|banner||coat of arms|
|Country:||Principality of Liechtenstein|
|Municipality number :||7001|
|License plate :||FL|
|Postal code :||9490|
|UN / LOCODE :||LI VDZ|
|Residents:||5668 (June 30, 2019)|
|Population density :||328 inhabitants per km²|
|Proportion of foreigners :||41.7% (June 30, 2017)|
Vaduz (pronounced [ faˈdʊt͡s ] or [ faˈduːt͡s ], in the local dialect [faˈdot͡s] ) is a municipality in the Oberland and the main town and residence of the Principality of Liechtenstein . Vaduz is the seat of the state government and the Archdiocese of Vaduz . Vaduz is particularly well known for its role as an international financial center . The community has six exclaves and is thus an administrative unit divided into seven.
Exclaves of the municipality of Vaduz
The municipality has an area of 17.284 km², includes the village of Vaduz and its immediate surroundings and six exclaves. The area with the village of Vaduz borders in the north on Schaan , in the east on Triesenberg , in the south on Triesen and in the west on the Swiss communities Sevelen and Buchs SG on the other side of the Rhine . The highest point of the municipality is at 2150 m above sea level. M. the silver horn .
Four exclaves are in the Rhine Valley. It is the agricultural Vaduzer Riet between the Schaaner industrial area and ash / Nendeln , forests timber at the foot of the three sister massif and Rütti stone and Dachsegg above planks . The forest parcels are owned by the Vaduz Citizens' Cooperative, whose members are entitled to the annual lot wood. On the approximately 900 m above sea level. Traces of prehistoric settlement have been found in Dachsegg.
Two exclaves are in the mountain area; on the one hand the cooperative alps Pradamee and Hahnenspiel and on the other hand the Alp Hinter valorsch . The Pradamee and Hahnenspiel Alps in the Malbun valley were formerly known as the Vaduz Malbun . In 1781, the use of the Alps was divided between the Vaduz upper and lower villages and separate alpine buildings were built on the Under Pradamee (1500 m above sea level) and the Upper Pradamee (1700 m above sea level). Since 1930, the municipality of Vaduz has received around one million cubic meters of drinking water from Pradamee every year. The separate dairy operation ended around the middle of the 20th century. Since then, some of the milk has been made into cheese on the Upper Pradamee. In 1962, the first ski lift in Malbun was built in the area of Alp Pradamee, which was replaced by new chairlifts in 2006 along with other old lifts. The Hahnenspiel Alp is used as the Galtalp . One at about 2000 m above sea level. M. located small cave served as a burial place for a dead person during the early Bronze Age .
Alp Hintervalorsch was separated from Vorder- and Mittlervalorsch in 1643 due to a dispute between Vaduz and Schaan and has belonged to Vaduz ever since.
→ Main article: Valorsch
Alp Gaflei, bought by the municipality of Vaduz in 1952, is located in the Triesenberg municipality. Although the alpine buildings have been demolished since 2006, the alpine pastures are still used.
→ Main article: Gaflei
|Alp||origin of the name||Owner||Total area||productive pasture area||Alpine building||source|
|Pradamee||rät.rom. pra (tu) d'imez (middle meadow)||Vaduz Alpine Cooperative||366.1 ha||89 ha||1700 m above sea level M.|
|Rooster game||Place where the game cock is courting||13 ha||1855 m above sea level M.|
|Hintervalorsch||rät.rom. val uors (Bärental)||106.8 ha||33.4 ha||1456 m above sea level M.|
origin of the name
Vaduz was first mentioned in 1175/1200 as de Faduzes , two mentions from 1021 are later forgeries. Like many others in the Rhine Valley, the name is of Romanesque origin and derives from the old Rhaeto-Romanic auadutg «moat; Channel for mills and sawmills; Mühlgerinne », which in turn comes from the Latin aquaeductus .
On May 3, 1342, the then territory of the Counts of Bregenz was divided, so that the County of Vaduz was created. In the decades and centuries that followed, the county was repeatedly the scene of wars and looting, e.g. B. in the Old Zurich War (1444–1446) or in the Swabian War (1499–1500).
