Federal Court (Switzerland)
|Federal Court BGer|
|Headquarters||Lausanne , Canton of Vaud|
|Number of employees||38 federal judges,
19 part-time judges,
132 court clerks,
146 other employees
The Federal Supreme Court ( BGer ; French Tribunal fédéral , TF ; Italian Tribunale federale , TF ; Romansh , TF ) is the supreme court of the Swiss Confederation . As part of the judiciary (judicial) it belongs to one of the three branches of government in the political system of Switzerland .
It is headquartered in the Federal Courthouse in Lausanne in the canton of Vaud . The two social law departments of the Federal Supreme Court (formerly the Federal Insurance Court as an organizationally independent social insurance department of the Federal Supreme Court) are located in Lucerne . The United Federal Assembly elects the 38 federal judges; the incumbent President of the Federal Supreme Court is Ulrich Meyer .
The Federal Supreme Court decides as the last instance on civil law disputes (resident - resident), public law (resident - state), but also in disputes between cantons or between cantons and the federal government. Decisions in the area of human rights violations can be submitted to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg for assessment.
In response to complaints from those concerned, the Federal Supreme Court examines whether the law was correctly applied in the contested decision. With its judgments, the Federal Supreme Court ensures the uniform application of federal law throughout the country. Its decisions contribute to the development of the law and its adaptation to changed circumstances. It protects the rights of the resident, which he has according to the federal constitution . The other courts and the administrative authorities are guided by the case law of the Federal Supreme Court and adopt its principles. The proceedings before the Federal Supreme Court take place in writing. There is no court hearing with parties and witnesses or pleadings from lawyers. Rather, the Federal Supreme Court relies on the for its judgmentFacts as determined by the lower courts, unless this is particularly incorrect. The judgments are mostly passed through circulation. If all the judges involved agree to the instruction judge's proposal, the case is decided. Otherwise there will be a public consultation.
If the Federal Supreme Court comes to the conclusion that a lower court did not make the correct decision, it cancels the contested decision and, if necessary, sends it back to the lower court for a new assessment. In addition to its function as the highest judicial body, the Federal Supreme Court exercises administrative supervision over the Federal Criminal Court, the Federal Administrative Court and the Federal Patent Court.
Time before the state was established
Until 1798, only federal law existed in what was then the Old Confederation , which provided for arbitration in the event of disputes . Even during the time of the Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1803, there was only one Supreme Court , which served as an organ of the unitary state. In mediation there was again only one arbitration procedure, whereby the Landammann of Switzerland could determine the mediator . If one method does not bear fruit, which decided Diet . By means of concordatsFurther training was promoted by federal law in the years 1815 to 1848. Among other things, events of war and turmoil in the population created the need for a comprehensive federal reform. However, in order to be able to install a supreme court over all the estates , the estates had to be united in a newly founded state .
The first federal court
With the establishment of the federal state and the new federal constitution of the Swiss Confederation , the foundations for the establishment of a federal court were laid. This laid the foundation for the first organizational law, which came into force in 1849. The court's competencies were initially very limited and only focused on private and criminal law . It mainly assessed disputes among the cantons and between the federal government and the cantons that did not fall under the constitutional area, as well as legal actions brought by residents against the federal government.
All constitutional matters continued to fall under the assessment of the political authorities. The Federal Supreme Court could only deal with these if it was instructed to do so by either the Federal Council or the Federal Assembly. The Federal Council and the Federal Assembly were able to overturn court judgments and cantonal government acts. In criminal proceedings by the Federal Supreme Court in connection with offenses against the federal government as well as other political criminal offenses (e.g. high treason, riot and violence against federal authorities, offenses against international law), a jury , so-called federal assistant, was given, consulted. The federal assistants were also involved in negotiations in which a federal authority referred its own officials to the federal court for criminal assessment.
The federal court initially consisted of a single chamber. The members, including the President, were elected by Parliament, i.e. by the United Federal Assembly. The term of office of the eleven judges (with eleven substitutes) lasted three years.
Johann Konrad Kern (Minister Kern) was appointed as the first President of the Federal Supreme Court . The choice of clerks , court officials, two ordinary and any other investigating judges was a matter for the court itself. The judges all worked according to the militia principle , i.e. not employed professionally. They received a daily allowance as compensation.
