A seat belt is a restraint system in motor vehicles , aircraft and other means of transport . In the event of vehicle decelerations caused by accident situations, the vehicle occupants are held by stable belts connected to the body and thus cannot be thrown through the vehicle or even out of it. The occupants also benefit from the safety bonus in the crumple zone . In addition, the belts stretch in the event of an impact to limit the deceleration forces. Modern seat belt systems are also available with belt tensioners andBelt force limiters provided. In the field of occupational safety , seat belts are also used as a generic term for certain personal protective equipment such as full body harnesses and retaining belts .
The first seat belt was installed in the Baker Torpedo , an electrically operated speed record car from 1902. In a record attempt on Staten Island , New York , on May 31, 1902, when the car raced into a group of spectators, the occupants in the two-seater Baker torpedo were uninjured. The first patent on a four-point seat belt was granted to Gustave-Désiré Leveau with a French patent (No. 331926) on May 11, 1903. In the same year, Louis Renault invented a five-point seat belt.
1950 to 1960s
The lap belt was already known from aircraft construction and was introduced in the USA in cars. In 1948 the Tucker '48 was fitted with two-point seat belts on the front and rear seats, each of which led from the B-pillar over the shoulder downwards to the transmission tunnel ; there was a risk of slipping under the belt ( submarining ). Roger W. Griswold received a US patent for a similar system in 1955; None of these systems could prevail.
In 1959, the Swedish Volvo engineer Nils Ivar Bohlin patented the three-point seat belt. In 1985 the German Patent Office selected this invention as one of the eight inventions that have brought mankind the greatest benefit over the past 100 years. Observations at the time showed that wearing seat belts reduced the number of injuries by 60% and the number of fatalities by 70%. The first car (in Sweden) to have a three-point seat belt as standard equipment was the Volvo 544 . As early as 1961, 77% of newly registered cars in Sweden had seat belts. Since April 1, 1961, seat belts in Germany had to be of an officially approved design and marked with an official test mark. As a rule, these were static belts with two-hand operation, whereby the manufacturers developed different belt buckles. Most cars were also not yet prepared for the installation of 3-point belts. The Klippan "System Volvo" belt offered one-handed operation as early as 1959. From June 1963, Britax (GB) offered an automatic belt with two-hand operation for the first time. In the USA, seat belts were made mandatory in all new cars from 1966, which was largely due to the initiative of John Paul Stapp . The introduction of automatic seat belts with one-hand operation at the end of the 1960s (for the first time in 1968 at Volvo) and the standard installation of the fastening points were essential prerequisites for wider acceptance.
Until the 1960s, the racing drivers of open one- or two-seater cars and some touring cars still speculated that they had better chances in an accident if they were thrown out, for example Alberto Ascari in 1955 in the harbor basin of Monaco, or Hans Herrmann in 1959 on the Berlin AVUS. In addition, the bolides offered hardly any occupant protection, had no crumple zones or roll bars, but had large amounts of gasoline on board.
In formula racing cars, there was a risk of slipping under a lap belt in a frontal collision due to the sitting posture in a flat seat shell, partly made of bare sheet metal without padding or non-slip cover ( submarining ). Jochen Rindt died in 1970 of chest and neck injuries after slipping under not fully fastened belts. Since then, two leg straps on the inside of the thighs have been common, which, together with the hip straps, ensure that the pelvis remains fixed. Together with the shoulder straps and a central lock, a 6-point belt system is formed. In addition, the seat surface of a racing bucket seat is typically deepest at the hips and significantly higher at the knees, so that an inclined ramp is formed.
The compulsory installation in new cars from January 1, 1974 was combined with the introduction of a new European type test ECE and, based on the American model, with the prescribed belt opening by pressing a red button. In 1974 MAN Nutzfahrzeuge offered an optional safety belt for the driver of trucks .
The belts fitted as standard or retrofitted in cars were often only "static", that is, they had to be pulled tight after they were put on, and then prevented leaning forward, for example to the radio, glove box or ashtray. To do this, the static belt first had to be loosened and then tightened again. A belt that is loose for reasons of comfort has only limited effect. As a result, both the acceptance and effectiveness of static belts remained low. It was only through the use of automatic belts with a spring retractor mechanism that it became common and effective to wear belts.
