further proceedings, the Federal Administrative Court confirmed the granting EIA decision of the Lower Austrian provincial government with a decision of March 23, 2018. In contrast, the revisions raised by several citizens' initiatives and neighbors were rejected by the Administrative Court in March 2019, which ultimately ended the EIA proceedings. According to the management board of Flughafen Wien AG, the opening of the third runway before 2030 is not realistic.
Concerns about airport operations and possible solutions
There are two main concerns about possible disruptive factors caused by Vienna Airport, especially from residents around the airport site: the nuisance caused by aircraft noise and environmental problems.
Annoyance from aircraft noise
Certain volume levels occur at and around the airport due to the landing and handling of aircraft, which can be perceived as very annoying, especially by residents of the surrounding area. In any case, a distinction must be made between the subjective (“felt”) noise nuisance, which can vary from person to person, and the measured (“effective”) noise exposure (sound level).
The aircraft noise exposure around Vienna Airport varies depending on the distance to the runways, the time of day and daily fluctuations in traffic volume. In order to measure the actual sound level, the airport uses the so-called FANOMOS (Flight Track and Noise Monitoring System). This consists of 14 stationary ( Vienna Donaustadt , Groß-Enzersdorf , Fischamend , Klein-Neusiedl , Enzersdorf an der Fischa , Schwadorf , Margarethen am Moos , Rauchwarth , Zwölfaxing , Schwechat , Vienna Simmering , Himberg , Karlsdorf and Maria- Lanzendorf ) as well as four mobile measuring stations that record the noise emissions from aircraft taking off and landing. To ensure measurement accuracy, the system carries out an acoustic and electrical check every four hours.
Austro Control provides the radar and flight information data required for recording . FANOMOS combines this flight data with the events recorded at other measuring points (wind force, etc.). In 2007, 47 series of measurements were carried out in this way, 28 of which were used for comparison with the series of measurements from 2006. The result showed that flight movements increased by 7.1% within the six busiest months of the year, but the LDEN values (noise index) at the measuring points increased by a maximum of 0.8 dB (Margarethen am Moos, Rauchwarth) or 2.2 dB (Maria-Lanzendorf, but a change of location was carried out in October 2007, which falsified the comparison), but were mostly reduced by up to 1.3 dB (Fischamend, Schwechat).
The maximum day-evening-night noise index defined by the Federal Environmental Noise Protection Act is 65 dB. The airport's noise protection program already includes a daytime protection area with an equivalent continuous noise level of over 54 dB; the night protection area begins at a level of over 45 dB. If these internal thresholds are exceeded, the airport bears the costs for noise protection measures. (See also: Night flight regulations at Vienna Airport )
Since the spring of 2009, the flight tracks for arrivals and departures to and from Vienna Airport have also been publicly displayed on the Internet.
Air and climate, greenhouse gas emissions
In 1997 a special pollutant measurement system was purchased to determine the air quality values at and around the airport. According to these, the airport has only a small influence on air quality; the values correspond to those in the outskirts of a large city such as Vienna. The Group's CO 2 emissions were 33,941 tons in 2015 (2014: 37,692 tons, 2013: 41,365 tons). The airport is a member of the so-called “Airport Carbon Accreditation Program” of the international umbrella association of airport operators ( Airports Council International ). The long-term goal of CO 2 neutrality is supported with the help of the four-stage Airport Carbon Accreditation System (ACAS). The program provides guidelines for balancing emissions and sets reduction targets. In 2017, the airport achieved level 3 of 4. Only the emissions from land-based traffic and local companies are included in the CO 2 emissions balance , but not air traffic.
The above figure of 33,941 tonnes of CO 2 emissions does not take into account emissions from air traffic, only ground emissions. It is expected that in 2029 air traffic will be responsible for approx. 40% of Austria's CO 2 emissions.Various sides have therefore accused the airport and the Airport Carbon Accreditation System of greenwashing.
Water consumption and garbage
The water consumption in 2017 was 445,698 m³. (For comparison: 1.2 million m³ were used in 1984.) The airport gets its water from four wells from the groundwater. Wastewater from aprons, taxiways and runways is fed to the Schwechat-Mannswörth wastewater treatment plant.
In 2014, the amount of waste amounted to 3333 tons. There were also 163 tons of hazardous waste, 2030 tons of commercial waste and 371 tons of waste paper. In 2017, the total amount of waste was 4,456 tons.
According to information provided by the airport, airport operations required around 93 million kilowatt hours of electricity in 2004, which roughly corresponded to the energy consumption of the city of Tulln. In 2014 Flughafen Wien AG consumed around 98 million kWh of electricity. The energy is obtained from Wien Energie and has a renewable share of around 60% (48.85% hydropower, 6.17% wind energy, 3.45% biomass, 1.72% other eco-energy). The remaining 39.81% (natural gas) is generated by the electricity supplier.