Federal judges could be members of the Estates or National Council at the same time . In most cases, incumbent parliamentarians were also elected federal judges. The election of a member from the Federal Council or an official elected by it was not permitted. The federal court did not have a permanent seat; the President of the Federal Supreme Court determined the venue on a case-by-case basis. The annual meeting, however, took place in Bern . One worked on the principle of immediacy and the principle of orality .
After the complete revision of the constitution in 1874
In 1874 the Swiss Federal Constitution was completely renewed. As part of this total revision, the Organization Act for the Federal Supreme Court was also given a new version. The Federal Supreme Court became a permanent court, which from now on was based on a real separation of powers . The Federal Assembly also elected the judges, now nine judges and nine substitutes. The term of office since then has been six years and the President and Vice-President have been elected for two years. The first election of the replacement required approximately 20 ballots. Now it was implemented for the first time that a judge was not allowed to hold any other public office. Any citizen who could also be elected to the National Council was eligible for election.
Seven cities had applied for the seat of the federal court. In 1872 the liberals from French-speaking Switzerland had fought against the constitutional changes; they have now been awarded the seat by the proponents. The Federal Supreme Court now met in Lausanne . Initially, the court only had one work room. Therefore a new building was built for him from 1881 to 1886, under the direction of the architect Benjamin Recordon . The first federal court building was inaugurated outside the old city walls on Place de Montbenon under the name Palais de Justice . Today the District Court of Lausanne is located there.
From then on, the “new” Federal Supreme Court also had new tasks and powers. Among other things, he was entrusted with the administration of state law, i.e. disputes between the Confederation and the cantons, disputes between cantons and constitutional complaints had to be judged by the Federal Supreme Court. The court had only limited constitutional jurisdiction vis-à-vis the Swiss Confederation. The laws passed by the Federal Assembly, generally binding federal decisions and international treaties were not allowed to be checked. In principle, the Federal Supreme Court was the appellate authority for the application of federal law, i. In other words, the cantonal rights were usually not taken into account. The court now also held deliberations in public. With the introduction of theThe Code of Obligations (OR) of 1893 was given the opportunity to appeal . The Federal Supreme Court could only be called in when all cantonal instances had been passed through.
Due to the new tasks, the number of judges was increased to 14 and the court was divided into a civil and a constitutional chamber. In 1896 the debt enforcement and bankruptcy system came under the jurisdiction of the federal court, with which two additional judges were elected and a debt enforcement and bankruptcy chamber was set up.
From the 20th century until today
In 1904 it was necessary to increase the number of judges from 16 to 19. With the entry into force of the Civil Code (ZGB) in 1912, the court was appointed as the appeal instance in all civil law disputes. Thus the number of judges was increased again, this time to 24 people. The court was now divided into three sections: one under constitutional law and two under civil law. The first civil department dealt mainly with disputes from the OR, the second from the ZGB.
As more and more people were working for the Federal Supreme Court due to more and more tasks, space became scarce. In 1913 an architectural competition for a new courthouse was announced. Louis-Ernest Prince and Jean Béguin won it and, together with the federal representative, Alphonse Laverrière , led the construction work from 1922 to 1927 . The new headquarters was built in the city park “Mon-Repos” in the Mousquines / Bellevue district .
In 2007 the Federal Insurance Court was integrated into the Federal Supreme Court. Since then, its tasks have been performed by the social security law departments of the Federal Supreme Court. These departments stayed in Lucerne; they are located in the former administration building of the Gotthard Railway on the shores of Lake Lucerne.
With the federal law of 1928, the federal court was given administrative and disciplinary justice. In 1942 the new Criminal Code was introduced and a new department, the Court of Cassation in Criminal Matters, was attached to the court. He is responsible for the uniform application of criminal law throughout Switzerland.
On January 1, 1975, administrative criminal law came into force; the then prosecution chamber of the Federal Supreme Court was thus also responsible for complaints against arrest orders issued by the Princely Regional Court in Vaduz in criminal customs matters , as the customs law was also applied in Liechtenstein.
On March 12, 2000, the judiciary reform was adopted by the people and cantons, which gave the federal government the authority to standardize civil and criminal procedural law and normally subjected state acts with the guarantee of legal recourse to judicial review.