The introduction of compulsory seat belts met with strong opposition in many countries. The non-sanctioned seat belt requirement in the Federal Republic of Germany from January 1, 1976 met with great resistance from many motorists. In Switzerland, the Federal Council decided to make it mandatory for 1976, and the Federal Supreme Court repealed the decision in 1977. It was only through a revision of the Road Traffic Act (SVG) that the obligation could be introduced. Against this, the referendum was called . At the federal referendum on November 30, 1980, the law was passed by the people with 841,901 in favor against 791,208 against.
In the Federal Republic of Germany, the widespread defense was to be reduced by the preceding, complex campaign “Click - first strap, then start” . The idea of being tied up in the car could spark deep-seated fears. The study Psychological research on seat belts and the implementation of their results in 1974 came to the result "that seat belts are primarily associated with the dangers of an accident and its consequences and only secondarily with its actual technical function, namely to protect against these dangers". That is why those affected got “psychologically in a tight spot when it comes to buckling up”. On the one hand, they see that they drive safer with seat belts, on the other hand, the seat belt updates fear in them, which they want to avoid. Avoiding fear does not result in effective risk avoidance. "
Behind this was the elemental fear of the bondage. An "involuntary form in which people are supposed to cope with dangers is to flee ... the motorists apparently find it difficult to cope with the fact that they have to tie themselves up and, as it were, make themselves defenseless in order to be able to cope with dangers in an accident."
From a legal point of view, the question of whether the liberal state should and may force car citizens to survive was also controversial. One of the main arguments of those who opposed seat belts was that drivers survived an accident because they were thrown out of the car. If the belt had a negative effect in individual cases, the compulsory belt would mean a compulsion to endanger oneself, which the state could not exercise by ordinance because of the right to physical integrity .
In the run-up to the Swiss referendum in 1980, the following objections to mandatory seat belts were presented:
«Many of the opponents are not fundamentally against wearing seatbelts, but reject the obligation. You specifically assert:
- The federal government should not impose any self-protection measures on citizens. That would be an impermissible encroachment on personal freedom, even if it could save costs for the general public.
- Freedom and personal responsibility should not be restricted further by laws. Each individual must be able to decide for himself whether he wants to wear the belt or not.
- Seat belts are not always effective protection, they can even cause injuries. The belts are technically not yet fully developed and the regulations are incomplete, especially with regard to the assembly and regular inspection of the belts. "
1980 and 1990s
Only when driving without seatbelts was punished with a fine of DM 40 from August 1, 1984, did the seat belt rate increase from 60 to 90 percent. The injury statistics showed after a short time that the benefits far outweigh the disadvantages of the belt. The critics have largely fallen silent since then. The acceptance was also advertised with demonstration devices such as belt sledges and later rollover simulators.
The motto: "Door, seat belt, start. - Have a good trip!" Was coined very early - by an automobile club in Austria , for example . This allows the appropriate and consumption-efficient process to be memorized.
The airbag provides a further argument in favor of compulsory seat belts: it only offers the highest possible level of protection if the occupant is at a sufficient distance from it. If the driver is already in the deployment zone, the airbag, which deploys at up to 300 km / h, poses an additional risk.
In the USA - with the exception of New Hampshire - seat belts are compulsory. For historical reasons, however, passenger cars with airbags must also be able to protect passengers who are not wearing a seat belt. This presents manufacturers with (expensive) additional work. The airbag deployment happens much earlier and more aggressively, which has already resulted in fatalities with seated occupants wearing a seat belt and having an incorrect sitting posture. In the USA, airbags are triggered when the speed changes due to a collision of around 15 km / h; in the EU, values around 25 km / h are common. In the event of less severe collisions, the belt alone provides sufficient protection.
The three-point belt, supplemented by belt tensioners and belt force limiters , together with crumple zones , stable passenger cell with side impact protection, safety steering column and steering wheel as well as seat construction with headrest that is matched to the belt, form the basic elements of passive safety to protect the occupants in an accident.
