Liturgy of the Hours

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Sheet from the Heures de Notre-Dame de Pitié , 15th century. Under the representation of the proclamation of the verse Lord, open my lips , which opens the Divine Office of each day.

The Divine Office ( Latin liturgia horarum ), also Holy Office or Divine Office ( "Divine Service"), Tagzeiten and Tagzeitengebet (Protestant) called, is part of the liturgy of the church . It is cultivated in the Orthodox , Oriental Orthodox , Catholic , Anglican and some Protestant churches . The jointly performed hourly prayer in a religious community is called choral prayer .

The liturgical books that contain the texts of the Liturgy of the Hours are called Horologion (Orthodox), Book of Hours (Catholic), Book of Common Prayer (Anglican) and Book of Times (Protestant). The shorter form of the monastic divine prayers, which was previously intended for the secular priests , was also called the breviary (lat. Breve "short").

Theological meaning

In the church tradition, the Liturgy of the Hours is interpreted as an answer to the apostolic words "Pray without ceasing!" ( 1 Thess 5:17  EU ) and the psalm word "Seven times a day I sing your praises and at night I get up to praise you" ( see Ps 119,62,164  EU ).

The purpose of the Liturgy of the Hours is to sanctify individual times of the day, to bring them to God with their particularity and at the same time not to let the prayer of the Church around the world tear down. The Second Vatican Council also designated the sanctification of the day as the goal of the Liturgy of the Hours.

The Liturgy of the Hours is based on the cycle of the day, the alternation of waking and sleeping, light and dark, work and rest and interprets the experience of time as divine revelation: “God saw that it was good. It was evening and there was morning: the third day. ”( Gen 1,12-13  EU ) In this way the cyclical experience of time - just like the linear experience of the past, present and future - is included in the practice of faith. Sunrise and sunset are highlighted: "The transition from darkness to light, like the transition from light to darkness, becomes the occasion and content for the liturgy."


From the tradition of Judaism to gather three times a day for prayer ( Shacharit , Mincha and Maariw ), the early church developed the preliminary stage of today's hourly prayer, which in early Christianity still had the character of a church service. The Christians continued the Jewish tradition of praying the Psalms of the Tanakh ; in addition, Christian hymns were sung and the Lord's Prayer was prayed. These prayers are an essential part of the Liturgy of the Hours and appear in the earliest traditional church ordinances of the Twelve Apostles and the Apostolic Tradition . The doctrine of the Twelve Apostles from the early 2nd century recommends praying the Our Father three times a day (8.3). The 3rd century apostolic tradition recommends that individuals pray when they get up, at the third , sixth and ninth hours of the day, before going to bed, at midnight and when the cock crow (35–36). The Apostolic Constitutions in the 4th century portray it similarly and connect the times of day with the Passion of Jesus : the crucifixion of Jesus at the third hour ( Mk 15.25  EU ), the darkness at the sixth ( Mk 15.33  EU ) and death Jesus at the ninth hour ( Mk 15.34  EU ). According to this Christian handbook, community prayer is preferable to individual prayer:

“So you, who are members of Christ, do not scatter by staying away from meetings! You, who have Christ as your head, stand in the most intimate communion with us according to his promise, do not worry about yourselves! Do not deprive the body of its members, nor divide it; Do not scatter his members, nor does concern for the needs of this life prefer to listen to the Word of God, but appears daily morning and evening to sing psalms and prayers in the house of the Lord; in the morning read psalm sixty-two, in the evening read psalm one hundred and forty. "

Monastic Office

The emergence of monasticism and the communities of consecrated virgins from the 3rd century onwards had a major influence on the development of the Liturgy of the Hours . The hermits formed monastic ( coinobitic ) communities. For these, as with the solitary hermits, the divine office was an essential part of their day. In his Μελέτη ( melétē , Greek , 'exercise, practice') the monk spoke the Psalter one after the other - starting with Psalm 1 and ending with Psalm 150 - or other biblical texts in a low voice and regardless of personal mood. This meditating murmur was later called "Ruminatio" (from the Latin ruminare , 'ruminate').

In the monastic communities, the monks met twice a day, as reported by Johannes Cassianus from Egypt: in the evening and before daybreak. This liturgy of the times of the day was more of a common reading than prayer. At each prayer time, twelve psalms were read by a lecturer. The other monks heard the text, crouching on the floor; Each psalm was followed by a period of silent prayer, standing with arms raised, followed by an oration given by the chief. After twelve repetitions, a scripture reading from the Old and New Testament concluded the prayer time. At the next time of prayer, the next twelve psalms were spoken in this way, and after Psalm 150 the cycle began again. This form of communal psalm prayer is referred to as the monastic type of daytime liturgy or the “monastic office”: The psalms are not selected for reasons of content, but rather the psalter is carried out as a continuous reading ( lectio continua or psalterio currente ).