Over time, the rulers of Hohenems became increasingly indebted, so that they were finally forced to sell the county of Vaduz and the neighboring rule of Schellenberg . In 1699 Prince Hans Adam von Liechtenstein acquired the Schellenberg rule and in 1712 the County of Vaduz. On January 23, 1719, a diploma from Emperor Charles VI. the county of Vaduz with the rule Schellenberg and elevated it to an imperial principality with the name Liechtenstein. As a result, Vaduz became increasingly important.
In 1806 Napoleon Bonaparte founded the Confederation of the Rhine , in which Liechtenstein was also admitted and thus became effectively independent. At the Congress of Vienna , this independence was confirmed and Liechtenstein has been in the German Confederation added.
Customs treaty with Austria
Liechtenstein - and thus also Vaduz - remained very backward for a long time. Only the customs treaty concluded with Austria in 1852 enabled an upswing in economic conditions, and a constitutional constitution of 1862 brought about political change, so that the prince could no longer rule without restrictions.
Customs treaty with Switzerland and economic growth
After the dissolution of the customs treaty with Austria in 1919, Liechtenstein increasingly came closer to Switzerland , and in 1923 the customs treaty with Switzerland, which still exists today, was signed. After Austria was annexed to the German Reich in March 1938 , the newly ruling Prince Franz Josef II decided as the first Prince of Liechtenstein - because of the rejection of National Socialism - to move his residence to Liechtenstein at Vaduz Castle. Liechtenstein remained neutral during the Second World War and was never directly involved in acts of war. Instead, the Principality was able to use its locational advantages (no loss of army personnel, central location, customs union with Switzerland, tax advantages, political stability), so that many new industrial companies were founded in Vaduz, but also in the wider Principality, and progress in the country began to advance rapidly .
coat of arms
In 1932 Vaduz was the first Liechtenstein municipality to be awarded a coat of arms by the Prince, which was replaced by the current one in 1978. It symbolized Vaduz Castle and viticulture.
Today's coat of arms is divided into four parts : In the two red, diagonally opposite fields (fields two and three), a silver Montfort church flag (with three pendants and three rings) is shown. These are derived from the Werdenberger coat of arms . The other two fields, one and four, show the red “ princely hat ” on silver - a stylized crown , as a sign of the status of a residence.
Culture and sights
- Liechtenstein Art Museum : The Liechtenstein Art Museum, opened in 2000, is the state museum for modern and contemporary art in Vaduz. The modern museum building by the Swiss architects Meinrad Morger , Heinrich Degelo and Christian Kerez also houses the state art collection of the Principality of Liechtenstein. The facade, a colored and seamlessly poured concrete made of predominantly black basalt rock and colored river gravel, is treated in such a way that a lively interplay arises on the reflective surface.
- Liechtenstein National Museum : The cultural and natural history of Liechtenstein is presented here. The museum comprises two old buildings and a new building in Vaduz. In addition, the Post Museum in Vaduz and a rural living museum in Schellenberg are assigned to the State Museum.
- “ Engländerbau ” with postal museum : The “Engländerbau” was built in 1933/1934 on behalf of an English company as a commercial building. Today it is an exhibition building that shows changing exhibitions of contemporary art. In addition, since 2002 it has been home to the Postal Museum belonging to the State Museum, which collects, preserves and makes available to the public important documents and artifacts from Liechtenstein philately and postal history.
- Kurt Beck Watch Museum : The privately run museum, opened in March 2018 at Lettstrasse 39, shows around 250 antique clocks by the collector Kurt Beck.
- Vaduz Castle : The landmark of Vaduz was built in the 12th century and expanded in the 16th and 17th centuries. The castle has been in the possession of the Princes of Liechtenstein since 1712, but it was not inhabited for a long time and was increasingly falling into disrepair. It was not extensively renovated until the beginning of the 20th century, and in 1938 Prince Franz Josef II was the first Prince of Liechtenstein to move his permanent residence to the castle. It has not been accessible to the public since then.
- Schalun ruin : The medieval castle ruin Schalun (also called "Wildschloss") was built in the 12th century and over the course of time additional parts of the building were added. The ruin is located above Vaduz Castle at an altitude of approx. still exist today large parts of the foundations, especially the core of the castle with up to ten meters high building remains. The castle has been owned by the municipality of Vaduz since 1933.