Belts are now more comfortable and functional. They can be adjusted to the respective shoulder height and are automatically rolled up. This automatic retractor also allows the upper body to be leaned forward or the seat to be moved - not jerkily - because centrifugal force only allows a pawl on the roller to take effect very quickly. This can also be triggered by a short pendulum that responds to high longitudinal and lateral acceleration of the car, with the side effect that the belt cannot be unrolled when cornering briskly or when the car is standing at a steep incline. The belt can therefore only be pulled out with caution, i.e. up to a certain maximum speed, in order to strap yourself in. (Mechanically exactly the other way around, roller blinds work , which have to turn quickly within less than half a rotation in order to roll up properly.)
Depending on the number of points at which the occupant is connected to the body , the belts are divided into two-point to six-point belts. In order to avoid excessive restriction of the freedom of movement and for comfort, three-point belts are used in vehicles intended for road traffic, and six-point belts are used in vehicles with increased safety requirements such as racing vehicles.
The best-known use since the 1930s has been as a lap belt in aircraft . In exceptional cases as a diagonal belt that runs from the hip to the opposite shoulder. A two-point lap belt was permitted in cars in the middle of the fund until July 1, 2004 .
A three-point belt anchors the belt strap at three points on the vehicle body. In relation to the driver's seat, the first point is usually in the lower area of the B-pillar. This is where the end fitting or, more rarely, an end fitting tensioner is located. The second point is the belt lock or a lock tensioner. The three-point belt is connected to the belt lock with a lock tongue . This second attachment point is usually located on the vehicle seat. The third connection point is the upper part of the B-pillar . There is either a belt retractor with an integrated height adjuster (rarely) or a deflector (usually integrated in a height adjuster). The deflector can also hide behind a panel. In the latter case, the belt retractor (sometimes in combination with a retractor tensioner) is usually located in the lower part of the B-pillar.
A special case is the so - called self - fastening automatic three-point belt . It is stretched across the passenger compartment and firmly hooked onto the A-pillar. When getting in, it is moved electrically along a guide to the usual end position on the B-pillar. It was first among others in 1975 in the VW Golf I offered. The key to this was to promote buckling up and the obligation to buckle up in the early years through the automatic function. Ultimately, this system could not prevail.
Four-point belts are found in aviation, especially on cabin crew seats. They consist of a lap belt and two shoulder straps, often with a central lock.
Five and six point belts
With five- and six-point belts, one or two crotch belts prevent slipping under the belt ("submarining"). The best-known applications for this are pilot seats in commercial aircraft, child seats and racing seat belts. In motor racing, the six-point seat belt is mandatory due to the mandatory head-and-neck support system. Each anchorage point must be able to take a load of 1470 daN , in the crotch area of 720 daN.
"It has been proven that the use of seat belts can significantly reduce the number of deaths and serious injuries."
Relevant accident researchers such as Langwieder (1977) and Danner (1982) came to the conclusion that the risk of fatal injuries is reduced by at least 50 percent and serious injuries to the driver and front passenger are reduced by between 50 and 70 percent, with head injuries by 75 Percent.
With an impact simulator ( seat belt sled ), accidents at low speeds can be simulated, so that young people in particular who believe they can support themselves are convinced of the effectiveness of the laws of physics.
The use of seat belts outweighs the rare disadvantages of seat belt accidents, which are between 0.5 and 1 percent, so that a responsible driver must drive with seat belts in order not to be accused of complicity. An impact speed of 40 to 50 km / h is assumed as the upper limit of the optimal effectiveness of the seat belt.
In Germany, the acceptance of wearing seat belts rose to around 98 percent by 2015. The ADAC has determined that the little rest of them live more dangerously . The two percent unbuckled car occupants make up 17 percent of the people killed in road accidents.
Belt buckles are designed so that they can be unlocked with specific finger pressure and then remain unlocked. The belt can be opened practically just as easily when it is under tension, for example when the car is on the roof and the person's body weight is hanging in the belt. In addition, the automatic unwinding and unwinding mechanism is reversible, i.e. it only remains as long as the pawl remains in the locked position due to a tensile force, or the acceleration pendulum deflects, which is usually the case when the car rolls over or rotates around its vertical axis. When the vehicle has come to rest in a horizontal position and the belt is rendered powerless by leaning back a little, for example, the latch enables the unwinding option again.
In the extremely unfortunate situation that the seat belt buckle, which now moves with the seat, cannot be reached, a small belt knife (with a protected, hidden blade) can be used to cut open a belt. It is advisable to cut the cord lying on the upper body and this as close as possible to the lock, as a button pressed into the belt, which is used to hold the buckle up when rolling up, otherwise prevents the belt from being unthreaded and would require a second cut to completely to lie strapless.
