from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Duchcov coat of arms
Duchcov (Czech Republic)
Paris plan pointer b jms.svg
Basic data
State : Czech RepublicCzech Republic Czech Republic
Historical part of the country : Bohemia
Region : Ústecký kraj
District : Teplice
Area : 1540.4408 ha
Geographic location : 50 ° 36 '  N , 13 ° 45'  E Coordinates: 50 ° 36 '15 "  N , 13 ° 44' 53"  E
Height: 201  m nm
Residents : 8,517 (Jan 1, 2019)
Postal code : 419 01
License plate : U
Street: Teplice - Lom
Railway connection: Ústí nad Labem – Chomutov
Status: city
Districts: 1
Mayor : Mgr. Zbyněk Šimbera (status: 2018)
Address: Náměstí Republiky 20/5
419 37 Duchcov
Municipality number: 567515
Website : www.duchcov.cz
Location of Duchcov in the Teplice district

Duchcov ( ˈduxt͡sof , German Dux ) is a city in the Czech Republic . It is located in the Teplitz district in the northern Bohemian Aussiger region .


Duchcov as seen from Dlouhá Louka ( Langewiese )

Geographical location

Duchcov is located at the foot of the Ore Mountains in the North Bohemian Basin , eight kilometers southwest of Teplice .

Community structure

No districts are shown for the city of Duchcov. Basic settlement units are Anger, Barbora ( Am Barbarateich ), Bažantnice ( Pheasantry ), Bílinské Předměstí ( Bilin suburb ), Duchcov-historické jádro, Hrdlovka ( Magnificent ), Křinec ( Giant Baths ), Liptice ( Liptitzova ), Pokrobit, U duchcorbit , Za bažantnicí and Za nemocnicí. The municipality is divided into the cadastral districts of Duchcov, Hrdlovka and Liptice.

Neighboring places

Haj (Haan) Jeníkov (Janegg)
Osek (Ossegg) Neighboring communities Lahošť (Loosch), Zabrušany (Sobrusan)
Bílina (Bilin) Ledvice (Ladowitz)


Republic Square at the Castle
Town hall and plague column
Dechanteikirche of the Annunciation
Dux Castle
Protestant church
Reform Realgymnasium
Monument to Walther von der Vogelweide

The first written mention of the place "Tockczaw" comes from the year 1240. Later the place belonging to the giant castle was named as Duchczow and Dux . In the middle of the 14th century, increasing numbers of Germans settled in the city, which was previously inhabited by Czechs. As early as 1389, the German population made up the majority of the citizens. The city also had a strong Jewish community. The first school was opened in 1390, headed by Master Jakob . At that time there was already a mayor and a court for the elderly. Next to the Romanesque St. George's Church, Agatha von Schumburg built a Dominican monastery after 1318 , which was dissolved again during the Hussite Wars . Until 1398 Dux belonged to the Lords of Riesenburg , after which Wilhelm von Wettin bought it from the completely indebted Borso VI. from. Since the trade was conducted without royal approval, it was the subject of a decades-long dispute. In 1412 the city passed to the Bohemian King Wenceslaus IV . In a peace treaty between the Marquis of Meissen and the Bohemian Crown in 1417, the city was returned to the Margrave of Meissen.

During the Hussite Wars , the city was burned down after the battle between Andreas Prokop ( Holý ) and Friedrich von Sachsen . It was only after the end of the Hussite Wars that it was rebuilt. At the same time, the disputes between the Bohemian crown and the Margraves of Meissen continued until the city was finally annexed to Bohemia on May 27, 1459 by the Treaty of Eger . On September 12, 1460 the city privileges were confirmed, the city received the city's coat of arms and seal as well as the right to brew beer from the Bohemian King Georg of Podebrady . The administration was transferred to Zbynko Zajíc von Hasenburg and then Prokop von Rabstein . As a result of the religious battles in Bohemia, there were repeated armed conflicts. Prokop's successor, Heinrich von Rabstein , even threatened the possessions of the Dukes of Saxony, who then carried out penal trains to Bohemia.

