A rosary , also outdated rosarium or paternoster cord , is a counting or prayer chain that is used for rosary prayer. But it can also be the name of the rosary itself. In its most common form, a regular sequence of the Lord's Prayer and ten Ave Maria are combined with the contemplation of the life, death and resurrection of Jesus Christ . Each of these rosary laws concludes with the doxology Glory to the Father . The rosary can be considered the most widespread Catholic form of worship today.
Origin of the term
The word rosary comes from the Latin word rosarium , which translates as 'rose garden'. In Christian iconography , rose plants symbolize Mary, the mother of Jesus . The motif of the Madonna in the Rosenhag as an example of a Hortus conclusus stands for the virginity of Mary. A wreath of roses on your head is also a symbol of virginity. In the Lauretanian litany , Maria is invoked as Rosa mystica ("mysterious rose").
The church Latin term rosarium was later transferred to the prayer chain and appears under its German name Rosenkranz for the first time in the 15th century, although the exact connection has not yet been clearly clarified. It is believed that the necklace originally consisted of rose petals strung together on a string.
As a "Marian life-Jesus meditation", the rosary combines the veneration of Mary and the piety of Christ, which Jesus Christ regards in his emptying and suffering. The thematic arc of the Christological meditation points extends from the proclamation of the Lord about the birth, work, suffering and death of Jesus Christ to his resurrection and the sending of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost .
Structure and manner of prayer
The rosary has 59 pearls. The opening of the rosary is prayed on a chain attached to the wreath with a cross and three small pearls, which are framed by two large pearls. This is followed by ten smaller balls on the wreath (for the Ave Maria ) and one large (for the Lord's Prayer and honor be to the Father ). One Lord's Prayer, ten Hail Marys and one glory to the Father make up a law.
Reduced rosary shapes
Reduced forms of the rosary are the so-called finger rosary (sometimes also referred to as the “scout rosary ”), the rosary ring or the rosary bracelet . This shape, also known as the soldiers' rosary, was created in the Middle Ages during the course of the Crusades . A decree is counted on such a rosary; prayed five times it makes a large rosary. There are also versions where the number of pearls is reduced to just five. An Ave Maria is prayed at each pearl, with a different secret added to it. The ring consists of a ring with ten elevations or ten small pearls and a cross.
The rosary is prayed as follows:
- Sign of the Cross , “In the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit. Amen. "( Mt 28.19 EU )
- Apostolic Creed , the cross is held in the hand
- Glory to the Father and the Lord's Prayer on the first great pearl
- three Ave Maria with inserted requests for Christian virtues on the following three little pearls,
- Jesus, who increases the faith in us,
- Jesus who strengthens hope in us,
- Jesus who ignites love in us.
- Doxology and then
- fifty Ave Maria, divided into groups of ten (laws). In each group of ten, a so-called rosary secret is inserted after the word "Jesus" , a belief that relates to the life and death of Jesus and his mother Mary .
Each law begins with our Father (at the big pearl) and ends with the glory be to the Father (before the next big pearl). Sometimes the Fatima prayer is added after the glory to the Father , but it is not part of the rosary. A closing prayer is formulated in the Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church :
- ℣: "Pray for us, holy Mother of God."
- ℟: "So that we may become worthy of the promises of Christ."
- ℣: “Let us pray. God, your only begotten Son, through his life, death and resurrection acquired us the treasures of eternal salvation. We venerate these mysteries in the Holy Rosary of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Let's imitate what they contain and get what they promise. Therefore, we ask through Christ, our Lord."
- ℟: "Amen."
In community, the rosary prayer can be embedded in a rosary worship in a church or chapel . The prayer of the entire rosary or individual movements is framed by suitable songs, Marian prayers and meditative impulses . The conclusion of the rosary is often a Marian antiphon , in some places the Lauretanian litany , in the rosary for the various usually the litany for the deceased .