With the establishment of the Federal Criminal Court ( Bellinzona ) and the Federal Administrative Court ( St. Gallen ), the Federal Supreme Court was relieved of time-consuming first-instance processes. The extension of constitutional jurisdiction to federal laws was not adjusted . This means that residents can still sue the Federal Supreme Court if their basic rights are violated by cantonal laws, but not if this is done by a federal law.
The Federal Supreme Court is responsible, among other things, for assessing complaints due to the violation of constitutional rights by legal acts by federal or cantonal authorities. In contrast to the supreme courts of other states, the federal court is not a comprehensive constitutional court . Article 190 of the Federal Constitution provides: "Federal laws and international law are authoritative for the Federal Supreme Court and the other authorities that apply the law." The Federal Supreme Court therefore examines the laws passed by the Federal Assembly de facto for their conformity with the Federal Constitution or the European Convention on Human Rights. It must, however, apply a federal law in spite of the established unconstitutionality. This requirement of application only applies to federal laws, but not to other federal legislations (e.g. ordinances) or the cantons , unless their unconstitutionality is legitimized by a federal law.
The Federal Supreme Court is divided into management bodies and tribunals . The governing bodies include the President's Conference, the Administrative Commission and the General Court. The panel consists of seven departments and an appeals committee.
The presidential conference
All presidents of the seven departments are in the so-called presidential conference. The secretariat of this conference is headed by the Secretary General, who also takes part in the meetings in an advisory capacity.
The conference is responsible for issuing instructions and uniform rules for the drafting of judgments, for coordinating case law among the departments, as well as for the consultation on draft decrees.
The President's Conference includes the following federal judges: Christina Kiss (Chair), Hans Georg Seiler, Marcel Maillard, Christian Herrmann, Christian Denys, François Chaix, Francesco Parrino.
The administrative commission
This commission is composed of the President of the Federal Supreme Court, the Vice-President of the Federal Supreme Court and an ordinary judge. The Secretary General also takes part in this commission as an advisory person. The members are sufficiently relieved of their other tasks.
The Administrative Commission has the following tasks: It is responsible for assigning the part-time federal judges to the departments at the request of the President's Conference, approving the budget and the invoice for the attention of the Federal Assembly, appointing the clerks and assigning them to the departments at the request of the departments that Provision of sufficient scientific and administrative services, the guarantee of adequate further training of the staff, the approval of secondary employment of the ordinary judges after hearing the President's Conference, the supervision of the Federal Criminal Court and the Federal Administrative Court as well as all other administrative matters that are not within the jurisdiction of the General Court or the presidential conference fall.
The following members are currently members of this commission: Ulrich Meyer ( President of the Federal Supreme Court), Martha Niquille (Vice-President of the Federal Supreme Court) and Yves Donzallaz.
The overall court
The general court consists of all ordinary judges and is mainly responsible for the internal organization of the court. It appoints the departments and their executive committees and issues the regulations.
The first public law department
The First Public Law Department handles complaints in criminal matters against interim criminal procedural decisions as well as against non-openings and suspensions.
In response to legal action, it deals with conflicts of jurisdiction between federal authorities and cantonal authorities as well as disputes under public law between the federal government and the cantons or between cantons.
The First Public Law Department handles complaints in the following public law matters as well as subsidiary constitutional complaints: expropriations , spatial matters such as spatial planning , building law , environmental protection , water protection , forest , nature and homeland protection , public works, amelioration , building subsidies associated with spatial planning and hiking trails . This department also deals with political rights , international mutual legal assistance in criminal matters, theRoad traffic and civil rights .
If the dispute cannot be assigned to any area of law, this department takes over the cases that involve the following fundamental rights: Equal rights , protection from arbitrariness and protection of good faith , right to life and personal freedom , protection of privacy , right to marriage and family, expression and freedom of information , media freedom , artistic freedom , freedom of assembly , freedom of association , the right to property, with all procedural safeguards, legal guarantee ,judicial proceedings and imprisonment .
The following federal judges belong to the First Public Law Department: François Chaix (President), Jean Fonjallaz, Lorenz Kneubühler, Monique Jametti, Stephan Haag, Thomas Müller.
The second public law department
This department takes care of public law matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints. In response to a lawsuit, it deals with claims for damages and satisfaction from official activities of persons within the meaning of Article 1 paragraph 1 letters a – c of the Liability Act of March 14, 1958.
