A taxi is a public means of transport for occasional passenger transport ( occasional transport ), the driver of which requires a passenger transport ticket and, for a fee, takes the passenger directly to the desired destination using a taximeter .
The term "Taxi" is derived from the in cab used in pricing meter ( Greek about fees diameter , also taximeter , occasionally as Taxi am called). The abbreviation for this measuring device was transferred to the cab / power cab itself in the first half of the 20th century.
(Radio) rental cars with drivers (often also known as minicars ) are different from taxis. In addition to other distinguishing features, these do not have a taximeter, but an odometer , on which you can only read the distance covered and not the current fare while driving.
History of the taxi
The worldwide history of the taxi begins with the so-called portechaisen, transport armchairs that were carried as sedan chairs by people or animals on poles. In the early days of mankind only reserved for a rich upper class, they increasingly served travelers who could afford this mode of transport. Since the 17th century, they have been available to everyone in Europe as a commercially operated company. With the development of the road infrastructure and means of transport, they were followed by vehicle-operated taxis, which were operated by the muscles of humans and draft animals, such as the rickshaws in Asian countries and the fiakers and horse-drawn cabs in Western countries. With the onset of motorization, motor vehicles took over their service. In addition, the range of private passenger transport was expanded to include waterways in the form of water taxis and airways in the form of air taxis .
Types of taxis
A radio taxi is a taxi that can be ordered by the customer from a radio control center or taxi operator by phone, via the Internet or other means of communication, and which is ordered by radio to the starting point of the taxi ride. In many cities, this is no longer done by voice, but by radio data, with the information required for travel information being transmitted to a display in the vehicle.
According to the German Taxi and Rental Car Association, around 53,000 taxis are in use in Germany. A large part of the licensed radio taxis is operated by sole proprietorships who are members of one, and sometimes several, taxi centers . The largest taxi center in Europe is the Berlin taxi center, Taxi Berlin , to which more than 5,500 taxis were connected in 2014 and in some cases served more than 25,000 driving orders per day.
Taxi via smartphone app
Mobile phones with extended functionality ( smartphones ) can use GPS- assisted programs and a few keystrokes to request a taxi without having to verbally transmit their name and address. In the course of the increasing number of these smartphones, there are now many such taxi apps that allow a simplified and automated taxi order without a call. These include pure app providers who no longer offer any other ordering option - for example via a call center - and are in competition with radio control centers with conventional taxi radio. You are also active across borders and across Europe .
Call shared taxi
A collective call taxi (AST) is a special form of passenger transport by taxi. The purpose of a call collective taxi is to transport as many passengers as possible from a pick-up point at the same time economically and to work closely with the local transport companies to support each other. The collective call taxi only runs during the time when regular scheduled transport is not possible. As a rule, a collective call taxi that picks up passengers at a public transport stop must be ordered by telephone about 30 minutes (depending on the region) before the desired start of the journey.
Taxi special forms
A women's taxi is a taxi that can be found in many German cities and that is supposed to bring women home safely, preferably in the dark. In addition to the women's taxis or the related school / youth / child taxi, there are numerous other (promotional) special forms such as the large-capacity taxi (up to eight people), the gay taxi ("Tuxi", as an advertising campaign for safer sex during the carnival days in Cologne), vintage taxis , or so-called airport or airport taxis (e.g. also with fixed prices, but in its entirety an empty advertising term because every taxi is allowed to approach the airport).
The term “child taxi” is used in different ways. On the one hand, it describes taxi cars that carry at least one child seat . On the other hand, the term is also used for the age-appropriate cared-for transport of children, for example for transport to and from childcare. A special form of children's taxis are the taxis, sometimes known as “stork taxis”, which are equipped with a baby seat for newborns (e.g. for driving home from the maternity ward ) or babies .