There are currently twenty secrets - divided into groups of five - that are considered while praying the rosary. The term and the now traditional fifteen secrets go back to Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort (1673–1716). In October 2002, on the occasion of the 24th anniversary of his election as Pope , Pope John Paul II added a fourth group of five rosary mysteries, the light-rich mysteries, to the fifteen mysteries with the apostolic letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae .
The secrets are traditionally added to the first part of the Ave Maria as a final turn ( Clausula ) in the form of a relative clause , e.g. B .: "... blessed is the fruit of your body, Jesus - who rose from the dead".
Joyful secrets (gaudii mysteria)
The joyful mysteries (also joyful rosary ) consider the incarnation of God and the hidden life of Jesus.
German Latin Jesus whom you, o virgin, received from the Holy Spirit ( Lk 1.35 EU ) quem Virgo concepisti Jesus whom you, O virgin, carried to Elisabeth ( Lk 1.39–56 EU ) quem visitando Elisabeth portasti Jesus whom you, o virgin, gave birth in Bethlehem ( Lk 2,1-20 EU ) quem Virgo genuisti. Jesus whom you, o virgin, offered up in the temple ( Lk 2,22-24 EU ) quem in templo praesentasti Jesus whom you, O virgin, found again in the temple ( Lk 2,41-52 EU ) quem in templo invenisti
Painful Secrets (doloris mysteria)
The painful mysteries (also painful or painful rosary ) consider the passion of Jesus Christ.
German Latin Jesus who sweated blood for us ( Lk 22.44 EU ) qui pro nobis sanguinem sudavit Jesus who was scourged for us ( John 19.1 EU ) qui pro nobis flagellatus est Jesus, who was crowned with thorns for us ( Jn 19,2 EU ) qui pro nobis spinis coronatus est Jesus, who carried the heavy cross for us ( Joh 19.17 EU ) qui pro nobis crucem baiulavit Jesus who was crucified for us ( Joh 19,18 EU ) qui pro nobis crucifixus est
Glorious secrets (gloriae mysteria)
The glorious mysteries (also glorious rosary ) consider the resurrection of Christ.
German Latin Jesus, who rose from the dead ( Lk 24.6 EU ) qui resurrexit a mortuis Jesus ascended to heaven ( Acts 1, 9–11 EU ) qui in caelum ascendit Jesus, who sent us the Holy Spirit ( Acts 2,1-13 EU ) qui Spiritum Sanctum misit Jesus, who took you, O virgin, into heaven ( 1 Cor 15: 22-23 EU ) qui te, Virgo, assumpsit. Jesus who crowned you, O virgin, in heaven ( Rev 12,1 EU ) qui te, Virgo, in caelis coronavit.
Luminous secrets (lucis mysteria)
The light-rich mysteries (also light-rich rosary ) consider some particularly significant moments of the public life and work of Jesus, such as his baptism in the Jordan by John , the miracle at the wedding in Cana , the proclamation of the kingdom of God , his transfiguration on Mount Tabor and the Institution of the Eucharist at the Last Supper in Jerusalem.