By July 2016, 836 photovoltaic systems with a total area of 3,200 m² and an annual yield of around 500,000 kWh had been installed on the roof areas of Hangar 7 and property. In 2017 another facility (8,000 m²) was added to the Air Cargo Center. The annual yield of around 750,000 kWh covers the air freight center's own electricity needs; the excess energy is fed into the airport network and contributes to the generation of cooling. There are several natural gas and electric vehicles on the apron. In car park 4 there is a charging station for passengers with electric cars. In addition, the large glass facades in the check-in areas and in the piers encourage the switching off or dimming of the artificial lighting. In the event of a power failure, there are four emergency power generators with a total output of 6.5 MW. The taxiway and runway lighting is also secured by a UPS system. The air-conditioned buildings are connected to central cooling systems; Thanks to heat feedback systems, the cooling and heating energy contained in the exhaust air can continue to be used. The three separate cooling centers have a total output of 26 MW.
Mediation with citizens
When dealing with points of criticism that are repeatedly voiced by residents of the airport, the airport relies primarily on mediation with the parties concerned. Mediation negotiations began in 2000 after the airport presented its “Master Plan 2015” and ran until 2005. As a result, a contract was signed providing for further mediation and cooperation. The association “Dialogforum” was founded for this purpose, in which the airport, the affected communities, citizens' initiatives and the federal states of Vienna and Lower Austria are represented.
The architectural design of the building erected in 1992 is influenced by Terminal 2, which was built in the 1960s. Apart from their dimensions, the buildings look the same from the driveway. Inside, however, only the roof, which is stretched and sagging towards the airfield, and the slightly inclined window areas on the long sides are reminiscent of the neighboring building. The interior of the building was designed by architect Franz Fehringer, who was also responsible for the planning of the east and west piers and the “Plaza”. The elaborately executed ceiling soffit of the hall, which was provided with numerous points of light and shapes, was removed by a renovation carried out from July to December 2012. In the course of this work, the entire building services and the roof of the 3500 m² building were revitalized. The ceiling construction was demolished and replaced by a new grid ceiling, which permanently closed the 18 pyramid-shaped skylights. Only the floor, which was covered with angled red-brown tiles, was retained. The seating furniture and plant troughs that were originally set up were removed over the years in favor of additional space due to the increasing number of passengers.
For the first time, the latest generation of information furniture, called "Airpoints", came into operation here. These replace the classic flip-dot displays in Terminal 1, but also conventional digital information monitors in Terminal 3, which, however, are not equally easy to see by all passengers. Gradually, these will be used in all terminal areas. The check-in counters and ticket counters were designed by Hochgerner and are already being used in the other check-in areas.
The 6 m high steel construction hall has a floor area of 1500 m², of which about 1400 m² can be used. With coatings, the construction achieves the quality of fire protection class F-30. (The classification states that the construction can withstand a fire for at least 30 minutes) The facade and the suspended interior ceiling are made of translucent plastic twin-wall sheets. In the ground area, waist-high grasses are depicted on it.
The hall was designed by the architects Baumschlager Eberle and has the shape of a rectangular box which, according to the architects, should resemble a “tent in the landscape”. It can be entered via the south side (facing the driveway). Here the outer walls fall back at an angle. The construction is completely dismantled and recyclable.
Inside, along the south and west sides, there is a building infrastructure that is not accessible to the public, the connection to the baggage handling system and a toilet facility. The north and east sides, on the other hand, are not built in and allow daylight to penetrate. This is where the new design of the check-in counters and desk systems made of elm was used for the first time. They can now also be found in all other check-in areas.
In July 1955, a planning team consisting of Fritz Pfeffer, Kurt Klaudy , Adolf Hoch and Anton Schimka was selected from the over 30 applicants in the ideas competition for a general expansion plan.
Construction began on the design known as “Flughafen” in March 1956. The cost was 230 million schillings. The capacity of the new facility was designed for two million passengers a year and was based on the forecast for 1975. The opening took place on June 17, 1960 in the presence of Federal President Adolf Schärf .
The building consisted of the large main hall, which still exists today, with narrow side wings attached to the east and west sides. The structures were positioned slightly pivoted to each other; Towers are planned as accents at both ends. The control tower was connected to the east as an office wing for the airlines and air traffic control. It was not until 1976 that a pulpit was added to the tower. The western wing offered space for restaurants and had an observation tower to close off the building. In 2005, the entire east side was demolished in the course of the construction of Terminal 3, while the west wing still exists (between Pier West and Terminal 1). The observation tower was converted into an office building and given a blue glass facade (see picture on the right).
The increasing number of passengers brought with it the introduction of a 2-level operation (for arrival and departure). In 1986 the new arrival hall was opened for this purpose. It was designed by the Linz architect Rupert Falkner and was in operation until Terminal 3 was opened.
With the exception of the right of way, the building is now surrounded by new developments on all sides. Due to the extensive new buildings, the incidence of light, views and the originally spacious character of the departure hall have largely been lost to this day. It measures around 60 × 80 meters and is spanned by a suspended roof structure, which consists of parabolic, parallel tendons and an in-situ concrete shell 6 cm thick. The roof is perforated by two light wells in the middle of the building. This creates four longitudinally oriented halls along the outer sides.
Inside, too, the original room layouts have been greatly altered by built-ins. In particular the "southern hall extension" with the "plaza", which was built by 1993, meant a serious intervention. On the one hand, the actual south facade has been completely built in since then and is therefore no longer visible from the apron; on the other hand, the retail areas created at the time on the departure level extend into the old southern hall area. A closed passage to a self-service restaurant has also been installed on level 2. As a result, the open spatial image of the column-free interior is no longer perceptible. Originally, only terrace-like installations were planned in the south hall, from which what was happening on the apron could be observed.