Your area of responsibility includes the following topics: Immigration law , taxes and duties , public commercial law and other administrative law, unless it is assigned to another department, namely: State liability (without medical work and without claims according to criminal procedural norms on compensation), education law, acquisition of land by People abroad, film industry, animal welfare , subsidies , concessions and monopolies , public procurement, energy(Supply of water and electricity), transport operating permits, transport: roads, railways, air traffic, shipping (all except planning, expropriation or construction of facilities), post , radio and television , health and food police , public labor law , agriculture , hunting and fishing , Lottery and games of chance , supervision of banks , insurers , stock exchanges , cartels and price monitoring ,Foreign trade and liberal professions .
If the dispute cannot be assigned to any other area of law, the Second Public Law Department handles complaints in public law matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints, which concern the following fundamental rights: protection of children and young people , freedom of belief and conscience , freedom of language , right to primary school education , academic freedom , freedom , economic freedom and freedom of association .
Members of the departments are: Hans Georg Seiler (President), Andreas Zünd, Florence Aubry Girardin, Yves Donzallaz, Julia Hänni, Michael Beusch.
The First Civil Law Division
The First Civil Law Department handles civil law disputes between the Confederation and the cantons or between cantons as well as complaints in public law matters against cantonal decrees and complaints against arbitral awards in accordance with Article 389 of the Code of Civil Procedure (ZPO).
It deals with complaints in civil matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints in the following areas: law of obligations , insurance contracts , non-contractual liability law (also under special laws ), medical state liability , private competition law , intellectual property law , international arbitration , registry matters and decisions on the recognition and enforcement of decisions and on mutual assistance in civil matters in these same areas of law.
The department consists of the following members: Christina Kiss (President), Fabienne Hohl, Martha Niquille, Yves Rüedi, Marie-Chantal May Canellas.
The Second Civil Law Division
The second civil law department handles civil law disputes between the Confederation and the cantons or between cantons as well as complaints in public law matters against cantonal decrees and complaints against arbitral awards in accordance with Article 389 ZPO.
Specifically, it deals with the complaints in civil matters and the subsidiary constitutional complaints, which concern the following areas of law: civil code ( personal law , family law , inheritance law and property law ), peasant land law , debt collection and bankruptcy law as well as register matters and decisions on the recognition and enforcement of decisions as well as legal assistance in civil matters in accordance with Article 72 paragraph 2 letter b of the Federal Act on the Federal Supreme Court (BGG) in the areas of law mentioned.
The following judges have a seat in this department: Christian Herrmann (President), Elisabeth Escher, Luca Marazzi, Nicolas von Werdt, Felix Schöbi and Grégory Bovey.
The Criminal Law Department
The Criminal Law Department handles complaints in criminal matters as well as complaints in public law matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints in the following areas: substantive criminal law (including the execution of sentences and measures ), criminal procedural law (excluding complaints against interim criminal procedural decisions) and criminal procedural complaints against final decisions.
The following federal judges belong to the department: Christian Denys (President), Laura Jacquemoud-Rossari, Giuseppe Muschietti, Beatrice van de Graaf, Sonja Koch.
The first social law department
This department handles complaints in public law matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints in the following areas: disability insurance , accident insurance , unemployment insurance , cantonal social insurance , family allowances , social assistance and assistance in emergencies, military insurance and public personnel law.
The following judges work in this department: Marcel Maillard (President), Alexia Heine, Martin Wirthlin, Daniela Viscione, Bernard Abrecht.
The second social law department
This department deals with complaints in public law matters and subsidiary constitutional complaints, which relate to the following areas of law: old-age and survivors ' insurance , disability insurance , income compensation scheme (including maternity allowance ), health insurance , occupational benefits and supplementary benefits .
The following members belong to the department: Francesco Parrino (President), Ulrich Meyer, Thomas Stadelmann, Lucrezia Glanzmann, Margit Moser-Szeless.
The appeals committee
The appeals committee consists of three ordinary judges who are elected by the general court and do not belong to the administrative committee. In the case of complaints under Article 81 of the Personnel Ordinance of the Federal Court of August 27, 2001, the appeals committee is composed of the three judges and two representatives elected by the staff. The judge with the highest age of office presides.