The three-point belt consists of the belt lock, the lock tongue, and the belt and retractor mechanism ; in addition there are the deflector and the end fitting. To put on the seat belt, also called buckling up , the end piece (tongue) of the belt provided for this is inserted into a belt lock and engages there. The belt consists of around 300 threads which, when woven together, make a 46 to 48 millimeter wide and 1.2 millimeter thick band. The individual threads, in turn, are spun from around 100 polyester fibers, which are roughly twice as thick as a human hair. The three-point belt with a belt width of at least 46 mm must, in accordance with ECE regulation No. 16, be able to take a load of 980 daN and have a tear load of at least 1470 daN. The webbing can stretch 6 to 11 percent. In addition, there is the so-called strapless ; it results from the idle travel inherent in the principle (up to the blockage of the belt roll), the belt that does not fit closely to the body due to the given wearing comfort, and the belt strap that is only loosely rolled up on the roll. It can be reduced by the belt tensioner .
The retractor mechanism must automatically and reliably lock in the event of a minor accident, severe deceleration or rapid forward movement. A principle that is always used is the blocking when a certain unrolling acceleration is exceeded. Usually the belt reel has a toothed ring on the outside , which rotates freely in an inwardly directed toothed ring with a larger diameter. The roller is held in the middle position by spring force and when the belt tears it is pressed against the outer toothed ring and thus blocked.
In addition, there is usually another mechanism that reacts to gravity with the help of a metal ball and is based on the principle of inertia . In the event of a steep incline of the vehicle or high acceleration, the ball is driven out of its rest position in a recess and triggers the blocking via a lever mechanism .
In the Federal Republic of Germany , three-point seat belts for the front seats of newly registered cars became mandatory on January 1, 1974. The retrofitting of cars with first registration after April 1, 1970 was also prescribed retrospectively. Static three-point belts were usually retrofitted.
From May 1, 1979, seat belts for the rear seats, and from January 1, 1988, three-point seat belts for the outer rear seats of newly registered cars were required. Seat belts were compulsory for trucks in 1992 and for coaches in 1999.
Since July 1, 2004, all newly registered cars in Germany must have three-point seat belts on all seats; the usual lap belt in the middle at the back is no longer allowed; However, there is no obligation to retrofit, as the installation of three-point seat belts was not included in the design. The ECE regulation No. 16 determines the installation obligation for the EC vehicle classes M and N.
- Introduction of mandatory installation
FRG / Germany Austria Switzerland GDR Car front seats (three-point seat belts) 1st January 1974 1976 January 1, 1976 January 1, 1978 (with StVO 77) Car rear seats May 1, 1979 1984 January 1, 1980 Car rear seats (three-point belts outside) January 1, 1988 - Passenger car (three-point seat belts on all seats) July 1, 2004 - Trucks over 3.5 t January 1, 1992 October 1, 1998 Coach October 1, 1999 October 1, 1998 Public bus not mandatory not mandatory
Seat belts are compulsory for vehicle occupants
The compulsory seat belt was introduced in order to avert economic damage due to physical injuries and damaging events in traffic accidents . Traffic accidents result in considerable costs for the employer , the insured communities and the emergency services . After an accident, if the seat belt is not fastened, the compensation for pain and suffering can be reduced by the motor vehicle liability insurance of the person responsible. Vehicle drivers must therefore also point out to passengers that they have to use their seat belts.
Basically, it is mandatory to wear it in road traffic if belts are prescribed for the vehicle. However, children under three years of age are not allowed to travel in vehicles - except buses - that are not fitted with seat belts.
Since April 1, 1993, there have been precise regulations on securing children in cars in accordance with StVO . Before that, there was a regulation that children up to the age of 12 should be accommodated in the rear seats if possible.(1a) of the
According to the case law of the Federal Court of Justice, there is an obligation to wear a seat belt "while driving" according to Section 21a (1) sentence 1 of the StVO even if the vehicle is briefly stationary due to traffic, such as waiting in front of a red light.
In Switzerland, children up to the age of 12 or who are less than 150 cm tall must be secured with a child restraint instead of a seat belt.