- " Red House ": It is a listed medieval stepped gable house in Vaduzer Mitteldorf. It belonged to the Vaistli between 1400 and 1500 : The house was acquired by an heir of the Vaistlis in 1525 from the St. Johann monastery in the Thur Valley , and the associated vineyard ( Wingert ) has retained its name, Abtswingert, that was created as a result to this day.
- Chapel of St. Florin: The chapel of St. Florin was a sacred building in the municipality of Vaduz, which was probably built in the early modern period. In 1872 the tower and sacristy and in 1874 the remaining parts of the building were demolished, so that the chapel is no longer preserved today. The paving of the floor plan in the center of Vaduz indicates the former location of the chapel. In addition, a large part of the furnishings has been preserved or found a new use: The bells of the chapel, for example, were used to cast the four bells of the new parish church of St. Florin.
- St. Florin's Cathedral : The neo-Gothic church was built between 1868 and 1873 and consecrated on October 5, 1873. With the inauguration of the parish church, Vaduz was raised to a parish, as the parish was affiliated to the original parish of Schaan until then . Until 1997, Liechtenstein belonged to the diocese of Chur . On December 2, 1997, the Archdiocese of Vaduz was established by Pope John Paul II and separated from the Diocese of Chur. At the same time as the Archdiocese of Vaduz was founded, the parish church of St. Florin was elevated to the status of a cathedral.
- Chapel of St. Josef: It was built between 1930 and 1931. It is located in the district of Ebony and is a branch church of the municipality of Vaduz. The chapel can be seen as an example of a clearly structured type of church, as it was often built in the 1930s.
- The Ebony Evangelical Church is located in the Ebony district and was built in 1962 and 1963. The modern church building has a clear structure with a choir and a tower in the north and an organ gallery above the main entrance. The three bells come from the Schellenberg monastery church and were cast in 1880.
- The Johanneskirche is the sacred building of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Principality of Liechtenstein. The church building was erected in 1947 as an emergency church in Stuttgart and finally transferred to Liechtenstein as a gift in 1956. The organ, which dates from the early 18th century, is particularly significant.
- Princely crypt : Until the Second World War, the princely crypt in Wranau served as a burial site for the Liechtenstein family. When Franz Josef II was the first prince to move to Vaduz, a new burial site was laid out in the park south of the cathedral between 1958 and 1960. Prince Franz Josef II was the first sovereign to be buried here in 1989. Since 1992 there has been a relief on the wings of the entrance door showing the resurrection of Lazarus .
- Liechtenstein State Parliament Building : In 2008, the State Parliament building was opened after a 7-year construction period. Since then, it has served the State Parliament of the Principality of Liechtenstein as a plenary hall in which all members of the State Parliament can be seated at a single round table. Over a million clinker bricks, 600 tons of steel and 5800 cubic meters of concrete were used in the construction, which cost 42.2 million Swiss francs.
- Government building of Liechtenstein : The government building was built from 1903 to 1905 in the neo-baroque style. For what was then poor Liechtenstein, it contained major technical innovations: the first Liechtenstein central heating system was installed in the government building . The building, also known locally as the "Big House", has been a listed building since 1992.
- Town hall of the municipality of Vaduz : The town hall was built in 1932 and 1933. Of particular importance is a balcony fresco on the south facade, which shows Saint Urban , the patron saint of winegrowers. The coat of arms of the municipality of Vaduz is carved on the entrance.
- " Rheinbergerhaus ": The building was built around 1550 and first mentioned in 1613. It is significant because the composer Josef Gabriel Rheinberger (1839–1901) was born in this house . At the age of twelve he left his hometown to get a musical education in Munich . He worked in Munich all his life and died there too. After the Second World War , he and his wife were transferred to Vaduz in 1945. In 1939/1940 a bronze portrait of Josef Gabriel Rheinberger was erected in front of the house where he was born.
- Old Rhine Bridge : The old Rhine bridge has been connecting Vaduz with the Swiss municipality of Sevelen since 1901 . The 135 meter long bridge is the only remaining Liechtenstein Rhine bridge made of wood. The bridges of the other Liechtenstein communities were abandoned due to disrepair or fire and replaced by concrete bridges. The bridge, which consists of five pillars, has only been accessible to non-motorized individual traffic since the opening of the new Rhine bridge. It was extensively renovated in 2009/2010.