German Latin Jesus who was baptized by John ( Lk 3: 21-22 EU ) qui apud Iordanem baptizatus est Jesus who revealed himself at the wedding in Cana ( Jn 2 : 1–12 EU ) qui ipsum revelavit apud Canense matrimonium Jesus who announced the kingdom of God to us ( Mk 1.14 EU ) qui regnum Dei annuntiavit Jesus who was transfigured on the mountain . ( Lk 9.28-36 EU ) qui transfiguratus est Jesus, who gave us the Eucharist ( Mk 14,17-25 EU ) the eucharistiam instituit
It is also possible to formulate your own rosary secrets. An example of this is provided by the Catholic prayer and hymn book Praise God (No. 4, Section 8) with the comforting secrets of the comforting rosary , which consider the coming kingdom of God :
German Latin Jesus reigning as King. ( Rev 19.6 EU ) qui rex regnat Jesus, who lives and works (rules) in his church. ( Eph 1,22–23 EU ) qui in ecclesia sua vivit et regnat Jesus who will come again in glory. ( 2 Petr 3.8–13 EU ) qui iterum venturus est in gloria Jesus judges the living and the dead. ( Rom 2,1–11 EU ) qui iudicabit vivos et mortuos Jesus who will complete everything. ( 1 Cor 15.35–58 EU ) qui omnia perficiet
More recently (2015) the "Peace Rosary" (German Liturgical Institute) has been widely used:
- Jesus, at whose birth angels proclaimed peace ( Lk 2,8-14 EU )
- Jesus, who guides our steps on the path of peace ( Lk 1.68-79 EU )
- Jesus, who extolled blessed, the peacemakers ( Mt 5: 3–12a EU )
- Jesus, who sent his disciples to bring peace ( Mt 10,7-13 EU )
- Jesus, who left us his peace ( Joh 14,23-27 EU )
In the Catholic Church it is customary to pray the mysteries of the Rosary on a weekly basis according to the following scheme:
Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday glorious secrets joyful secrets painful secrets glorious secrets luminous secrets painful secrets joyful secrets
Before the mysteries rich in light were introduced, the joyful mysteries were traditionally considered on Thursdays and the glorious mysteries on Saturdays.
The Catholic rosary prayer developed from early medieval prayers, in which the Our Father (paternoster cord) and, from the 11th century onwards, the Ave Maria was repeated one hundred and fifty times in groups of ten and connected with religious secrets and biblical texts about the life and salvation work of Jesus Christ . The oldest written mention of a string with raised stones as a chain for repeated prayers in the Latin Church attributes this prayer string to the Anglo-Saxon noblewoman Lady Godiva († around 1085):
"The circlet of precious stones which she had threaded on a cord in order that by fingering them one after another she might count her prayers exactly were to be placed on a statute of the Blessed Virgin Mary."
In the 12th century the custom emerged that in monasteries the conversations , who mostly could not read or could not speak Latin, performed other prayers instead of the Latin psalms of the Liturgy of the Hours . In addition to the Lord's Prayer, the Ave Maria also appears as a substitute prayer for the Psalms, the latter especially among the Cistercians and Carthusians . The name Marienpsalter came up for a series of 150 Ave Maria, based on the 150 psalms of the Bible .
The Old Passional , a Middle High German collection of legends without naming the author, compares the Ave Maria with a heavenly rose. This is where the name Rosary for the counting chain and an Ave Maria prayer series is based on. One of the legends is about a devotee of Mary who used to decorate a statue of Mary with a wreath of roses. In one apparition he is said to have received the message one day that Mary was more happy about another rosary, namely about 50 Ave Maria prayed. These would become roses in her hands, from which she could weave the most beautiful wreath.
The Cistercian abbot Stephan von Sallay († 1252) formulated a preliminary form of the fifteen rosary secrets. The Carthusian Heinrich von Kalkar (1328–1408) gave birth to the habit of praying ten Ave Maria five times and starting each block of ten with an Our Father and ending with doxology. Even in the late Middle Ages there was the profession of paternoster maker , who made beads for rosaries from bones and other materials. Rosaries from this period often had a colored tassel instead of a cross .
The form of the rosary commonly used today was created in Advent 1409. The Trier Carthusian Dominic of Prussia († 1460) summarized the events of the life of Jesus in fifty final sentences ( Clausulae ), which followed the (then only common) first part of the Ave Maria . Adolf von Essen , also from this Charterhouse , shortened the clausulae to fifteen. The legend, first spread by Alanus de Rupe around 1468, is widespread that St. Dominic , founder of the Dominican Order , received the present form of the rosary in 1208 during an apparition of the Virgin Mary and is said to have introduced it into his order. Legend has it that Mary gave the rosary to St. Dominic as a weapon in the fight against the Albigensians .
In his bull Ea quae of May 9, 1479, Pope Sixtus IV recommended the daily praying of the rosary. In 1508 the request “Holy Mary, Mother of God, pray for us sinners” was added to the Ave Maria. In his Breve Consueverunt of September 17, 1569, Pope Pius V finally laid down the text of the Ave Marias and regulated the form of the rosary for the whole Church.