A water taxi is a boat or watercraft that serves as a taxi for local public transport in cities with waterways, canals and rivers. Accordingly, an air taxi is an airplane or a helicopter that transports passengers, sometimes for a fixed fee, to often remote areas. Airplanes or seaplanes are used especially as feeders to islands (e.g. Maldivian Air Taxi ). "Rail taxis" travel on rails , such as B. the Cambodian Norries , or rail-guided (see Personal Rapid Transit and RailCab ). In the case of " bicycle taxis " also bicycle rickshaws called, passengers are transported her driver over comparatively short distances using muscle power, while her most transport in so-called "motor taxis" in many countries by autorickshaw done.
Since the word taxi is not protected outside of the officially regulated area of passenger transport (public transport), service providers often use it as a designation for their transport services such as "pizza taxis", "video taxis", "cargo taxis", "furniture taxis", "condom taxis", "Blood taxis" (blood supplies ) or "flower taxis ".
In contrast, the term "taxi crane" is protected as a word mark at the German Patent and Trademark Office with the registration number 30 2016 014 277 and as a word / figurative mark with the registration number 30 2016 014 276.
Originating from the area of traffic education, the term parent taxi has established itself as a pictorial expression for the comfortable vehicle transport of children by their own parents in media, colloquial language and technical language .
Unauthorized passenger transport
In contrast to licensed taxis, unauthorized commercial passenger transport (also called "black taxi") works without the official permits required for commercial passenger transport and is therefore illegal. Often, however, private car drivers offer, sometimes supported by a taxi-like appearance of their own vehicle, especially for large events (carnival or carnival, concert, fair, etc.) to transport people commercially. In doing so, they often specifically address passers-by who are obviously looking for transport, but may also be asked to take them with them in the absence of regular taxis. After a transport has been carried out, however, there is no obligation to pay the required fare, as no legally valid transport relationship was established. Since it cannot be assumed that the income of the black taxi driver will flow into their own tax return as independent income, active tax evasion is deliberately carried out (see also undeclared work ).
Parallels can also be drawn to the debate surrounding the US-based transport service Uber . This was initially started in Germany with uberBlack, a service with connected wireless rental cars in which the drivers have a passenger transport license. A little later, however, a variant was offered with uberPop in which private drivers transported people for a fee. According to Uber's statements, it should only be about private carpooling . However, since fees are due that far exceed the cost of the established legal ridesharing and the passenger is more likely to determine the route to be traveled, there is a resemblance to a taxi that is illegal without authorization. Especially since other requirements, such as adequate insurance cover, proven personal suitability, business registrations, etc., were missing. As a result of initiatives by taxi associations, the service has now been banned or Uber has lowered fares to the permissible cost level and in fact no longer offered in Germany.
Situation in Germany
Friedrich Lutzmann founded Germany's first taxi company with motorized vehicles in 1893. As recently as the 1950s, taxis in Germany wore a black and white checkered band under the windows and either a sign on the outside, in front of the left wing mirror, with the words "Taxe" or a sign Behind the windshield, also illuminated sign with the inscription "Taxe frei", each with white lettering on a red background. “Taxi” is the internationalized name. Around 50,000 taxis are licensed in Germany. 80% of these are connected to one of the 500 taxi centers . The German Taxi Drivers Union has existed since 2009.
Germany-wide phone number
There are competing numbers that claim to be the nationwide number for taxis. The next of the affiliated member companies can then be reached via these numbers. If different taxi companies compete in one place and cannot all agree on the use of a single phone number or if there is no interest in this chargeable service in some cases, this number is not passed on to all taxi companies or headquarters in the respective location. As a result, a comprehensive and neutral taxi brokerage via these numbers is not available everywhere, especially since the importance of a nationwide number is very controversial.
In the 1990s, however, the Federal Network Agency assigned the number 19410 as the nationwide taxi number. This can be reached at conventional landline phone tariffs. If necessary, however, the area code of the next larger town or town must be dialed in advance, as calls made via the short code 19410 are not automatically forwarded to the nearest taxi center. The nationwide uniform taxi number for calls from the mobile network is 22456, it automatically connects to the nearest taxi center.