Despite everything, the southern hall has been preserved to this day and is visible in the area directly after the boarding pass control. The south facade consists almost entirely of window areas, whereby the glass elements are slightly angled to each other by a kink. In contrast, the northern hall area towards the driveway has largely been preserved to this day in its original condition. Check-in and ticket counters have also been in the same positions since the beginning. High windows between slightly inclined frames made of reinforced concrete let in daylight.
The entrances to the B, C and D gates are located in the east and west halls, which are normally on top of the other two. Currently only the east entrance is in use.
Inside, the load-bearing reinforced concrete skeleton is visible throughout. In the original parts, the floors are covered with gray and white striped conglomerate rock. Up until the 1970s, the building had spacious terraces from which spectators outside could watch the action and wave to departing passengers who were walking across the apron. These facilities were successively reduced in size with the construction of the East Pier and finally dismantled with the construction of the West Pier.
Due to the relatively small area in front of the counters, the building today no longer fully meets the requirements of a modern terminal building. As a result, only a few airlines have been handled in Terminal 2 in recent years. (The check-in counters were finally shut down completely in 2013) Nevertheless, revitalization work was carried out in the roof area from July 2010 to August 2011, as there was more and more water ingress. As part of the work, the entire roof was renewed, sealed against moisture and provided with thermal insulation. In order to maintain the load-bearing capacity of the construction and to support the suspended roof, horizontal steel ribs were built in and steel cable anchors were erected between them for stiffening. In addition, individual glass facades were renewed.
At that time, all construction work was carried out with ongoing operations. Much more extensive interventions on the structure are now to be carried out in the years 2018–2023 .
The Vorarlberg office Baumschlager Eberle and the Swiss office IttenBrechbühl were responsible for the design of the building . It is divided into the sickle-shaped terminal and the pier connected to it. The structure connects directly to the existing Terminal 2 and takes up the curve of the access ramp. A 15-meter-deep roof cantilevered over it. Towards the driveway, the sickle is preceded by a vestibule, in which there is space for double revolving doors and areas that are otherwise rentable. This is not visible in the top view . The sickle is funded by means of bored piles and pile gratings, the pier with plate and individual foundations. The supporting structure is made of F90 reinforced concrete. (This classification, which applies to fire protection, states in this case that the concrete cover of the reinforcement is at least 35 mm thick and has a fire resistance duration of more than 90 minutes)
Pier fingers are arranged north and south of the pier at a distance of 45 meters. They provide access to the passenger boarding bridges, but also act as access to the bus gates. In order to be able to operate the two outputs in parallel, the individual fingers are each divided into two aisles by a semi-transparent pane of glass. One leads to the passenger boarding bridge (s), the other to a steep, two-flight staircase. This in turn ends at a small catchment area for waiting bus passengers. A pier finger and the associated handling infrastructure on the four levels together form a so-called “boarding vessel”. The pier itself has a gradient of 0.5% in the longitudinal direction, which corresponds to a height difference of about 2.3 meters between the beginning and the end.
The building has a basement only in the sickle area (the pier only has a basement in the root area). The deepest points under the building, however, are the collector corridors, which not only run below the building, but also connect it to other parts of the airport.
The floor-to-ceiling glass facades are double-shelled. They consist of an inner layer with large-format glasses and an outer layer with smaller, deep-staggered panes; the arrangement should represent the least possible interference with the radar. The "pattern" is repeated every 45 meters. The inner glass facade represents the thermal boundary effective as the building closure. The scale-like glasses are also coated and make the building appear black from the outside. Both window layers are clamped in horizontal support elements that shade and structure the glasses.
Atriums are provided in the actually unexposed parts of the interior. They penetrate the entire height of the building and provide views of higher or lower levels. The aluminum system roof covers the entire building sickle and contributes to a uniform appearance when viewed from above. Inlet and exhaust air openings are all integrated into the roof and therefore do not form any disruptive structures. (The aim was a cohesive, homogeneous area)
The interior of the building is characterized by the colors black, white and gray. Numerous surfaces were designed as transparent or semi-transparent glazing. The restriction of materials and the economical formation of details are intended to reduce the stress level of the passengers as much as possible; Color accents should only be brought in by the people. The business premises on level 0 are arranged behind uniformly designed, translucent portals; all logos and advertisements of the companies were put on them and should stay in the background. Both the pier and the main halls are composed of recurring modules and have a high degree of repetition. The flow of people is distributed on the land and air side via several access cores (escalators, stairs and elevators) arranged in the longitudinal axis of the sickle. In the pier area, too, the access layer is in the middle; Waiting areas with double the room height are arranged on both sides. The horizontal design of the facades and the interior fittings are intended to increase the dynamism of the building.
In addition to the usual seating, specially designed seating furniture is used in the waiting areas. On the one hand there are the “Soft Tables”, a leather-upholstered piece of furniture similar to the Enzis in Vienna's MuseumsQuartier , and on the other hand the block-like laptop chairs with four seats and privacy screens. All check-in counters and other desk systems were made by Hochgerner. The design was previously used in Terminal 1A, was subsequently set as the standard and also implemented in Terminal 1, which was later converted. The counters and desks are made of elm and stainless steel and meet the requirements of bullet class 4 .