Introduction of seat belts
FRG / Germany Austria Switzerland GDR Car front seats (adults) January 1, 1976 1976 first exposed in 1976 in
1978, reintroduced on July 1, 1981
January 1, 1980 Car rear seats (adults) August 1, 1984 1984 October 1, 1994 did not become a duty Parental control requirement April 1, 1993 ? October 1, 1994 ? Trucks over 3.5 t January 1, 1992 ? March 1, 2006 ? Coach October 1, 1999 ? March 1, 2006 ? Public bus not mandatory ? not mandatory ?
In Germany there are exceptions to the seat belt requirement according to StVO :
- When driving at walking pace such as reversing, driving in parking lots.
- People in door-to-door traffic if they regularly have to leave their vehicle at short intervals in the respective service or delivery district.
- Trips in buses and coaches that are permitted to transport standing passengers.
- Passengers in buses and coaches with a permissible total weight of more than 3.5 t when leaving their seat for a short time, as well as
- Operating and accompanying staff in buses.
In Switzerland, the following are exempt from wearing seat belts in accordance with the Traffic Regulations (VRV) Art. 3a, Para.
- Persons who can prove by a medical certificate that they cannot be expected to wear seat belts; For trips abroad, the cantonal authority issues these persons a medical exemption certificate in accordance with Directive 2003/20 / EC.
- Door-to-door suppliers in the delivery area, if the vehicle does not drive faster than 25 km / h;
- Guide and passengers when driving on field and forest paths and in the works area, if the speed is not faster than 25 km / h;
- Guide in maneuvering at walking pace;
- Drivers and passengers traveling with motor vehicles in the regional, scheduled transport of licensed transport companies;
- Accompanying persons of persons in particular need of care in vehicles of the medical and handicapped services.
In Germany: If the seat belt is not put on, different penalties are levied in Germany for adults and children. The standard rate for a violation is uniformly:
- 30 euros warning fee for adults.
- A fine of 60 euros for taking a child with you unsecured (70 euros for several children) and 1 point in the register of fitness to drive .
In Switzerland: Failure to wear a seat belt will result in a fine of 60 CHF. This affects all vehicle occupants and is charged for every person who is not wearing a seat belt.
Introduction of the penalty
FRG / Germany Austria Switzerland GDR Car front seats August 1, 1984 July 1, 1984 July 1, 1981 October 1, 1982 (according to StVO) Car rear seats July 1, 1986 July 28, 1990 October 1, 1994 was not compulsory until reunification (1989) Parental control requirement April 1, 1993
July 1, 1998 fine
? October 1, 1994 ? Trucks from 3.5 t January 1, 1992 ? March 1, 2006 ? Coach April 1, 2004 ? March 1, 2006 ? Public bus not mandatory ? not mandatory ?
In Germany, the quota of car occupants in the front seats rose from 39 percent (1975), particularly through educational measures, to 58 percent (March 1984). With the introduction of the warning money (August 1984), the rate rose to 92 percent within a few months. Since then, the seat belt rate on front seats in Germany has always been over 90 percent. For drivers of lorries in road haulage, the rate in 2013 was 86%. According to a Swedish study, 99 percent of all motorists would use a seat belt reminder if they were fitted with a seat belt reminder . Since February 13, 2014 this has been mandatory on the driver's seat for new registrations of the EC vehicle class M1.
Ten years after the introduction of mandatory seat belts on front seats in 1981, the wearing rate in Switzerland was 67 percent. In 2000 the rate was 77 percent. Regional differences have always been observed in Switzerland. In urban areas, 73 percent of German-speaking Swiss wore belts, compared to only 37 percent of Ticino residents . In 2004 the rate of seatbelts in German-speaking Switzerland was 84 percent, in French-speaking Switzerland 71 and in Ticino 61 percent. This increased in the following years, in 2012 the rate was 97, 90 and 83 percent. In 2002, 32 percent of the rear seats were wearing seat belts, although the requirement for rear seats has been in effect since 1994. In 2013, the proportion on rear seats increased to 77 percent.