Cathedral Office

Another basic type of the Liturgy of the Hours is called the "cathedral office". Its origin can be seen in the early Christian bishops' churches ( cathedrals ) and parishes, the liturgy of the day became the "basic form of church, congregational existence"; there was no daily celebration of the Eucharist at that time. In contrast to the lectio continua of the monastic type, in the cathedral office the psalms are selected on an occasion-specific basis, typically Ps 63  EU for the morning praise and Ps 141  EU for the evening praise of the congregation. The intercessory prayer is added as a new element . The ritual lighting of light was part of the cathedral vespers, sometimes in connection with the burning of incense . The Vespers was therefore often called Luzernar (celebration of light), even when the Vespers of the monastic hours of prayer no longer contained a rite of light.

The monastic office and the cathedral office did not represent exact historical figures, but rather characterize two structural elements in later orders of prayer, which can be derived as mixed forms on the one hand from the tradition of monasticism and on the other hand from the spiritual legacy of the liturgy at the city cathedrals.

The Rule of Benedict

The daily liturgy of the Latin or Western Church got its characteristic stamping for further history through the rule of the order that Benedict of Nursia gave to his monastery in Montecassino in 529 and which became mandatory for all monasteries in the Franconian Empire from 800 and superseded other monastic traditions. Benedict had an older monastic rule, the regula magistri . The Benedictine office comprises one nocturnal hour and seven hours a day; the day was counted from midnight to midnight. The selection of the psalms was now precisely determined for each hour every week. Each psalm appeared at least once a week. There were blocks of successive psalms as in the monastic office, other psalms were placed in a targeted manner or returned daily. Benedict summarized short psalms and divided long ones into sections. In addition to the psalms, there were also Old Testament cantics . Since Benedict, every hearing has had a hymn , albeit in different positions in the individual hearing. The chapter after the Psalms was followed by a responsory , in the small hearing a versicle . The hearing ended with intercession - in the small hearing with the Kyrie eleison - the Lord's Prayer and an oration .

The nocturnal hour was laid out as a vigil (night watch) and the hour with the most text. The first words were “Lord, open my lips so that my mouth may proclaim your praise.” ( Ps 51.17  EU ) The invitation - daily with Psalm 3 and Psalm 94 - was followed by two nocturnes with six psalms each, and a third on Sunday with three cantica, plus several readings each. The Laudes had seven psalms and a canticle; they began daily with psalms 67 and 51 and ended with psalms 148, 149 and 150 . The third, sixth and non had three psalms each and Vespers four. The three Psalms 4 , 91 and 134 were prayed daily for Compline. The Benedictus was already part of the lauds and the Magnificat to Vespers . Lucerne, which was important in the cathedral office, did not flow into the Benedictine order. Vespers was still called lucernarium in the Regula Magistri , but it no longer had a light rite. Vespers was also no longer the evening prayer of the monks, as dinner and necessary work took place after this hour. So Compline came into being as the prayer before bed. It ended in the Regula magistri with the verse "Lord, put a guard over my mouth, a weir at the gate of my lips." ( Ps 141,3  EU )

Development since the Middle Ages

In the Eastern Churches , the Liturgy of the Hours always retained its central role in congregational life. In the Western Church, on the other hand, the scope of the hours of prayer in the parish was brought into line with that of monastic life, so that all 150 psalms were prayed at least over the course of a week. Basically, this workload could only be mastered by religious and clergy . Since the 11th century the prayer of the hour has been compulsory for all clerics in the Western Church ( Latin officium 'service, duty'); From the 14th century, the text of the Office of Monks and Nuns also included the proprium of the daily Holy Mass .

In the Latin Church, due to its size and because of its mandatory implementation in Latin, the Liturgy of the Hours lived on almost exclusively as a prayer for religious and clergymen ( “Breviary Prayer” ) until the Second Vatican Council . In the 16th century a cross breviary was in use for several decades , which was specially tailored to the prayer of the individual cleric. Pope Pius V banned it with the introduction of the Breviarium Romanum in 1568, but it strongly influenced the Anglican Book of Common Prayer . Pope Pius X undertook a thorough reform of the breviary in 1911.