The Vorarlberg-based company Zumtobel was commissioned with the lighting planning and lighting of the interior and exterior spaces in cooperation with the Cologne-based lighting designers Kress & Adams. The aim was to create a bright, transparent atmosphere and to integrate the lighting design into the architecture. Backlit surfaces on the walls and ceilings were increasingly used in the pier. Special lights were used almost exclusively.
However, some of the guidelines and design specifications that were developed after the end of the architecture competition were either not implemented or changed. A different floor was laid throughout the building: tiles that were too small in the arrival area and black rubber flooring instead of white artificial stone in the other areas. Instead of the current slat ceilings, closed ceiling soffits were provided. The luminaires in the pier, which are planned as continuous light strips, are also interrupted every few meters.
Construction history and construction scandal surrounding the terminal
The basis for the decision to build expansion measures were forecasts of the future passenger volume in the 2015 master plan from 1998. This was preceded in 1997 by a study to optimize the airside and landside capacities of the airport. In 1998 the airport had an overall urban planning and design concept developed, and a year later a competition for the construction of a new terminal building was put out to tender. Two projects in the first row emerged from this. The competition jury was headed by architect Boris Podrecca . In November 2000, the joint venture between Baumschlager Eberle and IttenBrechbühl was awarded the contract. (The unsuccessful project applicant, an architectural association around the Frank und Partner office , then brought a lawsuit because they saw parts of their planning services being implemented illegally; in 2010 the allegation was ultimately confirmed by the Supreme Court.) The planners were created with the creation of a commissioned first preliminary design for terminal and pier; the construction costs were then estimated at 402 million euros. Based on the winning design, a design guideline for the areas around the building was also drawn up. In addition to specifications for design aspects, this also included concepts for open space design and traffic planning.
In 2002, the overall design was changed due to excessive, unacceptable costs, but also in particular as a result of the terrorist attacks on September 11, 2001 : catering, shopping and exercise areas were made smaller, the sickle shortened and slimmer, the pier at Rollgasse 80 Relocated south to Rollgasse 70 (preliminary draft 2). Ultimately, however, the capacities of the primary handling functions such as B. the baggage handling system and security control.
After coordination problems between architectural and specialist planning, the project management released the architects' draft to a limited extent in 2004. At this point, planning was already nine months delayed. In the same year, the building, often referred to as the North-East Terminal Extension or Terminal 2005 , was officially announced under the project name Skylink , and the foundation stone was laid in 2006. Preparatory measures such as demolition, excavation and relocation work began in early 2005. The opening of Skylink was originally planned in 2008. However, ongoing difficulties in project management led to the date being postponed. In addition, cost increases became known. Construction was stopped on June 30, 2009 in order to renegotiate contracts with suppliers and consultants and to prevent the feared enormous cost increase from fully occurring. In July 2009 it emerged that the federal procurement law applicable to the airport had been disregarded. The Court of Auditors audited the project from October 2009 to June 2010.
Furthermore, according to the magazine "Format", 3000 construction defects were found in a judicial preservation of evidence on behalf of Flughafen Wien AG . On January 29, 2010, the Federal Public Procurement Office declared the construction supervision contract null and void. In addition, there is a need for clarification regarding the new tender or extension of the contracts that were canceled in June 2009. According to the project management, construction work was resumed in February 2010 with a new construction supervision. The commissioning in the first half of 2012 and an upper cost limit of 830 million euros were regarded as safe.
In June 2010 the Viennese news magazine Profil wrote that the structure had become a “memorial of unprecedented mismanagement” that “plunged the airport into what is probably the worst crisis in its history”. In October 2011 it was assumed that costs would be reduced to “well” below EUR 800 million. In total, the total costs in March 2012 were 760 million euros, and at the beginning of 2014 they were 725 million euros. By then, more than 30 million euros could be claimed as damages.
After the operational trial run from January 5 to April 26, 2012, the terminal expansion was opened on June 5, 2012. On May 30, 2012, a few days before commissioning, the airport announced that it was parting with the (project) name Skylink . The new building was organizationally integrated into the existing structure under the heading Terminal 3 . Austrian Airlines also call the building the Austrian Star Alliance Terminal . On June 21, 2012 , the official opening ceremony took place in the presence of the governors of Vienna and Lower Austria, Michael Häupl and Erwin Pröll . As a result, some deficiencies, such as a confusing signage system, surfaces that were too small and above all the inadequate accessibility, were criticized. The airport promised improvements within a few months, but also asserted that major structural changes would no longer be possible afterwards and that the construction would be planned differently with today's knowledge. Particular attention was paid to the issue of accessibility and working groups were set up with organizations for the disabled . Since then, step-by-step improvements have been implemented, such as modifications to the barrier-free toilets and improvements to the monitors. Two additional elevators were installed, two existing ones were given new, larger cabins and the control system (at the entire airport) was converted to a revised version in 2014. All knowledge gained should be taken into account in future construction projects.
