Image of grace Mariahilf
|Maria Hilf (miraculous image)|
|Lucas Cranach the Elder , after 1537|
|78.5 x 47.1 cm|
|St. Jakob Cathedral in Innsbruck|
The miraculous image of Mariahilf is a work by Lucas Cranach the Elder , created after 1537. It is located in the high altar of Innsbruck Cathedral . The image of grace was copied very often. The motif became one of the most widespread images of the Virgin Mary in Tyrol , southern Germany and the Alpine region .
The picture of the Madonna shows a young woman dressed in the style of the common people, turned half-left, sitting in a three-quarter figure against a dark background, holding a naked child on her lap. The woman wears a blue petticoat and a red robe, her long blonde hair is combed back and is held in place by a headband. Her head is covered by a thin transparent veil, which also falls over the head of the child, who is erect and turned to the mother and grasps her cheek with his right hand. Except for the red-blue color combination of her clothing, which is typical for depictions of Mary, the woman has no recognizable attributes of Mary or saints . The image type, however, goes back to the Byzantine Eleousa ( Glykophilousa ), a form of representation of Mary with the child, with the child nestling against the mother's face.
Lucas Cranach, court painter from Electoral Saxony and friend of Martin Luther , painted the picture for the Saxon court in Dresden . Archduke Leopold V chose it as a present on a visit and brought the picture from Dresden first to Passau , where he was bishop , and then to Innsbruck , where he was regent. During the Thirty Years' War it was publicly venerated at Marian devotions , and around 1650 the Innsbruckers received it for their parish church, today's cathedral.
The picture became the epitome of Mary, the help of Christians and has become very widespread in countless copies and variations, especially in the Alpine region, as an altarpiece in churches and chapels, as religious facade painting and as a private devotional picture. The early copies include the copy donated in 1660 for the Mariahilf Church in Vienna or the copy painted in 1671 in the Church of St. Dionysus in Neunkirchen. The motif also found its way into votive pictures and other representations with an extended context.
In 1989 the picture was a stamp motif of the Austrian Post for the motif 25 Years Diocese of Innsbruck 1989 .
Copies of the miraculous image
Copies of the picture as a painting, partly also as sculptures, which often became the center of one's own pilgrimages , can be found among others. a. in:
- Amberg , Upper Palatinate : Maria Hilf pilgrimage church
- Bad Tölz , Upper Bavaria : City Parish Church of the Assumption
- Bamberg , Upper Franconia : Maria Hilf parish church in the Wunderburg district
- Benediktbeuern , Upper Bavaria : St. Benedict Monastery Church
- Beratzhausen , Upper Palatinate : Maria-Hilf pilgrimage church
- Berchtesgaden , Upper Bavaria : Maria Gern pilgrimage church
- Chamerau , Upper Palatinate : Parish Church of St. Peter and Paul
- Fuchsmühl , Upper Palatinate : Maria Hilf pilgrimage church
- Greding - Linden , Middle Franconia , Heimbach parish: Filialkirche Maria Hilf
- Iffeldorf , Upper Bavaria : St. Vitus parish church
- Landshut , Lower Bavaria : Maria Bründl pilgrimage chapel
- Neumarkt in the Upper Palatinate : pilgrimage church Maria Hilf
- Munich , Upper Bavaria : Parish Church of St. Peter
- Passau , Lower Bavaria : Mariahilf pilgrimage church
- Pleinfeld , Middle Franconia : Hueber Chapel
- Schwandorf , Upper Palatinate : Parish and monastery church to Our Lady of the Kreuzberg
- Tödtenried , Swabia : Parish Church of St. Katharina
- Vilgertshofen , Upper Bavaria : Pilgrimage Church to Our Lady of Sorrows
- Vilsbiburg , Lower Bavaria : Maria Hilf pilgrimage church
- Weßling - Grünsink , Upper Bavaria : Maria Hilf pilgrimage church
- Koblenz-Neuendorf : Parish Church of St. Peter
- Wasserliesch : Parish Church of St. Aper
- Trier : Maria-Hilf chapel
- Trier: Parish Church of St. Gangolf
State of Salzburg
- Faistenau : Parish Church of St. Jakobus d. Ä.