In order to be licensed as a taxi in Germany, a vehicle must meet certain technical requirements in accordance with the Ordinance on the Operation of Motor Vehicle Companies in Passenger Transport (BOKraft). This includes:
- The vehicle must have at least two axles and four wheels. ( )
- The vehicle must have at least two doors on the right long side ( , Paragraph 1)
- Within the permissible total weight, at least 50 kg of baggage must be able to be transported when fully occupied ( )
- The vehicle must have a taxi alarm system for robberies that can be switched on from the driver's seat. In contrast to anti-theft alarm systems, this alarm system does not turn itself off again after a short time, rather the system honks and flashes until the hidden switch is actuated (or as long as the power supply lasts; , paragraph 2)
- The color shade 'light ivory' ( RAL 1015 , e.g. by painting or foiling ) is stipulated as the taxi color nationwide by , Paragraph 1 . By country-specific exemptions are possible, which have so far issued six federal states. The color has been approved in Baden-Württemberg , Lower Saxony , Rhineland-Palatinate , Saarland , Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein .
- Illuminable yellow roof sign across the direction of travel with the inscription "Taxi" on the front and back ( , Paragraph 2 / )
- Taximeter calibrated by the calibration office and approved by the authority ( )
- A yellow sign with the officially issued serial number ( , Paragraph 1), visible inwards and outwards, attached to the lower right corner of the rear window
- A sign with the name and place of business of the company is to be affixed to a place that is clearly visible to the passenger ( , Paragraph 2)
Not mandatory equipment
- Radio equipment (for example in the 2-meter and 70-centimeter band ) - in recent years, switching has increasingly been operated by radio data transmission. The data is then sent from the headquarters to the respective taxis either via the company radio (range- restricted ) or via GPRS (restricted to cell phone networks).
- Special interior lighting, floor mats, cladding, coated seats, etc.
- Card readers for cashless payment (since May 8, 2015, a functioning accounting system or accounting device has been part of the mandatory equipment in Berlin)
- If necessary, safety devices for the driver
- Baby seat
Obligations of the taxi company
The taxi operator has the obligation to transport within the area for which his taxi is permitted under passenger transport law. Section 47 (4) PBefG stipulates: "The obligation to carry only exists for journeys within the scope of the ... fixed transport charges (compulsory driving range)." The taxi driver must therefore transport all passengers who want to be transported within the compulsory driving range. He may not refuse a transport, for example, because the distance is too short or because the direction of travel is unsuitable for himself. Individual taxi drivers are allowed to have their taxi ready at officially marked taxi stands. But he doesn't have to. Section 47 (1) sentence 1 PBefG contains the definition of taxi traffic and with it the right of the taxi driver to be available at the taxi ranks: "Taxi traffic is the transport of people in passenger cars that the entrepreneur has at officially approved locations and with them he makes journeys to a destination specified by the passenger. ”In addition, some municipalities allow taxi drivers to be available outside of the taxi stands, sometimes only at certain times, but only where the traffic regulations allow.
Another important rule for the taxi business is the obligation to operate according to § 21 Passenger Transport Act. According to this, the entrepreneur must properly start and maintain operation during the period of validity of the permit for taxi traffic according to the needs of the traffic and the state of the art.
In addition, according to Section 51 of the Passenger Transport Act, the taxi operator is subject to tariff rates and conditions for taxi transport.
Taxi operator's rights
The taxi operator or his driver has the right to use the taxi stops that have been set up and designated by the authorities (Section 47 (1) PBefG). This distinguishes him from the rental car company, who are not provided with any special parking spaces.