19th century (Pope Leo XIII.)
- Encyclical Supremi Apostolatus Officio : The Rosary Past and Present (September 1, 1883)
- Apostolic letter Salutaris Zonen : The request Regina sacratissimi Rosarii - ora pro nobis ( Queen of the Holy Rosary, pray for us ) is inserted into the Litany of Loreto. (December 24, 1883)
- Encyclical Superiore anno : Formalities Concerning the Prayer of the Rosary (August 30, 1884)
- Encyclical Octobri mense : Month of the Rosary (September 22, 1891)
- Encyclical Magnae Dei Matris : The Rosary and the Christian Life (September 8, 1892)
- Encyclical Laetitiae sanctae : The Rosary and the Right Order of the Human Social Community (September 8, 1893)
- Encyclical Iucunda semper expectatione : The rosary as contemplation and prayer (September 8, 1894)
- Encyclical Fidentem piumque animum : Prayer as the Mediator of Graces (September 20, 1896)
- Encyclical Vi è ben noto : On the Rosary and public life (only for Italy, September 20, 1887)
- Encyclical Augustissimae virginis mariae : The Rosary Brotherhood and the Angels of Heaven (September 12, 1897)
- Encyclical Diuturni temporis The Rosary (September 5, 1898)
- Apostolic letter Parta humano generi : On the consecration of the Rosary Basilica in Lourdes and the Rosary as protection against heresies (September 8, 1901)
20th and 21st centuries
After Leo XIII. the following papal writings on the rosary appeared:
- Pope Pius XI : Encyclical Ingravescentibus malis : The Prayer of the Rosary as a Refuge for the Church (September 29, 1937)
- Pope Pius XII : Encyclical Ingruentium malorum : The Rosary Prayer in Times of Need (September 15, 1951)
- Pope John XXIII : Encyclical Grata recordatio : The month of the Rosary in October in preparation for the Second Vatican Council (September 26, 1959)
- Pope John XXIII: apostolic letter Il religioso convegno also known as "Marialis Rosarii" : The rosary as a prayer for peace (September 29, 1961)
- Pope Paul VI : Encyclical Christi matri rosarii : Call to the Rosary as a prayer for peace (September 15, 1966)
- Pope Paul VI: Apostolic Letter Recurrens mensis october : October as the month of the rosary (October 7, 1969)
- Pope Paul VI: Apostolic Letter Marialis Cultus (No. 42–55): Reference to the biblical character of the words of prayer and motifs for reflection (February 2, 1974)
- Pope John Paul II : Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariae : Introduction of the “mysteries rich in light” and proclamation of the year from October 2002 to October 2003 as the “Year of the Rosary” (October 16, 2002).
Rosary Festival and Rosary Month
On October 7, 1571 , the Catholic naval force under Juan de Austria defeated the Turkish Mediterranean fleet in the naval battle of Lepanto . The victory was attributed to the “storm of prayer”, in which the rosary was prayed across Europe in the run-up to the sea battle. As a result, Pope Gregory XIII donated. 1573 the feast of the Rosary as the day of remembrance of Our Lady of Victory and added it to the liturgical calendar. After the victory over the Turks at Peterwardein on August 5, 1716 Pope Clement XI. the feast of a feast for the whole Church, celebrated on the first Sunday in October. Pope Pius X combined this day of remembrance with the day of remembrance of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Rosary (Beatae Mariae Virginis a Rosario) and set it to be October 7th. The festival has been celebrated since 1960 as the feast of Our Lady of the Rosary .
In 1884 Pope Leo XIII. October as the month of the rosary. Pope John XXIII recommended the month of October, the month of the Rosary, in preparation for the Second Vatican Council . Pope Paul VI 1969 dedicated an apostolic letter to October as the month of the rosary.
Other forms of the rosary
In addition to the common shape of the rosary, there are various other rosary shapes in the Catholic Church, which differ in the number of beads and the arrangement of the prayers. There are also approaches in the Evangelical Lutheran Church to use the rosary for prayer.