The Appeals Commission judges disputes according to the following provisions: Article 81 of the Personnel Ordinance of the Federal Court of August 27, 2001, Article 28 BGG and Article 64 of these regulations relating to the principle of public disclosure in the administration, Article 16 of the Ordinance of the Federal Court of September 27, 1997 on the Archiving Act and Article 19 of the guidelines of November 6, 2006 on court reporting at the Federal Supreme Court.
The following three judges are permanently appointed to the appeals committee: Luca Marazzi (President), Florence Aubry Girardin, Alexia Heine.
Publication of the decisions
All decisions of the court are published online. Selected decisions are also published in notebook form. The printed version appears once a year.
On the independent website Forum Federal Court , which does not belong to the court , all decisions of the Swiss Federal Court can be analyzed, commented on and debated in public and accessible to everyone.
Judges and staff
According to the Federal Supreme Court Act (BGG, SR 173.110), the Federal Supreme Court now consists of 35–45 ordinary federal judges and part-time federal judges, the number of which may not exceed two thirds of the ordinary judges. The Federal Assembly determines the exact number of judges in an ordinance ( BGG).
The federal judges and the part-time judges
There are currently 38 federal judges and 19 part-time judges working at the court. The election is made by the United Federal Assembly according to technical, linguistic, regional and party-political criteria. When electing, the Federal Assembly voluntarily takes account of the proportional representation claims of the major political parties. The division into which a judge is assigned is the responsibility of the general court. The term of office of a federal judge is six years. Federal judges can be re-elected an unlimited number of times. They leave office when they have reached the age of 68.
In 1972, Margrith Bigler-Eggenberger was the first woman in history to be elected as a substitute judge. The same woman was elected first federal judge two years later (1974). Seventeen years after Bigler was elected, the second woman was elected federal judge. Today, 15 of the 38 judges are women (as of 2019).
The Swiss People's Party has twelve judges , the Social Democratic Party , the Christian Democratic People's Party and the FDP, the Liberals seven each, the Green Party three and the Civil Democratic Party and the Green Liberal Party one each.
Current federal judges
As of September 8, 2020
The President and the Vice President
The voting power of the President and the Vice-President also rests solely with the Federal Assembly, but the Federal Supreme Court proposes one person each. The President and Vice President are elected for two years and can be re-elected a maximum of once.
The clerks and the staff
The federal judges have 132 court clerks at their side, who advise them on decision-making and edit the judgments (as of 2017).
The Federal Supreme Court has a further 147 employees who handle the logistical and administrative business in various departments and take care of media and public relations work.
For comparison: in 1875 there were eight employees.
Computer science department
The IT department of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court was established in the early 1980s. Since 2011, 21.4 positions have been employed in the IT department; previously around 31 positions were filled before the Federal Administrative Court was separated from the Federal Supreme Court IT department .
Open source strategy
In 2001, the Federal Supreme Court's open source strategy began . It was approved on April 1, 2003 by the Administrative Commission of the Federal Supreme Court and by the court management of the Federal Insurance Court. The open source strategy has been criticized by the competing software provider Weblaw from Bern. A legal opinion drawn up on behalf of the Federal Council in 2014 came to the conclusion that the Federal Supreme Court can cooperate with cantonal courts within the framework of an open source community, but that a legal basis is required. The inclusion of private individuals in the Federal Supreme Court's open source projects is problematic and fundamentally inadmissible. In 2016, the canton of Bern also published an opinion on the legal requirements for the use of open source software in public administration. This came to different conclusions than the report prepared two years earlier. In its 2016 annual report, the Federal Supreme Court stated that it was expecting a fundamental decision from Parliament which would address the question of the admissibility of open source software in the administration of justice,
In-house software development Open Justitia
The first in-house court software was created in 1991 to replace typewriters and index cards for searching and displaying court decisions . In 2006 the programming of a new development of the original software for personal use began. Version 1.0 has been in operation since 2007. Apache Tomcat serves as the platform .
In line with the e-government strategy of the Federal Council and the cantons, the Federal Supreme Court placed the software under the free license GPLv3 on September 1, 2011 as Open Justitia . At the same time, the Federal Supreme Court founded an open community, the Open Justitia Community . This is where the community of users and developers such as cantons , companies and universities coordinate . According to the statutes , IT costs should fall in this way, because software created with money from taxes will be used by as many public and private users as possiblebenefit. Publicly known examples of cantonal courts using Open Justitia are Bern and Vaud .