A special control system is used in the building for around 2000 security doors. Due to the three-level concept (for departure Schengen, arrival, departure non-Schengen) and the mandatory separation of arriving and departing passengers, the passenger must be properly guided in the building and it must be ensured that the flows of people do not mix. Depending on the destination of the flight, the software automatically opens or closes certain doors, escalators only travel in one direction and elevators are only allowed to stop at certain points. In an emergency, of course, all escape routes must be open. Before boarding, for example, the staff must first check the access routes to the aircraft, only then can the specific route be activated in the system.
The data from the cameras in the building are also evaluated by software with "artificial intelligence". It is used to detect dangerous situations (such as abandoned baggage or movement in an unauthorized direction) and to report it to the security staff. In order to avoid traffic jams, the speed and direction of travel of the passengers is also analyzed. None of the data supplied is evaluated on a personal basis, so privacy protection is taken into account.
The electrical energy is supplied via a newly built ring network operated with 20 kV from the medium-voltage network via underground collector corridors. One transformer station each is provided for the terminal and the pier. The heat is supplied via the airport's own district heating network with a flow temperature of 150 ° C. The total heat requirement for the terminal expansion is around 11,000 kW. The air conditioning water supply is provided with a connected load of 12,000 kW via the airport's internal refrigeration units. For Sichel and Pier, the air conditioning and ventilation systems generate a total air volume of around 900,000 m³ / h. The building's internal sprinkler system includes around 35,000 sprinkler heads, 33 alarm valve stations and two sprinkler pump control centers.
VIP Terminal and General Aviation Center
In 2004, the design by Holzbauer & Partner prevailed in an architecture competition. The main building has a gross floor area of 7,840 m², the construction time was estimated at nine months. The base area of the terminal is rectangular, with both the cantilevered canopy and the border of the “courtyard of honor” continuing the shape of the roof by means of a four-meter-wide, circumferential roof wing. Large parts of the facade were provided with perforated fiber cement panels to ensure radar compatibility. An eleven-meter-wide roof rises above the driveway, which is clad with sheet metal panels and can be illuminated indirectly from below.
The interior is designed to be of high quality. The main functional facilities such as clearance, customs and security controls, VIP lounges, shops and a restaurant are located on the ground floor in addition to the central foyer. The foyer has two storeys and is illuminated by a glass roof in the ceiling area. The central element is a spiral steel staircase. The upper floor has waiting lounges and office space for general aviation and for third-party use. The VIP area can only be entered through monitored sliding doors. The salons on the ground floor are variably divisible and have acacia wood paneling on the walls and ceilings.
As a special feature, hangars 5 and 6 have a timber frame construction with a span of 70 m. By oversizing the timber cross-sections, fire protection class F-30 could be achieved. The 4-leaf sliding gates were made with translucent fiberglass panels in white and turquoise. The heating takes place via ceiling spotlights. Air curtains are installed in the area of the gates . A large part of the building facades is provided with a gray and white striped line pattern. The hall constructions of the communal center west attached to the landside were awarded the Lower Austrian timber construction award.
Handling Center West and Air Cargo Center
The new buildings were designed by Treusch architecture ; Planning and construction took place at the same time. The HCW went into operation in 2005 after just one year of construction, the ACC one year later. For this reason, the two buildings also have the same exterior design and similar character traits, such as a building wing as a connecting element with the halls in front. The latter are covered by shed roofs with spans of up to 35 meters in both the HCW and the ACC . It is noteworthy that these are wooden constructions that also have to meet the extensive fire protection requirements. An overhanging canopy was also built at the HCW petrol station, which is supported by only two supports. Starting from the supports, the overhang is 15 meters to the front and 7 meters to the side. The constructions were awarded the Lower Austrian Timber Construction Prize.
The new control tower is already the third of its kind and replaced the old building with object number 100, which was demolished in 2005. This second tower was built in 1960 as part of the newly opened "airport" and was only around 40 m high. (The original control tower of the airport was built in 1953 as part of the first check-in building and was preserved until 2016) The main entrance of the new tower (object 120) is in Towerstrasse 2. At the foot of the base is a lowered patio, in which parking spaces are intended for air traffic control vehicles. The remaining areas around the building were landscaped.
An architecture competition for the new building took place in 2002. The office Zechner & Zechner Ziviltechniker GmbH from Vienna prevailed. Planning and implementation took place between 2003 and 2005.
Two separate buildings were formulated in the competition specification: One for air traffic control technology and a classic control tower. The desired symbolism in the design prompted the architects to come up with the idea of stacking the two functions in one building. The tower is located directly on the entrance road and with a height of 109 meters is a landmark that can even be seen from the city of Vienna. In this way it acts as a landmark. The signal effect is additionally reinforced by the media display on its shell. The architects also speak of a “lighthouse” that sends signals to its surroundings.
The structure is founded using a pile-plate system. The 2.5 m thick base plate rests on 34 large construction piles that are found to a depth of 35 m. The six-storey base of the building is located at a street crossing and takes up the building lines of the local orthogonal street grid. The supporting structure of the base storeys consists of slack reinforced flat ceilings with a thickness of 30 cm and round supports with a diameter of 30 to 50 cm. The main construction consists entirely of reinforced concrete, with the over 100 m high tower shaft in the form of a circular concrete tube with a constant wall thickness of 45 cm and a diameter of around 10 m and manufactured using a sliding construction method. The pulpit at the top has been rotated to the base by about 45 degrees, which corresponds to the main direction you are looking at. In addition, the shaft is not in the center of the base, so that the tower has a different appearance from every direction, which sometimes looks "crooked".