The Rosary of Mercy also contains five laws; however, only an Ave Maria is spoken at the beginning. The clausulae refer to divine mercy in Jesus Christ and the Eucharist. The Mercy Rosary goes back to the visions of the Polish nun Faustyna Kowalska (1905–1938).
Rosary of Our Lady of Tears
The Rosary of Our Lady of the Tears consists of 49 small pearls, each divided by seven larger pearls for the seven laws. In addition, three small pearls and the medal of Our Lady of Tears are attached to a small chain extension. In the sequence of prayer no creed , no Our Father or the Ave Maria is prayed, they are replaced by other prayers.
Small rosary to the baby Jesus
The little rosary for the baby Jesus consists of 15 pearls, divided into groups of three and twelve. Jesus himself is said to have revealed this “little rosary” to the Discalced Carmelite Margarita Parigot of the Holy Sacrament in 1636 with the request to make it known among the faithful.
The Christ Rosary
The Christ Rosary was created in the 1960s through the efforts of the members of the Evangelical Michaelsbruderschaft , Rudolf Ehrat, Herben Golzen and Walter Stökl, to create a prayer that was closely based on the Catholic rosary, which, in contrast to the traditional rosary, does not contain the Ave Maria and can therefore also be prayed and used ecumenically by Protestant Christians. Instead , the prayer from the devotion to the cross: "We adore you, Lord Jesus Christ and praise you, because through your holy cross you have redeemed the world" is prayed repeatedly.
The wound rosary
The wound rosary goes back to the visions of the lay sister Marie-Marthe Chambon (1841–1907). She is said to have received the prayers of the invocation and sacrifice of the five wounds of Christ from Jesus Christ himself. By praying the rosary, sinners should be converted.
Related forms of prayer
Also in other Christian denominations and non-Christian religions there are prayers that are offered on counting chains. The term rosary is occasionally used regardless of the origin of the term in Marian worship. In the Orthodox Church , the rosary has a long tradition as a counting chain for the Jesus prayer . The Anglican Prayer Beads combine elements of the Catholic and Orthodox rosary.
In Islam , Buddhism , Hinduism and other non-Christian religions there are also prayer chains with which meditative prayers are performed. In Islam this is the tasbih , in Buddhism and Hinduism it is the mala .
The orthodox prayer cord
The prayer cord, called Chotki in Russian and Komboskini in Greek , does not consist in its original form of pearls, but of a cord into which knots are tied, on which the Jesus prayer is performed. The closed cord stands as a symbol for the never-ending prayer (“Pray without ceasing”). It is used in the Orthodox tradition when praying for Jesus, not so much to count the prayers, but as an aid to concentration and a steady rhythm. In the Orthodox Church, monks and nuns receive the prayer cord for profession .
According to Russian custom, times of prayer for the Liturgy or attending the liturgy can be replaced by reciting a certain number of prayers for Jesus. In this way, the Liturgy of the Hours can be kept even when the relevant books are not available. The prayer cord helps count the prayers in such cases.
The (old) Orthodox Lestowka
The Lestowka , a kind of rosary made of leather or other material, is particularly in use among the so-called Old Orthodox . This prayer aid is usually widened at both ends, which is intended to express a special symbolism.
The Anglican rosary
The Anglican Rosenkranz ( Anglican prayer beads ) is contains a relatively new form of prayer, the elements of the Catholic and Orthodox rosary. In the 1980s, Lynn Bauman developed the shape of the Anglican rosary, which consists of a cross and 33 pearls. There is no fixed form for the Anglican rosary prayer. Every prayer can put together the prayers that he says on the individual pearls. For example, a series of prayer is known that includes the Trisagion and the Jesus prayer .