The legal basis for taxi traffic in Germany is the Passenger Transport Act (PBefG) and the related ordinance on the operation of passenger transport companies ( BOKraft ). The PBefG essentially regulates the licensing requirement and the licensing procedure. The term taxi is defined in PBefG . Taxi traffic is a special form of occasional traffic ( PBefG). On the basis of the legal regulation of the PBefG, the municipalities can set appropriate transport conditions and transport fees (taxi regulations) for their territory ( compulsory driving area), which usually specify the existing legal regulations or go beyond them ( and PBefG). The taxi tariff approved by the municipalities is only valid within the compulsory driving area. A change in the taxi tariff is usually made through an application from representatives of the taxi industry and submitted to the responsible authority for approval.
In 1971 the color of taxis in West Germany was changed from black to light ivory (color RAL number 1015). In some federal states, the exterior color of taxis has now been approved, i. H. the taxi operators there can freely choose the paint color. A nationwide regulation through a change in BOKraft has not yet taken place. The taxi sign must be illuminated when the taxi is ready to accept passengers.
After an accumulation of acts of violence against taxi drivers and an increase in taxi driver murders, the Federal Ministry of Transport under Transport Minister Georg Leber (SPD) issued the so-called Partition Ordinance on January 6, 1966. This came into force in 1967 and all taxis had to be equipped with a bulletproof partition, the upper part of which was made of bulletproof glass, by January 1, 1968. The luxury version was electrically retractable. The regulation that taxis must have an alarm system also dates from this time. Due to the bulletproof glass, however, both the driver's area and the passenger area were very limited. Tall drivers could not move their seats back far enough, there were climatic problems in the summer and injuries occurred when braking hard. In addition, communication between driver and passenger suffered from the partition. For this reason the taxi drivers complained heavily. In 1969 the Cutting Discs Ordinance was therefore repealed. Some vehicles had not yet been retrofitted. All other companies removed the structures, which cost up to DM 2000, relatively quickly, as their heavy weight resulted in increased fuel consumption.
Also controversial was the so-called "Schwedenhaube", a plastic hood on the driver's seat, which was supposed to shield the taxi driver from attacks from behind and which also did not prevail.
On October 1, 1983, the Passenger Transport Act in the taxi and public rental car sector was changed significantly. On the one hand, the definitions of taxi traffic and rental car traffic have been formulated more precisely. Since then,(1) of the PBefG has been called: “Taxis is the transport of people in passenger cars that the entrepreneur keeps ready at officially approved locations and with which he drives to a destination specified by the passenger. The entrepreneur can also accept transport orders during a journey or at the company headquarters. ”The“ officially approved places ”are usually the taxi stops, which are also usually marked with the“ taxi stand ”traffic sign. In the case law and literature, there was an unchecked consensus up until 2016 that it can be read from the legal definition that taxis may only be kept available at these locations. However, this restriction was only a legal regulation in the period from June 1, 1961 to September 30, 1983. The then Section 47 (3) sentence 1 PBefG read: “Powerhouses may only be made available on public streets and in the community, in which is the place of business of the entrepreneur, and only at the officially approved places. ”This general obligation no longer applies in 1983 due to the deletion of the word“ only ”. Since then, taxis may be kept ready anywhere within the company headquarters, unless the company headquarters community regulates this differently at one or the other taxi stop in their taxi regulations. However, she is only allowed to regulate details, i.e. taxi traffic at individual, not all taxi stands. Because the authorization of the states to allow general exceptions is with § 47 Abs. 3 S. 1 half. 2 PBefG (old version) are not applicable because Section 47 (3) sentence 2 PBefG (state authorization) only refers to sentence 1 of Section 47 (3) (and the word “only” was omitted there). Consequently, only the road traffic regulations need to be observed when providing the material ( (1) No. 1 PBefG).
In order to be able to leave the taxi more quickly in the event of an attack, taxi drivers have been exempt from wearing seat belts since the introduction of seat belts during the time they were carrying a passenger. This regulation longer as a result of the amendment to StVO on October 30, 2014.