As of December 31, 2018, Vaduz had 5,625 inhabitants and was the second largest municipality in Liechtenstein after Schaan (with 6,016 inhabitants). At around 42 percent, the proportion of foreigners in Vaduz was higher than in all other Liechtenstein communities.
According to the 2015 census, 66.5 percent of the total population are Roman Catholics , with the proportion of Catholics among the population with Liechtenstein citizenship (80.8 percent) being significantly higher than among the population with foreign citizenship (47.1 percent Catholics). 10.1 percent of the residents of Vaduz are Protestants , and 2.6 percent belong to another Christian church (mostly Christian Orthodox churches ). 7.7 percent are Muslim , and other religions make up 0.75 percent of the population. Non-denominational people make up 9.2 percent of the population - the highest proportion in Liechtenstein.
Economy and Infrastructure
Liechtenstein itself does not have any motorways, but the Swiss A13 runs along the left bank of the Rhine. With the motorway exit in the St. Gallen municipality of Sevelen, Vaduz has a motorway connection in the immediate vicinity.
The Schaan-Vaduz station is the nearest train station with regional connections. The Sargans , Buchs SG and Feldkirch train stations each have international connections and can be reached directly with the public buses of the LIECHTENSTEINmobil (VLM) transport company . The remaining municipalities of the principality can also be easily reached by public transport.
At the end of 2014 there were over 10,000 jobs in the municipality of Vaduz. In a ranking of the most important financial centers worldwide, Vaduz took 69th place (as of 2018). Vaduz is internationally known primarily as a financial center, but it is often forgotten that many international industrial companies come from Vaduz or the rest of Liechtenstein. These include u. a. the Hilti AG or the Hoval AG. In addition, many state institutions have their headquarters in Vaduz, e.g. B. the Liechtenstein National Police , the Liechtenstein Gymnasium or the University of Liechtenstein .
The machine house of the Samina power plant is located in the village .
Manfred Bischof ( FBP ) has been mayor of Vaduz since May 2019 . The municipal council has thirteen seats (including the mayor) and since May 2019 has consisted of six members of the Progressive Citizens Party (FBP) and five members of the Patriotic Union (VU) and two members of the Free List (FL).
The most important sports club is FC Vaduz . By 2019 he had won the Liechtenstein Cup 47 times and played in the second highest Swiss league, the Challenge League. FC Vaduz's venue is the Rheinpark Stadium , where the Liechtenstein national football team also plays their home games.
The annual mean temperature is 10.1 ° C, with the coldest monthly mean temperatures in January at 0.8 ° C and the warmest monthly mean temperatures measured at 19.0 ° C in July. On average, around 80 frost days and 19 ice days can be expected here. There are an annual average of around 49 summer days , while an average of 6.7 hot days are recorded. The MeteoSwiss weather station is located at an altitude of
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Vaduz, 1981–2010
- Pierre Raton: Liechtenstein State and History. Liechtenstein-Verlag, Vaduz 1969
- Paul Vogt: Bridges to the Past. A text and work book on Liechtenstein history from the 17th to 19th centuries. Official teaching material publisher, Vaduz 1990
- Adulf Peter Goop : Customs of Liechtenstein. Old customs and new manners. Alpenland Verlag, Schaan 2005, ISBN 3-905437-09-0
- Mario F. Broggi (ed.): Alpenrheintal - a region under renovation. Analyzes and perspectives of spatial development . Historical and local history association of the Werdenberg region, Fontnas 2006, ISBN 3-033-00977-8
- Cornelia Herrmann: The art monuments of the Principality of Liechtenstein. The Oberland. In: Society for Swiss Art History GSK: The art monuments of Switzerland. Bern 2007, ISBN 978-3-906131-85-6
Further content in the
sister projects of Wikipedia:
|Commons||- multimedia content|
|Wiktionary||- Dictionary entries|
|Wikivoyage||- Travel Guide|
- Website of the municipality of Vaduz
- Ulrike Mayr, Patrick Sele: Vaduz (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein .
- Arthur Brunhart: Vaduz (municipality). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
- Official website of the Princely House of Liechtenstein
- Tables of population statistics. (XLS; 345 kB ) June 30, 2019. Statistical Office (AS), Principality of Liechtenstein, accessed on December 24, 2019 .