Pearls of faith
The “ Pearls of Faith ” were developed in 1996 by Martin Lönnebo , a bishop of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Sweden . With the chain consisting of 18 pearls, each pearl has a meaning, stands for a question of life, a thought or a prayer. There are no fixed formulations of prayer. For each pearl, a meditation is held or a prayer is said on the corresponding topic. The beginning and end of the chain is a large golden pearl, the pearl of God. This is followed by a pearl of silence, an ego pearl, a baptismal pearl, another pearl of silence, a desert pearl, again a pearl of silence, a pearl of serenity, another pearl of silence, two pearls of love, three secret pearls, one Pearl of the night, another pearl of silence, a pearl of resurrection and another pearl of silence.
The British Medical Journal reported in 2001 that a study by the University of Pavia found that praying rosaries and mantras that involve breathing six times a minute had positive psychological and possibly physiological effects.
From a psychological point of view, the rosary can be classified as repetitive meditation training , although this term has only recently emerged. The relaxation method of repetitive meditation training developed by music pedagogue Hermann Rauhe and preventive medicine specialist Gerd Schnack is more or less the secularized form of both the rosary prayer and the Jesus prayer , because it is based on the same principle , namely the rhythmic repetition of a formula that gradually follows the Breathing- oriented and with regular exercise has a very positive effect on the parasympathetic nervous system .
Rosaries in art and music
There are representations of the secrets of the rosary in some churches, such as in St. Sulpitius in Frastanz. The high altar represents the secrets of the painful rosary, the left side altar that of the joyful and the right side altar that of the glorious. In the parish church of Faistenau there are 15 round pictures with flower-shaped frames (as ring garlands) and connected with carved bows. They depict the 15 secrets of the three rosaries, each with their five laws. The representations were made in 1721 by Paul Mödlhammer from Neumarkt am Wallersee .
There is also the representation of the Madonna of the Rosary, which is particularly widespread in Spain and Italy, where many churches have their own chapels of Our Lady of the Rosary. Well-known representations of Rosary Madonnas created a. a. Lorenzo Lotto , Bartolomé Esteban Murillo , Guido Reni , Luca Giordano .
Station paths (rosary paths)
Station paths (also: station paths) for the secrets of the rosary are available, for example, in Maria Plain near Salzburg (Baroque period, fifteen stations) - in Maria Plain there is also another Calvary from the Baroque period with five stations for the painful mysteries. A rosary park with 16 stations is located in Katzelsdorf, Lower Austria . The Weinhauser Rosenkranzweg begins behind the Weinhaus parish church in Vienna's 18th district. There is also a station path with 15 baroque steles between Waldsassen and Kappl .
Rosaries were already worn as jewelry in the Middle Ages. In the Baroque is this also was very popular, but is now more felt by Catholics as offensive.
In many oriental countries, the originally religious chains belong to male accessories and toys. These include, for example, the Greek Kombologia , which are also called worry pearls . They resemble the Islamic tasbih , which has also become fashion jewelery, especially among young men.
The baroque violinist and composer Heinrich Ignaz Franz Biber (1644–1704) composed a cycle of 15 violin sonatas (with basso continuo ) and a passacaglia on the rosary: the so-called rosary sonatas . It is one of the most difficult works for solo violin because it has to be brought into a different mood for each sonata (so-called scordatura ). They possibly originated in connection with the Salzburg Rosary Brotherhood .
In 2014 Pope Francis had boxes distributed in St. Peter's Square that looked like medicine packaging. The box with the product name "Misericordina" showed a human heart surrounded by a wreath of thorns. Inside was a rosary, among other things. Since that event, this rosary has been sold thousands of times in various countries. In Germany it is sold under the name "Rosenkranz forte".
- Pope John Paul II: Apostolic Exhortation ROSARIUM VIRGINIS MARIAE on the Rosary. (Secretariat of the German Bishops' Conference (Ed.): Announcements of the Apostolic See 156. ) Bonn 2002 (available online:  ).
- Gemstones, strings of heaven. Rosaries and prayer beads . Catalog Salzburg Dommuseum 2008.
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- Elmar Gruber : The Rosary. Stations of Faith. Munich 1978, 9th edition 2000.
- Romano Guardini : The Rosary of Our Lady - Thoughts on the Rosary . Wuerzburg 1940.