Until 2006, a taxi was still legally classified as a so-called power hitch, as in the early days of commercial passenger transport using motor power.
According toBOKraft, the federal states have the right to "approve exceptions to almost all provisions of this ordinance".
value added tax
The sales tax rate of 19% applies to all other journeys (including errands, start-up assistance and other special services outside of passenger transport) ( UStG ). Sales tax is included in the displayed fare. The tax amount must be listed separately on receipts with a total amount exceeding 250 euros. The applicable tax rate must be stated in each case. ( Abs. 2 UStDV )(2 )
After crossing the border abroad, the passenger may not be charged any sales tax for Germany.
Taxi advertising is part of outdoor advertising .
The advertising and identification of taxis is regulated inBOKraft, according to which advertising on the outside of taxis is only permitted on the side doors. For some years now, roof-top advertising has been allowed along the direction of travel. In most federal states, the prescribed color “light ivory” still applies, in the others the entire vehicle surface is sometimes covered with advertising.
Political and religious advertising is prohibited on taxis.
- pre-booked pick-up from the airport or similar
- Large capacity vehicles for the transport of more than four passengers (up to a maximum of eight passengers).
- Transport of bulky luggage or goods (e.g. purchases or art objects)
- Luggage transport (and, if necessary, additional bringing it to the platform, front door, etc.)
- Shopping services
- Courier services (see also courier express parcel service )
- Messenger trips
- Pilot rides , also called lifebuoy or angel rides . This service includes having the customer's vehicle driven home by a second taxi driver.
- Pilot trips
- Vehicle start-up assistance (often on behalf of the ADAC )
- Animal transport
- cashless payment
- Waiting times at the request of the passenger (for example, stop at the pharmacy, ATM or pick something up from the apartment)
Depending on the tariff (tax) , there are service surcharges that increase the fare. Especially where the taxi has to wait for the customer.
Further surcharges are:
- Night, Sunday and holiday surcharges
- Large capacity surcharges (surcharge for more than four passengers)
- Travel costs (usually the journey in the compulsory driving area is free)
In Germany a taxi can carry a maximum of nine people including the driver. Neither the passenger transport license nor the car driver's license allows more. Folding emergency seats in the trunk (e.g. in station wagons) facing the direction of travel are considered full seats.
The fare is determined with the taximeter within the compulsory driving area , outside the compulsory driving area it is freely negotiable.
The so-called transport obligation exists within the compulsory driving area determined by the respective authority. This is regulated for local public transport in. This means that the taxi driver of a free taxi that is kept ready at the taxi stop may not arbitrarily refuse a trip, for example on the basis of the person of the customer, the length of the route or the destination. However, the obligation to carry does not apply to journeys whose start or destination is outside the compulsory driving area. The taxi driver may, however, refuse transport in any case if operational safety is endangered ( BOKraft). Reasons for this can be the passenger being heavily alcoholized, soiled, armed (e.g. a loaded firearm), a large or unleashed dog, aggressiveness or an infectious disease of the passenger. Likewise an obvious insolvency of the passenger.
Field of work
Taxis are available at specially designated stops, so-called taxi stands , to wait for passengers. Taxis are allowed to park there, but they don't have to. They are also allowed to stand at the company headquarters and in other places, as far as road traffic law permits. A customer is not obliged to choose the first taxi in the queue at the taxi stand, but can freely choose the taxi from the queue. If a driver does not fulfill his obligation to transport, which he has within the municipality where he is based, he commits an administrative offense ( PBefG). If customers signal a transfer request to a moving taxi with a hand signal, they may be recorded ( (1) sentence 2 PBefG). This does not apply and is not permitted outside of one's own compulsory driving area ( (4) PBefG). ( (2) sentence 1, sentence 2 PBefG). Taxi companies are legally bound to a company headquarters municipality. A competition between taxi companies from different municipalities is excluded, apart from booked trips.