The base and top of the tower were provided with a glass facade, the panes of the pulpit being 5 cm thick and weighing around 900 kg each. The floors in between are only covered by a membrane, which is not only intended as a purely sculptural appearance, but rather reproduces a step-by-step geometric morphing from the base to the top. In the evenings, it is staged in a multimedia way from inside and outside with lamps or projectors . With an area of around 3,300 m², it makes the tower the largest membrane structure in Austria. It is interrupted storey by storey by ring-shaped steel profile frames, which over eleven storeys make the rounding of the floor plan, which increases with height and its gradual rotation relative to the cuboid base, visible. Behind the shell there is a 200-ton steel structure, but no usable floor space. The highest workplace in the top of the tower is on the 23rd floor.
The gross floor area is 8,600 m², the net floor area is 6,810 m². The construction costs amounted to around 20 million euros. The clients were Flughafen Wien AG and Austro Control.
Passenger guidance system
In Terminal 1A, which opened in 2005, the Fedra Sans font family was first seen at the airport . For the first time, the usual signage was completely dispensed with and the lettering was printed in large format on the building surfaces. The guidance system used up to then, which was kept in a strong yellow tone and provided with the Helvetica font , remained unchanged in all other parts of the building.
It was not until Terminal 3 that the new visual appearance and the new font were used consistently. The difficulty for the planners was in developing a system that was as efficient as the yellow signs, but without a background color. The interiors, which are kept in black and white, should not be dominated by one color. The Swiss communication designer Ruedi Baur and the Intégral Paris office then developed a new type of system and gave the logos themselves identifying features. Some inscriptions were therefore semi-transparent, had flowing edges or had marbled letters instead of full-color letters. White signs should guide you through the terminal, black signs point to the gates or baggage claim belts. To match this, 150 symbols were developed by Baur that were based on the font style.
After the terminal expansion went into operation, the new control system was gradually used throughout the airport, but in the following months met with massive criticism, especially from organizations for the disabled. They criticized the poor legibility and found a violation of the Federal Disability Equality Act. The signage of gate numbers that did not even exist also caused confusion among the passengers. As a result, the system had to be revised again. Among other things, the fonts were enlarged and identification colors were assigned to the gate areas. Above all, however, attention was paid to the contrasting and design of the panels. They are now uniformly written in white on a black background.
As typeface uniform designed by the Slovak designer Peter Bilak found in the publications, the monitor displays and passenger guidance system font family Fedra Sans use. The airport logo, which has been in use for many years, is an exception. The word and image mark consists of the IATA code VIE and the words “Vienna International Airport”.
On the occasion of the opening of the “Airport” in 1960 (today Terminal 2), the metal sculpture “Icarus” created by Wander Bertoni was set up on the entrance road . It is still in the same position today, level with car park 3.
Multi -part media art from the Ars Electronica Futurelab entitled “ZeitRaum” is installed in Terminal 3 and Pier Nord . At the boarding pass control, for example, the passengers are channeled through a meter-high screen wall with the installation "Textscapes", which is influenced on the one hand by the passengers and on the other hand by the data transmitted by the tower. Each passing passenger triggers a rain of letters. This in turn forms a topography, with each take-off forming a mountain and each landing a valley. In the pier, under the title “Timescapes”, there are the works “Last Clock”, “Nodes”, “Industrious Clock”, “Timezones” and the game “Catch a plane”, similar to the Moorhuhn PC games, designed for children . “Airport soundscapes ” with soothing soundtracks emerge from the furniture in individual waiting areas in the north pier . As with the "Textscapes", the sound gradients are created by the control and machining data from the tower. Since the end of May 2013, gigapixel images of various travel destinations have also been displayed on the “Textscapes” monitor wall.
Ars Electronica's media art was presented in the Terminal in 2011. At that time the exhibition was titled “Passenger ARTspace” and was limited to the months of July and August. The three installations "Reface", "Innocence" and "Shadowgram" were set up in the piers east and west and at the B-gates.
During Austria's EU presidency in 2006, the outer skin of car park 3 was designed with a temporary art installation by media artist Peter Kogler . For this purpose, he designed a network of computer-generated tubes, which combined to form a dynamic structure. The work of art was removed again; however, a similar tube structure can be seen permanently at the VIP Terminal (GAC). It surrounds the so-called "Ehrenhof" there.
Until November 2013, the work of art “Chief King” by Gerhardt Moswitzer was in the rotunda of Pier West . The eight-ton iron sculpture made of Torstahl had been in this place since the pier opened in 1996, before it was moved to Voitsberg in Styria on permanent loan at the end of 2013 . The work of art, which is still owned by Flughafen Wien AG, has a book value of 350,000 euros.
According to the punctuality statistics of the Association of European Airlines (AEA), Vienna Airport was one of the most punctual airports in Europe for 2007 as a whole . Out of 27 European airports, Vienna took third place after Düsseldorf and Brussels. A total of 17.9% of flights at Vienna Airport were delayed this year.