- Leonard Holtz: Mystery and Meditation . Pray the rosary today . Paulinus, Trier 1976, ISBN 3-7902-0117-0 .
- Heribert Holzapfel : St. Dominic and the Rosary. (Publications from the Church History Seminar Munich; 12) Munich 1903.
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- Willibald Kirfel : The Rosary. Origin and Spread . Bonn 1947, Walldorf 1949, (reprint 2003).
- Wilfried Kirsch: Handbook of the Rosary . Dom-Verlag, Vienna 1950.
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- Rosaries and prayer cords . Auxiliary Bishop Heinrich Janssen's collection; Inventory catalog, Niederrheinisches Museum für Volkskunde und Kulturgeschichte e. V. Kevelaer. Kevelaer, 2013. ISBN 978-3-925747-16-8
- Jakob Hubert Schütz: The story of the rosary. Taking into account the mysteries of the Rosary and the litanies of Mary. Paderborn 1909.
- Daniel Tibi: Pearls of Faith. Introduction to praying the rosary. EOS, St. Ottilien 2009, ISBN 978-3-8306-7338-5 .
- Daniel Tibi: Rosary. Contemplation of the life of Jesus through the eyes of Mary (PDF file; 842 kB)
- Now and in the hour of death (documentary, Poland 2017, Polish title: Teraz iw godzinę śmierci , Spanish: Ahora y en la hora de la muerte. Historias del rosario , directors: Mariusz Pilis and Dariusz Walusiak, 95 min, ISBN 978- 83-7569-996-8 )
- John Paul II: Letter "Rosarium virginis Mariae" about the rosary (2002) (PDF file, 153 kB)
- Link catalog on the topic of rosary prayer at curlie.org (formerly DMOZ )
- The word decade to the thereby derives from the hymnal poetry meistergesang from
- John XXIII. : Il Religioso Convegno. la recita del Santo Rosario per la giusta pace tra le Nazioni. In: vatican.va. September 21, 1961, accessed November 12, 2019 (Italian).
- See Michael Rüdiger: Rosenkranz. III. Historically . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 8 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1999, Sp. 1303-1305 .
- Andreas Heinz: Rosary. II. In Christianity. In: Gerhard Müller u. a .: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Vol. XXIX , Berlin-New York 1998, ISBN 3-11-016127-3 , pp. 401-407.
- Cf. D. Johann Georg Krünitz: Economic Encyclopedia - Lemma Rosenkranz .
- See Andreas Heinz : Rosenkranz. II. In Christianity. In: Gerhard Müller u. a .: Theologische Realenzyklopädie, Vol. XXIX , Berlin-New York 1998, ISBN 3-11-016127-3 , pp. 404f.
- Cf. John Paul II,: Apostolic Letter Rosarium Virginis Mariæ . October 15, 2002, accessed September 29, 2019 .
- See ibid. No. 21
- Peace Rosary. In: liturgie.de ,. German Liturgical Institute, accessed on September 29, 2019 .
- Apostolic Exhortation Rosarium Virginis Mariæ , No. 38.
- William of Malmesbury: Gesta Pontificum Anglorum , 1125, Rolls Series 311.
- See Michael Rüdiger: Rosenkranz. III. Historically . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 8 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1999, Sp. 1303 f .
- See Schott : The Complete Roman Missal , Edition 1963, p. 1076.
- Rosary of the Holy Wounds. In: rosenkranzgebete.de. Retrieved July 26, 2019 .
- Luciano Bernardi, et al .: Effect of rosary prayer and yoga mantras on autonomic cardiovascular rhythms: comparative study. In: 323. British Medical Journal, 2001, pp. 1446–1449 , accessed September 29, 2019 .
- See Hermann Rauhe / Gerd Schnack: Top fit through doing nothing. RMT - the formula for optimal energy . Kösel, Munich 2002, ISBN 3-466-34446-8 , pp. 40–41, 100 ff.
- rosary ( Memento of March 2, 2016 in the Internet Archive )