In the summer of 2012, the Federal Court for Open Justice received the Special Recognition Award at the international Enterprise & IT Architecture Excellence Award and an extraordinary special prize at the CH Open Source Awards . The jury explicitly praised the foresight of the Federal Supreme Court to save taxpayers long-term costs through its initiative.
- Ch. Pache: To commemorate the celebration of the 50th anniversary of the Swiss Federal Supreme Court, February 7, 1925: Speeches at the ceremony - addresses and dedications . Lausanne 1925.
- Eduard His : History of the new Swiss constitutional law . Helbing & Lichtenhahn, Basel (1920–1938).
- A. Haefliger: A hundred years Swiss Federal Supreme Court . Swiss Law Gazette 71, 1975, p. 1-8 .
- Goran Seferovic: The Swiss Federal Court 1848–1874: the federal jurisdiction in the early federal state . Schulthess, Zurich 2010.
- Federal Supreme Court website
- Werner Brüschweiler: Federal Court. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Information about the Swiss Federal Supreme Court , website of Markus Felber , former Federal Supreme Court correspondent for the Neue Zürcher Zeitung (1994 to 2013)
- Art. 188 Position of the Federal Supreme Court. In: Federal Constitution of the Swiss Confederation . Retrieved September 13, 2011 .
- Art. 4 Seat. Federal Act on the Federal Supreme Court, accessed on September 13, 2011 .
- Art. 5 election. Federal Act on the Federal Supreme Court, accessed on September 13, 2011 .
- Judges and staff. Retrieved August 31, 2011 .
- Federal judge. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- BGE 101 IV 107
- Federal Court: court organization. (PDF) (No longer available online.) July 4, 2011, archived from the original on December 2, 2010 ; Retrieved July 4, 2011 .
- Organization. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- Bodies - The Presidents' Conference. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- Division of Business - The Presidents' Conference. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- Management Bodies - The Administrative Commission. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- business - the administrative commission. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- business - the first public law department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The first public law department. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- Division of Business - The Second Public Law Department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The second public law department. Retrieved February 18, 2015 .
- Division of Business - The First Civil Law Department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The first civil law department. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- Division of Business - The Second Civil Law Division. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The second civil law department. Retrieved February 18, 2015 .
- Division of Business - The Criminal Law Department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The criminal law department. Retrieved February 18, 2015 .
- business - the first social law department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The first social law department. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- business - the second social law department. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The second social law department. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- Personnel Ordinance of the Federal Court of August 27, 2001 (PVBger). Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- Division of business - The Appeals Commission. Retrieved September 11, 2011 .
- body - The Appeals Commission. Retrieved June 16, 2017 .
- List of newly included decisions. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on October 4, 2011 ; Retrieved October 3, 2011 .
- Forum Federal Court. Retrieved September 12, 2020 .
- The part-time judges. Retrieved September 1, 2011 .
- Art. 9 Term of Office. Federal Act on the Federal Supreme Court, accessed on September 13, 2011 .
- Margrith Bigler-Eggenberger: First federal judge. DRS 1 , accessed September 8, 2011 .
- Federal judge. Retrieved September 8, 2020 .
- Judges and staff. Retrieved September 1, 2011 .
- Secretary General. Retrieved September 1, 2011 .
- Hunting against IT strategy of the Federal Supreme Court. Retrieved January 20, 2013 .
- Project Open Justitia and Open Source Strategy of the Federal Supreme Court - Answers to the Questions of the Business Audit Commission, Sub-Commission Courts / BA. (PDF) (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 26, 2014 ; Retrieved January 20, 2013 .
- Press release. (No longer available online.) Federal Court, October 23, 2014, archived from the original on July 21, 2016 ; Retrieved July 17, 2017 .
- Annual Report 2016. (No longer available online.) Federal Supreme Court, archived from the original on March 29, 2017 ; Retrieved July 17, 2017 .
- E-Government Strategy 2007. (PDF; 3.6MB) E-Government Switzerland , June 2013, accessed on October 11, 2016 .
- Official website of Open Justitia Software. Retrieved January 20, 2013 .
- Enterprise & IT Architecture Excellence Award, Special Recognition Award. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on February 22, 2016 ; accessed on January 20, 2013 .
- CH Open Source Awards ( Memento from May 27, 2013 in the Internet Archive )
- Winner of the Open Source Awards 2012. Accessed January 20, 2013 .