Compared to the other aviation hubs - Amsterdam Schiphol (21.4%), Frankfurt (24.3%), London Heathrow (35.5%), Madrid-Barajas (26.5%), Milan-Malpensa (21.1%), Munich (22.6%), Paris-Charles de Gaulle (27.3%) and Zurich (21.4%) - Vienna Airport performed best and had the lowest share delayed departures. Vienna Airport was already the third most punctual in Europe in 2006. In the first quarter of 2008, Vienna was the second most punctual airport in Europe after Munich. In an international comparison, Vienna Airport was ahead of Munich, Zurich and Frankfurt in 2012.
According to the punctuality statistics of the Internet portal “flightstats.com”, Vienna Airport was ranked fourth among the most punctual airports in Europe in August 2013 with 86.51%. The Handling division achieved a punctuality rate of 98.94% in the 2015 financial year. In the “Punctuality League Report” 2016 by the aviation service provider OAG, Vienna was ranked 20th among medium-sized airports worldwide. 81.03% of all flights could be processed on time. A flight is considered punctual if it lands no later than 15 minutes after the planned arrival or starts no later than 15 minutes after the planned departure time. In 2017, the passenger helper portal AirHelp compared the punctuality values of the ten largest airports in Austria, Germany and Switzerland. Vienna Airport came in second. Of a total of 102,667 departures, 20,163 were delayed by at least 15 minutes. 958 connections were completely canceled. Accordingly, 20.6% of the connections were not carried out as planned.
With Terminal 3 and the North Pier, the airport has a total capacity of 25 million passengers (without it it is 12 million). Since June 2012, Vienna Airport has been able to handle up to 30 million passengers annually. There are 99 aircraft parking positions with maximum occupancy, 36 of them with passenger boarding bridges. The existing runway system, consisting of runways 16/34 and 11/29, which intersect in their extension, can handle a maximum of 74 flight movements per hour and 320,000 flight movements per year. There are a total of 128 check-in and 3 large baggage counters, 101 departure gates and 10 baggage claim belts.
Both runways correspond to ICAO category F. On them, among other things, regular flight operations with the Airbus A380, the Boeing 747-8 and the AN 124 are possible. To avoid overcapacity, however, Emirates was initially prohibited from using the Airbus A380 to Vienna by Austro Control . Since then, the use of this type is no longer explicitly prohibited in the current air transport agreement; Subsequently, the operating license for the model was also issued by the Ministry of Transport.
The Airbus A380 has been processed directly at the gate since regular operations began. Until a two-story boarding facility with three passenger boarding bridges has been set up as part of the renovation work in 2018-2023 , passengers can get on and off via two bridges on the lower deck. A parking space is provided for the aircraft type in the area of parking positions D25 / 26/27 on Pier East. Four gates are used for boarding inside the building.
Operating times and night flight regulations
The airport operates 24 hours a day and there is no general night flight ban. However, a mediation agreement stipulates that take-offs and landings between 9 p.m. and 7 a.m. must only take place via runway 29. This agreement also regulates the capping of flight movements between 11:30 pm and 5:30 am; the number of take-offs and landings during this period should be kept at the 2009 level (4,700 movements in total). However, this limit has always been undercut in recent years. (2012 by 496, 2013 by 543, 2014 by 305, 2015 by 584, 2016 by 542 and 2017 by 259 movements)
Since November 2013, all personal calls in the passenger areas have been canceled. The aim is to reduce the general noise level in the terminal and to pay more attention to important information, such as a changed departure gate.
In 2015, the airport was awarded the status of a 4-star airport by the rating agency Skytrax, which specializes in aviation . In 2015, 2016 and 2017 he was also awarded the prize for the best airport staff in Europe. In 2018, Vienna Airport ranks 17th in the agency's global overall ranking. As part of an annual passenger survey carried out by the international umbrella association of airport operators (Airports Council International), the airport's service quality was rated the best in 2016 (in the “Europe and 15 to 25 million passengers” category).
In 2014 the Airport-City was recognized by the ÖGNI for its sustainable real estate development. Vienna Airport is the first industrial park in Austria to be awarded such a certificate. The airport also has EMAS certification and received the EMAS award in 2016, with which the Ministry for an Austria worth living in (BMLFUW) emphasizes the environmental management of Austrian companies.
In 2016, Air China named the airport “Best Ground Handling Agent” in the Europe region. Since December 14, 2017, Vienna Airport has been certified by the European Aviation Safety Agency, which is mandatory in European aviation .
Flughafen Wien AG has been awarding a prize for the “Best Performing Airline” of the previous year since 2013. The airline with the best growth result is honored. In 2013 this award went to TAP Portugal, in 2014 to Turkish Airlines, 2015 to NIKI / Air Berlin, Air China and Ethiopian, 2016 to easyJet, 2017 to Eurowings. In 2014, the so-called “Loyalty Award” was also given to those airlines that have been flying to the airport continuously since operations began in 1954. Austrian Airlines, British Airways, El Al and Lufthansa were among the winners.
- On November 17, 1945, a Douglas DC-3 / C-47A-5-DK of the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF) ( aircraft registration number KG310 ) touched the ground with a wing in poor visibility when approaching Vienna Airport and fell briefly in front of the runway. All inmates survived.
