The labor law includes all laws , regulations and other binding provisions for paid employment, dependent employment . In terms of content, a distinction is made between individual labor law (relationship between employer and employee ) and collective labor law (relationship between trade unions and works councils , staff councils or employee representatives or the labor law commission on the one hand and employers' associations and employers on the other - see also coalition and coalition law ) . An important part of labor law is employee protection .
The work has been since ancient times legal regulations subject. In Roman law , however, the service contract ( locatio conductio operarum ) only played a subordinate role due to the widespread slave labor . In Germany in the Middle Ages , employment relationships often have personality traits. Although wage labor already existed on a small scale in certain areas, the second half of the 18th century is considered to be the beginning of the history of labor law. At that time, a large part of the population in Europe developed into wage-dependent workers ( proletariat ) and the social question arose ( pauperism ). The social grievances of industrialization in the 19th century are also seen as a result of private autonomy despite the imbalance in the power of the contractual partners.
The development of labor law began in England in 1833 with the factory laws . They limited working hours to eight hours for children between the ages of 9 and 13 and to 12 hours for children between the ages of 14 and 18. Children under the age of 9 should attend school.
Labor law of individual countries
Labor law is regulated differently in each state, for example:
- Labor Law (Bulgaria)
- Labor Law (Germany)
- Labor Law (GDR)
- Labor Law (France)
- Labor Law (Austria)
- Labor law (Switzerland)
In the European Union , with the liberalization of the labor market, there is a transnational labor law.
- Bob A. Hepple (Ed.): International Encyclopedia of Comparative Law . Vol.XV - Labor Law, 2014, ISBN 978-3-16-152650-3 .
- R. Blanpain (Ed.): International Encyclopaedia for Labor Law and Industrial Relations . Kluwer Law International, 1996, ISBN 90-6544-905-1 .
- Henssler / Braun (ed.): Labor law in Europe . 3rd edition Otto Schmidt, Cologne 2011, ISBN 978-3-504-42681-1 .
- Matthew W. Finkin: Comparative Labor Law . In: Mathias Reimann and Reinhard Zimmermann (eds.): Oxford Handbook of Comparative Law . Oxford University Press, Oxford 2008, ISBN 978-0-19-953545-3 , pp. 1131-1160 .
- Abbo Junker (Ed.): Basic course in labor law . 9th edition CH Beck, Munich 2010, ISBN 978-3-406-60055-5 .
- Reinhard Richardi : Labor law through the ages. Chronicle of German labor law. CH Beck, Munich 2019, ISBN 978-3-406-74304-7 ( reading sample [PDF]).
- ^ Gabler Wirtschaftslexikon online , accessed on March 14, 2011.