Supreme Court

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A supreme court or supreme court is a court of that judgments no longer generally appeals may be challenged. In other words, it is the last link in an instance train .

Countries of the continental European legal system usually do not have a uniform supreme court. There are often separate supreme courts and a constitutional court according to legal areas . Often the competencies are separated according to ordinary jurisdiction and public or administrative jurisdiction , but they can also be further diversified.

Most of the countries of the Anglo-American legal tradition ( common law ), on the other hand, have a single highest court, the Supreme Court .

In addition to the national supreme courts listed below, there are various international and supranational courts .

European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA)

The European Court of Justice (ECJ) , based in Luxembourg, is the highest judicial body of the European Union (EU) . The EFTA Court in Luxembourg exercises judicial control over the EEA Agreement .

Continental Europe


As the supreme courts at the federal level, Belgium owns

and also a constitutional court for constitutional disputes.


In Denmark there is a Højesteret as the highest court .


Court organization in Germany (the state constitutional courts are outside this scheme)

The highest federal courts are in Germany according to Article 95 paragraph 1 of the Basic Law

The Federal Constitutional Court (BVerfG) in Karlsruhe stands as a separate type of court alongside all other courts and oversees the constitution.

Plans to establish a Supreme Federal Court , as provided for in the original version of the Basic Law, were abandoned in 1968. In its place, the joint senate of the highest federal courts meets as required and has to decide on legal issues if a supreme federal court wishes to deviate from the decision of another highest federal court or the joint senate on a legal issue. The Senate is administered by the BGH.

The Federal Audit Office is not a court.

Not every federal court is a supreme court; the federal government also maintains the Federal Patent Court , the troop service courts and previously the Federal Disciplinary Court .


In Finland there are

  • a supreme court for civil and criminal matters (Finnish Korkein oikeus, Swedish Högsta domstolen),
  • a Supreme Administrative Court (Korkein hallinto-oikeus in Finnish, Högsta förvaltningsdomstolen in Swedish) for administrative matters.


The top courts in France are

  • in civil and criminal matters, the Supreme Court (Cour de Cassation) and
  • for administrative matters, the Council of State ( Conseil d'État ).

The Constitutional Council ( Conseil constitutionnel ) is responsible for constitutional questions.


The top courts in Greece are

The Supreme Tribunal (Ανώτατο Ειδικό Δικαστήριο / Anótato Idikó Dikastírio) is responsible for constitutional issues.


The top dishes in Italy are

The Constitutional Court ( Corte Costituzionale ) is responsible for constitutional issues.


The highest courts in Liechtenstein are


Supreme Court of Lithuania

The supreme courts in Lithuania are

The Lithuanian Constitutional Court oversees the constitution . All courts of justice are based in the Lithuanian capital Vilnius .


The Netherlands have


Norway's highest court for civil and criminal law is the Norwegian Supreme Court , based in Oslo .


Jurisdiction in Austria

(Usually the highest courts supreme courts called) in Austria are


The Portuguese legal system has four supreme courts:


The supreme court in Romania is the Supreme Court and Cassation Court .

The Constitutional Court of Romania is responsible for constitutional issues.

Russian Federation

The Russian Federation installed the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation .


The highest courts in Sweden are: for civil and criminal matters the Högsta domstol (Supreme Court), for administrative law the Högsta förvaltningsdomstol (Supreme Administrative Court).


In addition to the federal court in Lausanne , which is in most, but not supreme in all matters Court, the military Court of Cassation is the supreme court of (from the other branches of the judiciary independent) military justice . The Switzerland has established no independent Constitutional Court.

See also: Political system in Switzerland .

Czech Republic

The top dishes in the Czech Republic are

both based in Brno .

The Constitutional Court of the Czech Republic ( Ústavní soud ) in Brno is a separate type of court alongside the general court system.

See also: Political System of the Czech Republic .


The highest courts of Turkey are in accordance with Art. 146, 154 ff. Of the Turkish Constitution

Anglo-American legal family


India has a Supreme Court .


There is a Supreme Court in the Republic of Ireland .


The State of Israel has established a Supreme Court .


In Liberia , there is a Supreme Court of Liberia .


There is a Supreme Court in Canada .


The Supreme Court of Kenya has existed since 2011 .


In Mauritius , the Supreme Court exists as a supreme court and a constitutional court.


In Namibia , whose legal system is both Anglo-American and Roman-Germanic, as in South Africa , the Supreme Court of Namibia exists as a supreme court as well as a constitutional court.

New Zealand

In New Zealand , the Supreme Court was installed on January 1, 2004 with the Supreme Court Act 2003 . The court started its work on July 1, 2004.


In Uganda , there is a Supreme Court of Uganda .

United Kingdom

The House of Lords was the highest court in the United Kingdom until October 1, 2009, and its seat was in London . The judicial functions of the House of Lords were withdrawn and the United Kingdom's own Supreme Court, based in London, was established.

United States of America

The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States and is based in Washington DC . In addition, there is a Supreme Court in the jurisdiction of the respective state in all 50 states .

East Asian legal family


Japan has a Supreme Court .

People's Republic of China

The People's Republic of China maintains the Supreme Court of the People's Republic of China .

Web links

Commons : Supreme Courts  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. Sixteenth law amending the Basic Law
  2. ^ The Wall Street Journal: A UK Court Without the Wigs
  3. Telegraph: New Supreme Court opens with media barred (accessed October 22, 2009)