If the traffic situation permits, taxis are allowed to get passengers on or off next to other vehicles that stop or park on the hard shoulder or on the right-hand side of the lane ("second row") (Road Traffic Regulations).
The taxi driver is obliged to choose the shortest or cheapest route without being asked, unless the customer specifies the route. The use of the taximeter is mandatory within the compulsory driving area. For trips outside the compulsory driving area, the fixed tariff of the company headquarters is no longer binding; Driver and passenger can agree on a different fare before departure. This can be higher - also because (within Germany and more than 50 km) the higher VAT rate (19%) has to be calculated.
Requirements for taxi drivers
To drive a taxi in Germany you need a driver's license for passenger transport (also known as a passenger transport license for taxis , colloquially P-license or taxi license ), which is issued by the road traffic authority. For this, the 21st year of life must be completed ( FeV ), two years of driving experience and local knowledge ( local knowledge test ) must be proven. Furthermore, a certificate of good conduct and an extract from the points account of the Federal Motor Transport Authority in Flensburg as well as a medical examination according to Annex 5 of the Driving License Ordinance are required. A “radio license” is a private law regulation that a radio taxi center can make a condition before radio orders from this center can be accepted. Costs, conditions and prerequisites (briefing and testing) are the subject of the free contract drafting between the headquarters and the users of the radio service.
Requirements for taxi operators
The operation of a taxi company in Germany is subject to approval. According to the Passenger Transport Act (PBefG) in conjunction with the Occupational Access Ordinance for Road Passenger Transport ( PBZugV), the taxi company must meet various requirements in order to be granted a permit (taxi license). This includes:
- the professional suitability
- personal reliability
- the safety and efficiency of the company.
The entrepreneur or the person appointed to run the company must prove their professional aptitude to manage a taxi and rental car company, usually through a specialist examination at the Chamber of Commerce and Industry . In many cities only a limited number of taxi concessions are granted. Due to the regional differences in the issuing of taxi permits, applicants in the larger cities and municipalities usually have to calculate with longer waiting times.
According to members of the Monopolies Commission , taxi concessions are sometimes sold on in major German cities for tens of thousands of euros. However, taxi licenses in Germany cannot be sold or transferred as such, but only as part of a permitted business sale. Der Spiegel reported in May 2015 that the Monopolies Commission was calling for the regulations for the taxi industry to be relaxed.
Situation in Austria
The issuing of the taxi driver's license and the taxi operating regulations are left to the individual federal states. Therefore there are nine state operating regulations and a federal operating regulation for non-scheduled passenger traffic (BO 2003). The taxi driver's license can only be issued if:
- You have a class B driving license and the probationary period has already passed, and you have one year of driving experience
- the trustworthiness is available (no criminal record, no driving license revocation), five years retrospectively
- you are at least 20 years old
- the taxi driver examination has been taken at the Austrian Chamber of Commerce
- a first aid course of at least six hours has been completed, according to the Driving License Act (FSG) 1996
- a local knowledge test is taken (for the location district).
In 1992, the Constitutional Court declared the needs test for the taxi industry, which had previously been regulated by maximum and proportional figures, to be illegal.
The licensing authorities reserve certain letters (combinations) for taxis as part of the system. While Vienna had this marking from the beginning, other federal states only made it mandatory later, so that existing approvals are also affected. (Most recently in Carinthia in 2013). One reason for this is the monitoring of bus lanes, hospital driveways and the like. The clearly recognizable license plate is intended to prevent misuse, for example. B. a TAXI sign become impossible. Examples:
W-1234 TX, , , ,
The vehicles used in the taxi trade must have at least four doors and be licensed for motor vehicles for at least four people, apart from the driver. A sliding door that provides a clear opening of at least 1,000 mm may be installed in place of two doors, provided that it allows easy entry and exit and access to the individual rows of seats. The rental vehicle must have a minimum external length of 4200 mm. Without prejudice to motor vehicle regulations, the vehicles must have the following equipment:
- Vehicles registered as taxi vehicles after December 1, 2006 must be equipped with a functioning air conditioning system.