After the arbitration, the Lords of Sulewitz settled on the Riesenburg; Prince Paul Kaplirz de Sulewicz, moved his seat to the Duchcov Fortress in 1491 and left the castle to decay. In 1512 the new masters built a Renaissance town hall in the village . In 1527 the Dux estate was sold to Depolt Popel von Lobkowitz . Wenzel Popel von Lobkowitz expanded the Sulewitz town festivals into a castle.

During the Thirty Years War there were several occupations by Swedish troops, which burned down much of the city on August 5, 1634. After the last Lobkowitz ruling in Dux, Franz Josef, died childless, the widow Polyxena Marie von Lobkowicz (née von Talmberg ) took over the city, who married Count Maximilian von Waldstein in 1642 . His successor, the Bishop of Königgrätzer Johann Friedrich von Waldstein , had a brewery built in 1671 and, after his appointment as Archbishop of Prague, eased the serfdom of his subjects. The income from compulsory labor and other financial charges belonged to the city from now on. In 1675 the first brewery was built, and in 1675–1695 the castle was completely renovated. In 1680 Johann Friedrich von Waldstein raised the lordships of Dux and Oberleutensdorf to a family affidavit , thereby granting freedom to the city of Dux, which had previously been subject to it.

After Johann Friedrich's death, his brother Ernst Josef von Waldstein took over the rule. His nephew Johann Josef von Waldstein became a universal heir in 1707. Two years after the beginning of his reign, a large part of the city including the old town hall burned down on August 10, 1709. At the same time, the city experienced its greatest boom under the new owner. The castle was widened by two side wings, the Marienkirche was completed in 1721 and inaugurated on September 12, 1722 by the Leitmeritz bishop Johann Adam Wratislaw von Mitrowitz . In 1723 the construction of the St. Barbara Church and in 1728 the palace hospital with the Church of the Assumption of Mary was completed. In 1713 Johann Josef von Waldstein founded a manufacture for the manufacture of weapons. In the castle he opened the Waldstein gallery. After his death in 1731, his nephew Franz Josef von Waldstein took over the inheritance.

He enriched Dux with numerous artistic works, including statues from the workshop of Matthias Bernhard Braun . After the outbreak of the plague, from which his wife Josefa also died, he had the plague column of the Holy Trinity built.

During the Seven Years' War , the city, in which Count Emanuel Filibert von Waldstein ruled, was completely robbed by the Prussian army. After the war, the Count set up a stocking factory in Dux. In 1763 the first lignite shaft was put into operation.

The educated Josef Karl Emanuel von Waldstein succeeded him in 1774. He liked to surround himself with artists and scientists. In 1785 he brought the writer, globetrotter and adventurer Giacomo Casanova to the castle. He spent thirteen years in Dux as a palace librarian until his death in 1798. Most of his publications come from this time. Even Friedrich Schiller , Johann Wolfgang von Goethe , Ludwig van Beethoven and the Russian Tsar Alexander I were among his guests. After the death of Josef Karl Emanuel von Waldstein in 1814, his brother Adam von Waldstein , an important botanist, took over the rule. He rebuilt the castle in the classical style , laid out the English park in the castle garden and built a castle museum. In the years that followed, early deaths resulted in a rapid change in rule. In 1818 the city's citizen's hospital was built, for which the Dux-born confessor Joseph Preyßler donated 1514 guilders and 15 kreuzers to the city.