- Salzburg : Erhardkirche , in the southern oratory
- Salzburg : Maria Plain , on the wall of the 1st eastern side chapel
- Erl : Parish Church of St. Andreas
- Innsbruck , Mariahilf-St. Nikolaus : Mariahilfkirche
- Kitzbühel : Church of Our Lady
- Kufstein : pilgrimage church Maria Hilf
- Vienna-Liesing : Parish Church Atzgersdorf
- Vienna-Mariahilf : Mariahilfer Church . (Model of the high altar with a small copy of the miraculous image in the Bavarian National Museum in Munich ).
- Malegno : Chiesa di Sant'Andrea Vecchia
- Bolzano : Parish Church of the Assumption of Mary
- Meran : Parish Church of St. Nicholas
- Scena : Castle chapel Castle Scena
- Lana : Capuchin Church
- Selva in Val Gardena : Parish Church of the Assumption of Mary
- St. Peter (Villnöß) : cemetery chapel
- Rovereto : Archparish Church of San Marco
- Segonzano: Sanctuary of the "Madonna dell'Aiuto" pilgrimage church
- Fiera di Primiero: Church "Madonna dell'Aiuto"
- Lodrone di Storo
- Castel Pietra near Calliano
- Menzingen , Canton of Zug : Pilgrimage and monastery church of the Capuchin convent Maria Hilf on the Gubel
- Lucerne : Mariahilfkirche
- Anenská Studánka , Děčín District, Mariahilf Chapel
- Duchcov , Mariahilf Chapel
- Filipov , Basilica ♁ (Bazilika Panny Marie Pomocnice křesťanů)
- Karlsbad - Zettlitz , pilgrimage church St. Anna
- Kostomlaty pod Milešovkou , Mariahilf Chapel
- Kravaře , Mariahilf Chapel
- Luditz - Maria Stock , pilgrimage church of St. Maria Visitation
- Eisenstein market , parish church of the Virgin Mary of the Star (Panna Maria Pomocná z Hvězdy)
- Rožmitál na Šumavě , Church of Our Lady Help
- Teplice nad Metují , Church of Our Lady of Help
- Železná Ruda , Church of Our Lady of Help
- Brtnice Mariahilf Chapel
- Fulnek - Holy Trinity Church
- Nezamyslice Mariahilf Chapel
- Olomouc Nová street Mariahilf Church
- Mariahilf Chapel (Znojmo)
- Bílovec Mariahilf Chapel
- Bruntál Maria Hilf pilgrimage church
- Maria Hilf pilgrimage site near Zlaté Hory
- Schankweiler , Rhineland-Palatinate : Schankweiler Klause , high altar
- Warsaw , Poland : Passauer Marienbild in Warsaw by the sculptor Giuseppe Bellotti
- Martina Stifter: The Mariahilf picture . Looked closely. In: Tauern window . 2004, p. 96–99 (  , predoi.org [PDF; accessed on October 3, 2018] about the Cranach image of grace in St. Jakob in Innsbruck and its influence on representations in Prettau , Tyrol).
- Cathedral of St. Jakob (Innsbruck): The miraculous image "Mariahilf"
- The miraculous image of Sulz (with history of the Maria-Hilf cult)
- On the history of the veneration of Maria Hilf in Bavaria
- Max J. Friedländer and Jakob Rosenberg: The paintings of Lucas Cranach , Basel and Stuttgart 1979, No. 393
- z. B. Votive picture from 1850 in the Museum of European Cultures, Berlin, Inv. No. D (32 K 254) 343/1961
- Sulz parish in the Vienna Woods: Connected in Christ ( Memento from February 19, 2005 in the Internet Archive ). In: stephanscom.at .