- Taxi vehicles must be equipped with a system of clearly perceptible optical and acoustic emergency signals that can be switched on from the driver's seat.
- Inside the vehicle, the name and location of the trader must be made clearly and legibly.
- The passenger compartment must be equipped with adequate interior lighting.
- The passenger must be able to communicate with the driver while driving.
- The location of the first aid kit must be clearly marked.
- The presence of at least one child seat for small children is mandatory ( many limousines have two of these already integrated into the normal seat (back seat) that extend at the push of a button)
Taxi vehicles must be marked with a clearly visible sign that can be sufficiently illuminated inside and read “TAXI” (at least 180 mm × 100 mm) on the front, but must not be dazzling. The sign must be illuminated with white or yellow light. The sign must be illuminated in the dark and with poor visibility. The prices of taxi vehicles are clearly visible and understandable on the two rear side windows or on the rear window. Exceptions to the awarded price are to be specifically stated. The prices are to be quoted in euros and cents and include sales tax.
In the passenger transport business, the reduced tax rate of 10% applies. A vehicle in the taxi trade is exempt from the NoVA . The prerequisite for this exemption from the NoVA is that at least 80% of the vehicle is used for the intended purpose. This means that at least 80% of this vehicle must be demonstrably used for commercial passenger transport. As a rule, the NoVA is calculated by the vehicle dealer, passed on to the purchase price and paid to the tax office. The tax exemption is effected by means of a remuneration of the tax by the tax office.
When registering the vehicle, the vehicle is registered for purpose 25 (for use in the taxi business) and is then automatically exempt from vehicle tax. However, the 80 percent use for the beneficiary purpose must also be demonstrable here.
The tariffs are set by the governor and apply to the entire district. Taximeters are mandatory in cities with more than 50,000 inhabitants. Outside of this, entrepreneurs can choose their own tariff, and taximeters are not required. The equipment of the vehicles is similar to that in Germany.
In Styria, the 2007 ordinance stipulates that the tariff is "clearly visible on both rear side windows or the rear window".
Austria-wide phone numbers
In Austria, too, there are (in some cases competing) numbers that claim to be the national number for taxis. The next of the affiliated member companies can then be reached via these numbers. The best known example of this is 0800CabCall; The free service makes it possible to reach a taxi in just over 100 cities by calling a single free number. Such a call is free of charge for taxi customers, but the cost of the call is covered by the local taxi company.
Situation in other countries
In parts of Africa, Latin America and Asia in addition to sedans also are minibuses as taxis common in Asia and Latin America continued in some cities rickshaws , motorized or auto rickshaws and motorcycle taxis . In Indonesia the bemo is a typical means of transport ; In Morocco , in addition to the regular taxis, there are also special smaller petit taxis . In England taxis are known as Cab or London Taxi . The taxi fleet in New York with its 12,000 yellow cabs is also known (see also Checker Cab ). In Turkey , in addition to buses and taxis, the Dolmuş , a minibus with a collecting function, also operates throughout the country , with which one can also reach remote parts of the country. In Japan , taxis are equipped with a mechanism that enables the driver to open and close the left rear door using a linkage.
There are also different prices in many countries, as there is no uniform calibration of the taximeter by a calibration office or similar institution. In France, for example, two taxis traveling the same route in a row can have completely different prices.