In 1831 the town of Dux / Duchcow / Duxovium consisted of a total of 170 houses with 1030 German-speaking residents. The free protective town of Dux comprised 157 houses with 887 inhabitants; the castle including 12 houses with 143 inhabitants formed the manorial share. The dean's church of the Annunciation and the school, which had three teachers, were under the patronage of a man . The free share was administered by a magistrate with a mayor and a certified council. The borough possessed an agricultural area of ​​806 yoke 279 square fathoms . 142 people were commercially active, 65 of them were master craftsmen and traders. The city had the privilege of holding four annual markets , and a weekly market was held on Wednesdays. In the authoritarian part there was a farmyard , a forester's house and a gardener's house, a brewery and a brandy distillery. Outside the city was the stately hospital. Dux was the parish for Liptice and Ladowitz ; the branch churches in Liptitz and Sobrusan were subordinate to the Dux deanery.

After the abolition of patrimonial Dux / Duchcov formed a municipality in the Leitmeritz district from 1850 and became the seat of a judicial district. The writers František Palacký and Frédéric Chopin visited the castle under Anton von Waldstein . The city also changed and expanded. The old gates were demolished and new businesses sprang up, including a sugar factory and a glass factory in 1849. In 1853, the owner Eduard Eichler added a porcelain factory .

During the Austro-Prussian War , the armies moving through brought cholera to Dux. The railway was built in the second half of the 19th century and opened in May 1867. Dux became an important traffic junction.

Dux became an important industrial city thanks to the coal mined , brickworks , lime works, foundries , ceramic factories and later glaziers . The mining industry brought more and more people to Dux and was almost its downfall. Due to the dismantling and the undercutting, parts of the city had to be torn down again and again. The industrial boom also had an impact on the population. At the beginning of the 19th century Dux still had 772 inhabitants, in 1900 there were already 11,921. The Czechs were only a minority.

However, the industry also needed well-trained skilled workers. A mountain technical school was therefore set up in 1872 . But mining also claimed victims. In mountain accidents in 1879, 1893, 1900 and the largest on January 3, 1934, over 240 miners were killed. When the thermal water ingress on February 10, 1879 at the Döllinger mine, 23 miners died. As a result, several pits in the district went under; the withdrawal of water from the healing springs of Töplitz and Loosch put the baths before the existential question. In 1881 Dux was connected to the telephone network, in 1892 the electric lighting was put into operation and in 1893 a post office was opened. The municipal museum was opened in 1896, and in the same year Dux became the seat of a district administration . In 1902 the Protestant church was consecrated, the plans came from the Dresden architects Schilling & Graebner . The district hospital was added in 1911 and the high school building in 1914. After the First World War , Dux was hit by an economic downturn.

After the establishment of Czechoslovakia in 1920, the city of Dux had 12,513 inhabitants, of which 5,965 were Czechs and on December 1, 1930 there were 13,040 inhabitants. Dux did not join Konrad Henlein's majority in the Sudeten German party in the period before the Second World War . In 1933, the head of the German anti-fascist and social democrat Karl Schlein , who fled into exile in Sweden on October 9, 1938 , shortly before the city was occupied by German troops . After the occupation, a large part of the Czech population was expelled into the interior of the country. As a result, the population fell to 9,646 by May 17, 1939. Until 1945 the city was the seat of the German district of Dux , district of Aussig , in the Reichsgau Sudetenland .

On May 8, 1945, the Czechoslovak National Committee under the leadership of Josef Skalník took over the fortunes of the city. On May 10, 1945, the Church of the Annunciation burned down as a result of shelling by the Soviet army , and with it some valuable art treasures were lost. Due to the Beneš decrees , most of the German population was expropriated and expelled in 1945. Only residents who opposed the occupation of the rest of Czech Republic by the German Reich on March 15, 1939 should be excluded . On May 22, 1947, Duchcov had 8,229 residents. Only gradually did the Czech population settle again. In 1961 the Okres Duchcov was abolished and the city was assigned to the Okres Teplice . Under the communist regime, other cultural monuments had to give way to mining, such as most of the castle park, the hospital and the Church of the Assumption of Mary. But traffic routes were also torn down and only partially rebuilt. In the course of the devastation of the municipality of Hrdlovka , the cadastre of Hrdlovka with Nová Ves was added to the city of Duchcov on January 31, 1975, the cadastre of Hrdlovka-Nový Dvůr fell to the city of Osek . On October 1, 1976, the corridors of the devastated Liptice parish were added to Duchcov. After the velvet revolution in the 1990s, some cultural objects and monuments were restored. Today Duchcov is a starting point for leisure activities due to its proximity to nature reserves.

