Countries of the continental European legal system usually do not have a uniform supreme court. There are often separate supreme courts and a constitutional court according to legal areas . Often the competencies are separated according to ordinary jurisdiction and public or administrative jurisdiction , but they can also be further diversified.
In addition to the national supreme courts listed below, there are various international and supranational courts .
European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA)
As the supreme courts at the federal level, Belgium owns
and also a constitutional court for constitutional disputes.
- the Federal Court of Justice (BGH) in Karlsruhe (5th criminal senate in Leipzig),
- the Federal Administrative Court (BVerwG) in Leipzig,
- the Federal Fiscal Court (BFH) in Munich,
- the Federal Labor Court (BAG) in Erfurt and
- the Federal Social Court (BSG) in Kassel.
Plans to establish a Supreme Federal Court , as provided for in the original version of the Basic Law, were abandoned in 1968. In its place, the joint senate of the highest federal courts meets as required and has to decide on legal issues if a supreme federal court wishes to deviate from the decision of another highest federal court or the joint senate on a legal issue. The Senate is administered by the BGH.
The Federal Audit Office is not a court.
In Finland there are
- a supreme court for civil and criminal matters (Finnish Korkein oikeus, Swedish Högsta domstolen),
- a Supreme Administrative Court (Korkein hallinto-oikeus in Finnish, Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen in Swedish) for administrative matters.
The top courts in France are
- in civil and criminal matters, the Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation) and
- for administrative matters, the Council of State ( Conseil d'État ).
The Constitutional Council ( Conseil constitutionnel ) is responsible for constitutional questions.
The top courts in Greece are
- the Areopagus , which as an institution since the ancient times there
- the Council of State (Συμβούλιο της Επικρατείας / Symvoúlio tis Epikratías).
The Supreme Tribunal (Ανώτατο Ειδικό Δικαστήριο / Anótato Idikó Dikastírio) is responsible for constitutional issues.
The top dishes in Italy are
- for civil and criminal matters the Court of Cassation ( Corte Suprema di Cassazione ) and
- for administrative matters the Council of State ( Consiglio di Stato ).
The Constitutional Court ( Corte Costituzionale ) is responsible for constitutional issues.
The highest courts in Liechtenstein are
- the Supreme Court (for civil and criminal law),
- the administrative court (for administrative law issues),
- the State Court for Constitutional Issues.
The supreme courts in Lithuania are
- the Supreme Court of Lithuania and
- the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania (lit. Lietuvos Vyriausiasis Administracinis Teismas ).
The Netherlands have
- a high council as the highest court for civil, criminal and tax law and
- a Council of State as the highest court for administrative law.
(Usually the highest courts supreme courts called) in Austria are
- the Constitutional Court (VfGH) and the Administrative Court (VwGH) for the area of public law (therefore they are also referred to as courts of public law ); Decisions on the merits of these tribunals fare as evidence, they are of grammatical gender ago Neutra ( " the knowledge"), and
- the Supreme Court (OGH) for the area of civil and criminal law , which usually decides through judgments and resolutions.
The Portuguese legal system has four supreme courts:
- Supremo Tribunal de Justiça (Supreme Court for Civil and Criminal Matters)
- Supremo Tribunal Administrativo (Supreme Administrative Court), with its own spatial structure at administrative courts, the Tribunais Administrativos e Fiscais
- Tribunal de Contas (Supreme Court of Auditors)
- Tribunal Constitucional de Portugal (Constitutional Court)
The Constitutional Court of Romania is responsible for constitutional issues.
The Russian Federation installed the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation .
In addition to the federal court in Lausanne , which is in most, but not supreme in all matters Court, the military Court of Cassation is the supreme court of (from the other branches of the judiciary independent) military justice . The Switzerland has established no independent Constitutional Court.
See also: Political system in Switzerland .
The top dishes in the Czech Republic are
- the Supreme Court of the Czech Republic ( Nejvyšší soud ČR ) and
- the Supreme Administrative Court ( Nejvyšší správní soud ),
both based in Brno .
The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic ( Ústavní soud ) in Brno is a separate type of court alongside the general court system.
See also: Political System of the Czech Republic .
The highest courts of Turkey are in accordance with Art. 146, 154 ff. Of the Turkish Constitution
- the constitutional court for constitutional disputes,
- the court of cassation for civil and criminal matters,
- the Council of State for Administrative Matters,
- the Military Court of Cassation as the final instance for judgments by the military courts,
- the High Military Administrative Tribunal for Military Administrative Matters and
- the jurisdiction conflict court for jurisdiction disputes between the courts.
Anglo-American legal family
The Supreme Court of Kenya has existed since 2011 .
The House of Lords was the highest court in the United Kingdom until October 1, 2009, and its seat was in London . The judicial functions of the House of Lords were withdrawn and the United Kingdom's own Supreme Court, based in London, was established.
United States of America
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States and is based in Washington DC . In addition, there is a Supreme Court in the jurisdiction of the respective state in all 50 states .