- population statistics. ( PDF ; 913 kB ) June 30, 2017. Statistical Office (AS), Principality of Liechtenstein, p. 15 , accessed on January 31, 2018 .
- Duden. The pronunciation dictionary. 6th, revised and updated edition, edited by Max Mangold. Dudenverlag, Mannheim / Leipzig / Vienna / Zurich 2005 (Duden 6).
- Bruno Boesch (Ed.): The pronunciation of standard German in Switzerland. A guide. On behalf of the Swiss Siebs Commission. Schweizer Spiegel, Zurich 1957, p. 39.
- Hans Stricker, Toni Banzer, Herbert Hilbe: Liechtenstein name book. The place and field names of the Principality of Liechtenstein. Volume 2: The names of the communities Triesenberg, Vaduz, Schaan. Edited by the Historical Association for the Principality of Liechtenstein. Vaduz 1999, pp. 430-435.
- Habitat improvement in Vaduzer Riet. On the Vaduz citizens' cooperative website, accessed on March 31, 2019
- Anna Merz: Dachseck (Dachsegg). In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein . December 31, 2011 .
- Alois Ospelt: Pradamee. In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein . December 31, 2011 .
- Alois Ospelt and Anna Merz: Hahnenspiel. In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein . December 31, 2011 .
- Alois Ospelt: Valorsch (Alp). In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein . December 31, 2011 .
- Pierre Raton: Liechtenstein State and History. 1969, pp. 14-16.
- Pierre Raton: Liechtenstein State and History. 1969, pp. 22-24.
- Paul Vogt: Bridges to the Past, 1990, p. 176.
- Pierre Raton: Liechtenstein State and History, 1969, pp. 74–78.
- Paul Vogt: Bridges to the Past, 1990, p. 52.
- Pierre Raton: Liechtenstein State and History, 1969, pp. 139–145.
- Ulrike Mayr, Patrick Sele: Vaduz (community). In: Historical Lexicon of the Principality of Liechtenstein . December 31, 2011 .
- Brigitte Günther: St. Gallen city and canton. 2009, p. 768.
- Liechtenstein National Museum . Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Liechtenstein Postal Museum ( Memento from May 14, 2008 in the Internet Archive ). Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Brigitte Günther: St. Gallen city and canton. 2009, p. 764.
- Cornelia Herrmann: The art monuments of the Principality of Liechtenstein. 2007, p. 275.
- Brigitte Günther: St. Gallen city and canton. 2009, p. 765.
- Cornelia Herrmann: Die Kunstdenkmäler des Fürstentums Liechtenstein, 2007, pp. 228-231.
- Günther Meier: Customs of Liechtenstein. Old customs New customs. 2005, p. 240.
- Cornelia Herrmann: The art monuments of the Principality of Liechtenstein. 2007, pp. 247-248.
- Cornelia Herrmann: The art monuments of the Principality of Liechtenstein. 2007, pp. 250-251.
- Cornelia Herrmann: The art monuments of the Principality of Liechtenstein. 2007, pp. 248-250.
- Günther Meier: Customs of Liechtenstein. Old customs New customs. 2005, p. 245.
- Liechtenstein State Parliament building . Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Old Rhine Bridge Vaduz (PDF; 2.3 MB). Liechtenstein fatherland. November 27, 2009.
- Population statistics: Preliminary results December 31, 2018 (PDF) Retrieved September 1, 2019 .
- Tables 2015 Census - Population Structure Volume 1. (XLS) Retrieved on September 1, 2019 .
- Formerly: Liechtenstein Bus Establishment. See law of June 29, 2011 on the "LIECHTENSTEINmobil transport company"
- Liechtenstein bus . Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- The Global Financial Centers Index 23. (PDF) Retrieved on July 13, 2018 (English).
- Employment statistics, December 31, 2014. Statistics Office (AS), Principality of Liechtenstein, p. 56, accessed on March 26, 2016 ( PDF ; 809 kB )
- Liechtenstein Cup . Retrieved April 25, 2011.
- Climate table. (PDF) In: meteoschweiz.admin.ch. meteoschweiz, accessed on April 5, 2018 .