Population development

Population development until 1945
year Residents Remarks
1830 00887 in 157 houses
1832 01,030 in 170 houses
1857 02,166 on October 31st
1871 04,100 in 350 houses
1900 12.001 mostly German residents
1930 13,040 of which 6,504 Germans and 6,285 Czechs
1939 09,646
Population since the end of the Second World War
year 1950 1961 1970 1980 1991 2001 2011 2017
Residents 12.002 12,449 12,210 10,554 8,913 8,780 8,487 8,359

Town twinning

  • Miltenberg , Germany, since November 16, 2004
  • Mulda , Germany, since December 6, 2005

Culture and sights

  • Duchcov Castle with castle park and Sphinx pond
  • Dechanteikirche Mariä Annunciation at the castle, it was built at the beginning of the 18th century by Johann Josef von Waldstein according to the last will of the Archbishop Johann Friedrich von Waldstein. The plans come from Jean Baptiste Mathey . The church was consecrated on September 13, 1722 by Bishop Johann Adam Wratislaw von Mitrowitz . The high altar was built in 1720 at the expense of Eleonore von Waldstein and is provided with a tabernacle made of reddish brown marble and an altar sheet by Wenzel Lorenz Reiner .
  • Market with Holy Trinity Column and Florian's Fountain
  • formerly Protestant Luther Church in Art Nouveau by Schilling & Graebner , now Hussite Church
  • Reform Realgymnasium, opened on May 22, 1927
  • Monument to Walthers von der Vogelweide
  • Gravestone of Giacomo Casanova in the Barbara Chapel
  • City cemetery with Mariahilf chapel and memorial for the victims of the mine disaster of 1900.


sons and daughters of the town

With a connection to the city


  • Pavel Koukal: Duchcov v zrcadle dějin. = Dux in the mirror of history. 2nd Edition. Kapucín, Duchcov 2005, ISBN 80-86467-10-4 .
  • Dux and the surrounding area. Guide with city map. Weigend, Dux 1913, ( available online as PDF and TIF files ).
  • Hanzlík, Jan; Bureš, Jiří: Duchcov / Dux - Moderní architektura (Modern Architecture by Dux), Duchcov, NIS Teplice, 2014, 36 pp.

Web links

Commons : Duchcov  - collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. uir.cz
  2. Český statistický úřad - The population of the Czech municipalities as of January 1, 2019 (PDF; 7.4 MiB)
  3. uir.cz
  4. uir.cz
  5. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia. Represented statistically and topographically. Volume 1: Leitmeritz Circle. Calve, Prague 1833, pp. 139-141.
  6. Yearbooks of the Bohemian Museum of Natural and Regional Studies, History, Art and Literature . Volume 2, Prague 1831, p. 198, paragraph 26.
  7. Johann Gottfried Sommer : The Kingdom of Bohemia . Volume 1: Leitmeritzer Kreis , Prague 1833, p. 139, item 1).
  8. Statistical overviews of the population and livestock in Austria . Vienna 1859, p. 39, right column .
  9. G. A Ressel (ed.): Address book of the political district of Teplitz. At the same time a topographical-historical manual . Teplitz 1873, p. 104.
  10. ^ Meyer's Large Conversational Lexicon . 6th edition, Volume 5, Leipzig and Vienna 1906, p. 316 .
  11. ^ A b Michael Rademacher: German administrative history from the unification of the empire in 1871 to the reunification in 1990. Dux district. (Online material for the dissertation, Osnabrück 2006).