- Seat belt usage rate in selected countries in percent (as of 2013)
|country||Front seats||Rear seats||children|
Seat belts are compulsory for motorcyclists
In Germany, due to the 8th Exemption Ordinance to the StVO of May 20, 1998 (Federal Law Gazette I 1130), motorcycle drivers do not need to wear a protective helmet if there are existing restraint systems. In Austria, a similar regulation came into force through the decree of the Ministry of Transport (GZ. 179.708 / 1-II / B / 7/00 of February 9, 2000). These ordinances or decrees were created specifically for the covered BMW C1 scooter. In Switzerland this is covered by the VRV, Art. 3b, Paragraph 2, Item d ("Driver and passengers on seats that are fitted with seat belts"). There is no such regulation in Sweden or Great Britain.
Seat belt compulsory for aircraft passengers
While the seat belt sign generally prompts you to wear a seatbelt, seat belts of the Lufthansa airline and its regional partners have been compulsory since 2007 for the entire duration of a flight and not just for take-offs, landings or turbulences that occur during the flight. WC visits remain an exception.
- Passive safety devices that complement the seat belt are headrests and airbags , the soft and flat design of what was previously a hard dashboard with protruding switches.
- Sitting with your legs crossed creates an increased risk of injury, while putting your feet up on the dashboard or using the seat back in a reclining position makes the belt largely ineffective.
- Patients in ambulances are sometimes transported seated against the direction of travel, while a paramedic who looks after them is often carried across them.
- In city buses (without belts) and some coaches and long-distance buses (mostly with belts), transport occurs against and across the direction of travel.
- In more historical sleeper buses, transport occurred lying across the direction of travel.
- The effect of the belt can be demonstrated with the belt slide and rollover simulator .
- Topic list road traffic , topic list vehicle technology
- For children in the car transport belts are a (belted or otherwise fastened) child seat used, or the center of gravity of a larger child is a booster seat adapted to the effective height of the Standardgurts. Small children are sometimes transported seated against the direction of travel in a belt-held baby seat. A dashboard airbag has to be switched off.
- Transporting children by bike, whether on a child seat , in the cabin of a transport bike or in a bicycle trailer, has been (also) in Austria for many years that a seatbelt has to be fastened. Likewise, the transport in a baby seat in a trailer or cargo bike cabin. Child seats on the bike in front of the person driving it are rare and actually prohibited in Austria today.
- The transport of adults in bicycle rickshaws is rare and is not currently (2018-2020) subject to seatbelts in Austria.
- Heike Bergmann: Buckle up and go - the seat belt debate of the 1970s and 1980s in Germany. In: History of Technology. (VDI), Volume 76, edition sigma, Berlin 2009, , pp. 105-130.
- ECE regulation No. 16 (seat belts, restraint systems, child restraint systems and ISOFIX child restraint systems for vehicle occupants)
- German Road Safety Council (Hrsg.): The seat belt - lifesaver No. 1. (= series traffic safety. 15). 2011.
- Restraint systems and airbags: measures for the self-protection of car occupants. History and standards (status 2004) - 2007
- 1976: “Introduction of mandatory seat belts. Buckle up please! ” One day , January 1st, 2011.
- Entry and picture of three-point seat belt inventor Nils Bohlin in the European Automotive Hall of Fame , 2006.
- “30 years of mandatory seat belt use in Austria: a track record - the seat belt as a lifesaver” , Statistics Austria, July 14, 2006.
- Federal Highway Research Institute Belts, child seats, helmets and protective clothing - 2013
References and comments
- Leonard JK Setright: The Guinness Book of Car Facts and Feats. Guinness Superlatives, Enfield 1982, ISBN 0-85112-207-8 , p. 183.
- Beverly Rae Kimes: Standard Catalog of American Cars. P. 98.
- Original title: "Bretelles protectrices pour voitures automobiles et autres"; Source: Wolfgang-Pfaller (under S)
- Image from the patent specification
- U.S. Patent 2,710,649
- U.S. Patent 3043625
- PDF ( Memento from February 15, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) German patent specification
- Kurt Möser: History of the automobile . Campus Verlag , Frankfurt 2002, ISBN 3-593-36575-8 , p. 262.
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- Auto Motor und Sport. Volume 6, 1961, p. 11.
- Dietrich Karl Mäurer: Calendar sheet January 1, 1976: Introduction of mandatory seat belts ( Memento of September 27, 2007 in the Internet Archive ). In: MDR . January 1, 2006.
- Kai Posmik: Buckle up please! In: one day . January 1, 2011.