Rickshaw in Calcutta , India
Autorickshaw in Mumbai , India
Motorcycle taxis (right) in Bangkok , Thailand
Electric scooter used as a taxi in Shenzhen, China
Taxi in Malta with registration "TAXI"
Bemo in Gianyar , Indonesia
Dolmuşlar in Bodrum , Turkey
Taxi in Hurghada , Egypt
Bush taxi near Bafoussam , Cameroon
Taxi in Hong Kong
Petit Taxi in Agadir , Morocco
Taxis in Monastir (Tunisia)
Louages (overland taxis) in Monastir (Tunisia)
With the novel Der eiserne Gustav from 1938, Hans Fallada set a literary monument to the Berlin cab driver Gustav Hartmann . In her novel Die Taxiahrerin , the French author Victoria Thérame processed her experiences as a taxi driver in Paris at night. The German author Karen Duve also wrote a novel about this profession in Taxi (2008), which she once carried out herself. The author Uli Hannemann published his experiences in 2009 in the short story volume Neulich im Taxi: Notes from the second oldest trade in the world .
There are some films that focus on taxi driving. As early as 1932, James Cagney was playing a taxi driver in Taxi! . Night on Earth is an episode film that reports from five different cities ( Los Angeles , New York , Paris , Rome and Helsinki ) at the same time and describes the most diverse situations in the everyday work of taxi drivers. In Taxi (I – IV) there are rapid chases through Marseille , and in The Fifth Element Bruce Willis steers his flying vehicle through a futuristic megalopolis with streets in all directions, even vertically. This motif can be found again in the German SF - Persiflage (T) Raumschiff Surprise - Period 1 .
The Taxi Driver by Martin Scorsese goes the violent path of the loner who performs a missionary crusade against dirt and decadence in the big city. In Collateral , a taxi and driver are rented from a professional killer and transported to several murders. In The Taxi Driver , Christine Boisson plays a Parisian taxi driver who attracts attention with her unusual behavior: she robbed a passenger and transports others at the "price of meat". In Taxi Tehran , the passengers of the director Jafar Panahi address problems of the Iranian present.
Well-known (former) taxi drivers
- Mo Asumang , German TV presenter and author
- Elli Blarr , first German taxi driver
- Joe Coleman , American painter
- Joschka Fischer , former German Foreign Minister
- Harald Grohs , German automobile racing driver
- Gustav Hartmann (1859–1938), the "Iron Gustav"
- Thomas Jahn , director
- Wolf-Dieter Poschmann , ZDF sports presenter
- Frank Schmolke , German illustrator and comic artist
- Tuvia Tenenbom , Israeli-American writer and theater director
- Yok , accordionist from Berlin
Books and specialist articles
- Thomas Grätz: Expertise and examination for taxi and rental car companies. 7th edition, Vogel, Munich 2012, ISBN 3-574-24032-5
- Hans Meißner: The taxi company in practice. Operational Guide. 19th edition, Vogel, Munich 2011, ISBN 3-574-24030-9
- Norbert Wimmer , Mari Weiß: Taxi apps between intermediary activities and passenger transport. The administrative court decision-making practice on the Uber offers. In: Multimedia und Recht, Vol. 18 (2015), 2, pp. 80–85.
- Dirk Wüstenberg: Commercial restriction of dormant taxi traffic , in: The public administration (DÖV) 2020, pp. 281–284.
- Dirk Wüstenberg: The dormant taxi traffic in unrest - Part I , in: Gewerbearchiv (GewArch) 2020, pp. 8–12; The dormant taxi traffic in unrest - Part II , in: Gewerbearchiv (GewArch) 2020, pp. 55–59.
- Dirk Wüstenberg: Taxi traffic without road traffic law? , in: Neue Zeitschrift für Verkehrsrecht (NZV) 2019, pp. 76–83; with continuation "Common use of private roads", in: Neue Zeitschrift für Verkehrsrecht (NZV) 2019, pp. 511–516.
- taxi today , Huss-Verlag, (since 1978)
- Taxi , Vogel-Verlag, (since 1994)
- Taxi - the most mobile business in the world. Museum for Transport and Technology Berlin, Nicolaische Verlagsbuchhandlung, Berlin 1993, ISBN 3-87584-489-0
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Series to are normal motorcycle license plates.
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