- On October 10, 1955, a Convair CV-340-58 of the Jugoslovenski Aerotransport - JAT (YU-ADC) was approaching runway 12 at the airport. Due to a pilot's error, she flew “ controlled ” into the Kahlenberg. 7 of 29 occupants died in the accident (see: Aviation accident on Leopoldsberg in 1955 ) .
- On December 24, 1958 collided shortly before 21:00 CET one Lockheed L-749A Constellation of Air France (flag F-BAZX ) on the flight from Paris-Orly via Munich-Riem to Vienna at the landing around 2200 meters before the runway 29 with the Terrain and went up in flames. Of the 28 passengers and six crew members , only two crew members were injured (see Air France flight 703 ) .
- On November 20, 1969, an Antonow An-24 with 18 occupants of the Polish airline LOT was kidnapped by two Polish citizens with dummy bombs on its flight from Breslau to Warsaw and diverted to Schwechat. The plane landed around 1:30 p.m. the kidnappers allowed themselves to be arrested without resistance and applied for political asylum .
- On December 26, 1971, a Douglas DC-9 -32 (HB-IFR) of Swissair collided with a Beechcraft Baron when it took off early in the morning in thick fog . During takeoff, the DC-9 brushed the cockpit of the Beech with its right wing, which was also on the runway without clearance . When the take-off was subsequently aborted, the nose wheel of the DC-9 broke and the torn right wing caught fire when the machine came to a standstill after 200 m. The Beechcraft pilot was killed, the 76 passengers and five crew members on board the Swissair plane were uninjured.
- On September 17, 1984 an aircraft of the type Swearingen SA.226TC Metro II of the Austrian airline Austrian Air Service with the registration OE-LSA got too deep on the final approach, grazed the approach lights and made a " belly landing ". All eight passengers and the two pilots were uninjured, but the aircraft had to be written off as a total write-off due to the considerable damage.
- On December 27, 1985, three people carried out a terrorist attack at the airport . Shortly after nine o'clock, the terrorists stormed down the eastern staircase into the departure hall (today Terminal 2) and rolled three hand grenades into the passenger queue waiting at counters 3 and 4 for the El-Al flight to be processed. Then they shot around with submachine guns. The police returned fire. Four people died and 39 others were injured in the attack and the subsequent firefight. One of the assassins was among the dead; his two accomplices were caught by the police after a chase on the highway. At the same time, a second terrorist group carried out a similar attack at Rome Fiumicino Airport , which killed more people. Abu Nidal's terrorist organization “took responsibility” for both attacks. On the occasion of this stop specialized through special training and equipment to terrorist threats police unit was using department Crane restructured.
- On July 12, 2000, the crew of an Airbus A310 operated by Hapag-Lloyd Flug (D-AHLB) on the way from Chania ( Crete ) to Hanover had to make an emergency landing in Vienna due to a lack of fuel. When touching down off the runway, the instrument landing system was largely destroyed, the aircraft was irreparably damaged and numerous passengers were injured (see Hapag-Lloyd flight 3378 ) .
- On August 22, 2011, a Lufthansa Airbus A380-800 was christened “Vienna” at the airport . The mayor of Vienna, Michael Häupl, was the godfather .
- In 2011, the first-round duel in the Davis Cup world group between Austria and France took place at Vienna Airport. The tournament was held in Hangar 3, which was adapted and equipped with a clay court, in front of 6000 spectators.
- On June 17, 1960, brought Austrian Post a definitive stamp of the stamp series Austrian monuments worth 4.50 shillings out. The airport tower and the airport are shown, the brand was designed by Hans Strohofer. Another special stamp worth 7 schillings was issued on the occasion of the opening of Pier West in 1996. It was designed by Maria Siegl.
- The 40 m high membrane facade of the tower has an area of 3,300 m², making it the largest membrane structure in Austria. Car park 4 is the largest car park in Austria with a total area of 151,000 m². The largest advertising space in Austria is on its southern facade. The 103 m wide and 16 m high billboard is 1,700 m² in size, made of special wind-permeable film and can be illuminated in the evening hours. The country's largest duty free shop is located on the plaza and covers an area of 1,200 m².
- In spring 2014, the last two remaining flip-dot displays at the airport were dismantled. They were located in Terminal 2. In the newly built parts of the building and in the converted Terminal 1, digital monitors replace such display boards. They are easily visible to all passengers. The advertisement that was in the old arrival hall, which has since been demolished, is a piece of airport history and is to be preserved in a museum for posterity.
- The illustrated book by the architect and photographer Roman Bönsch, published by Springer Verlag under the title “vie metamorphosis”, is dedicated to the extensive structural changes at Vienna Airport between 2004 and 2012. During this period, he photographed the expansion projects together with Robert Gruber and Larry R. Williams.
- In the terminal, the waiting areas of all gates and in the restaurants, W-LAN is free of charge and can be used without restrictions.
- A mobile Viennese sausage stand is operated on the apron for airport employees and airline staff .
- Since December 9, 2015, the Austrian Red Cross has been operating accommodation for around 400 asylum seekers on the Cargo Nord area of the airport in cooperation with the airport and the state of Lower Austria. The quarter was named after the founder of the international Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Henry Dunant .
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