- Referendum of November 30, 1980 - voting booklet ( Memento of May 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive )
- Federal Councilon the result of the referendum on November 30, 1980
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- Poster for the "Click - strap first, then start" campaign. In: DVR digital media archive . 1974, Retrieved April 3, 2019 .
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- belts: fear of the shackle. One of the main arguments of those who opposed seat belts was that drivers survived an accident because they were thrown out of the car. In: Der Spiegel . No. 50 , 1975, pp. 40 ( online ).
- WDR : 20 years ago: The fine for those who don't wear seat belts is introduced . August 1, 2004.
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- FIA Appendix J, Article 253. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- VBl. 75 675 ff. See Peter Hentschel: Road traffic law. P. 617.
- German Road Safety Council (Ed.): The seat belt - lifesaver No. 1. (= series traffic safety. 15). 2011, p. 26.
- See BGH NJW . 79, p. 1364.
- German Road Safety Council (Ed.): The seat belt - lifesaver No. 1. (= series traffic safety. 15). 2011, p. 28.
- ADAC Motorwelt. Issue 10, October 2015, p. 14.
- Car seat belts: lifesavers made of hair-thin threads. In: Spiegel online. May 31, 2005, accessed October 1, 2014.
- See ECE regulation No. 16, point 126.96.36.199.
- See ECE regulation No. 16, point 6.3.2.
- Heinz Burg, Andreas Moser (ed.): Handbook of traffic accident reconstruction. Vieweg and Teubner Verlag, 2007, ISBN 978-3-8348-0172-2 , p. 715.
- On January 1, 1976 with a two-year transition period to the main inspection .
- bmvi.de ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. ECE-R 16
- See § 35a and § 72 (2) StVZO.
- See StVO Paragraph 1b
- Twelfth ordinance amending the road traffic regulations, Federal Councilor printed matter 786/92.
- BGH, judgment of 12.12.2000 - VI ZR 411/99 (OLG Rostock, LG Neubrandenburg) . Website of the Federal Court of Justice. Accessed on April 10, 2016. Quoted, among other things, in an order of the Higher Regional Court of Celle of November 24, 2005 Website of the IWW Institute accessed on April 10, 2016.
- According to Peter Hentschel, this only refers to traffic processes "that are designed from the outset to only drive at walking pace and are also less dangerous because they take place away from flowing traffic or in the transition area between flowing and stationary traffic (BGH NJW 01 1485, KG , VRS 70 299). In the case of traffic-related stepping, e.g. driving in a traffic jam, the provision does not apply accordingly (Dü VRS 72 211). Likewise, it does not allow stepping over long distances (Stu VRS 70 49, KG VRS 70 299). ”Cf. Peter Hentschel: Straßenverkehrsrecht. Verlag CH Beck, Munich 2021. 41st revised edition, § 21a StVO Rn. 10, ISBN 978-3-406-64372-9 , p. 669.
- According to the case law of the Federal Court of Justice, there is an obligation to wear a seat belt "while driving" according to Section 21a, Paragraph 1, Sentence 1 of the StVO even if the vehicle is briefly stationary due to traffic, such as waiting in front of a red light. See BGH, judgment of 12. 12. 2000 - VI ZR 411/99 (OLG Rostock, LG Neubrandenburg)
- Suppliers or commercial agents in door-to-door traffic cannot be asked to wear a seat belt every time. A distance of more than 500 m between the stops is no longer subject to the exemption. See Peter Hentschel: Road Traffic Law. Pp. 618, 625.
- This mainly refers to regular buses.
- Usually when there is a medical indication.
- motorline.cc 30 years of compulsory seat belts in Austria (accessed on September 25, 2014)
- German Road Safety Council (Ed.): The seat belt - lifesaver No. 1. (= series traffic safety. 15). 2011, p. 15.
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- ECE-R 16; Addendum 15, 1.4. (P. 5)
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- www 20minuten ch, 20 minutes, 20 minutes www.20min.ch: Every fourth person does not buckle up in the car. Retrieved August 19, 2019 .
- Road Safety Annual Report 2014, International Traffic Safety Data and Analysis Group (Irtrad), OECD / ITF 2014. internationaltransportforum.org ( Memento of August 13, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Not all states have the obligation to invest.
- StVOAusnV 8