For laypeople - including lay brothers and converseers in the monasteries who are ignorant of reading and Latin, as well as the sisters who have been active in charitable sister congregations in modern times - alternative forms were formed, such as the Officium beatae Mariae virginis , which then prayed the rosary up to three times a day Ave Maria repeated 150 times or praying the Angelus in the morning, at noon and in the evening.

In the course of the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council , with the entry into force of the Editio typica Liturgia Horarum iuxta ritum Romanum by the Apostolic Constitution Laudis canticum on November 1, 1970, the scope of the Liturgy of the Hours in the Catholic Church was considerably reduced. Today, five to six times of prayer ( Laudes , optionally one of the small hours , Vespers , Compline and the reading chamber ) are prayed and the psalms (with a few omissions, such as the so-called curse psalms ) in the Roman book of hours are distributed over a cycle of four weeks ( Four-week psalter ). In addition, the Liturgy of the Hours can be celebrated in the national language.

In the Protestant and Anglican churches, the development of the Liturgy of the Hours took very different directions after the Reformation. Martin Luther emphasized above all the educational value of the Latin Liturgy of the Hours for the pupils in the higher (Latin) schools. Accordingly, it was customary for centuries that the daily prayer (often reduced to three times of prayer in the morning, noon and evening) was generally performed by the students in the local schools. In many places, Vespers was initially retained as a church service with a sermon by the pastor. As early as 1525 Thomas Müntzer experimented with a German version of the three times daily hourly prayer in Allstedt, here too the pupils of the city's Latin school were responsible for the execution. These traditions mostly broke off in the Protestant Church during the Enlightenment and only survived in places with renowned school choirs such as Leipzig or Dresden. In the Anglican Church, too, forms belonging to the Liturgy of the Hours, such as the Evensong, are essentially tied to the existence of boys' choirs or school choirs. A rediscovery of the Liturgy of the Hours did not take place in German Protestantism until the 20th century as a result of the so-called liturgical movement . Groups that emerged from this movement, such as the Michael Brotherhood or the Alpirsbach Church, rediscovered the Gregorian Liturgy of the Hours. The evangelical hymn book contains four completely executed models for a morning prayer (Mette), midday prayer, evening prayer (Vespers) and night prayer (Compline).

Confessional expressions

Regarding the sequence of prayer times, it should first be noted that the division is based on the ancient calendar. The day then was the time from sunrise to sunset; it was divided into twelve hours of equal length. How long such an hour was, depended on the length of the time between sunrise and sunset, so it was regionally different as well as different to the individual seasons. As an approximate conversion into our current time division, the first hour of the day can be set at around 6 a.m.

Roman Catholic

In the Catholic Church, the Liturgy of the Hours is the Church's prayer, which all priests , deacons , consecrated virgins , hermits and religious are obliged to perform. They pray the Divine Office not only for personal sanctification of the day, but also on behalf of the faithful entrusted to them and thus perform a liturgical service. Permanent deacons are formally only obliged to pray Laudes and Vespers . All other believers are also invited to practice, depending on their circumstances.

When practicing together, the psalms and other texts can be sung ( psalmody ) or spoken. In some monastic communities (especially in Bavaria and Austria ) it is also common to recite the psalms in the tonus rectus . The performance takes place standing, with the psalmody and the readings everyone is seated with the exception of the reader. At the beginning of every hour one usually crosses oneself; at the Gloria Patri , with the psalms and cantica close, one bows.

The eight original prayer times were shortened to seven, and in some places five. In the Catholic Church, after the Second Vatican Council, the sequence of the individual hours was also standardized , which originally showed considerable differences between the so-called small and large hours.

  • Invitatorium (Latin: "invitation"): The invitatorium always opens before the first prayer time ( Matutin or vigil, reading hearing or lauds) of the day. It consists of the call “ V / Lord, open my lips. R / So that my mouth proclaim your praise. ”As well as the responsibly recited Psalm 95 (“ Come, let us cheer before the Lord and shout to the rock of our salvation ”). This psalm can also be replaced by Ps 24, Ps 67 or Ps 100.
  • Reading hearing : It can be celebrated at any time of the day and is essentially used for the spiritual deepening of the Holy Scriptures as well as the theological tradition. Therefore these readings are also the focus; in the theological tradition, the so-called fathers' readings are mostly used, the works of earlier church fathers . The reading chamber can be expanded to form the vigil from which it has historically grown:
  • Matutin (German: "Mette") called: the first prayer time of the liturgical day. It is performed at night or in the early morning, in some religious communities also on the evening before. At the solemnity of the birth of the Lord (Christmas mass) and the solemnity of the resurrection of the Lord (Easter vigil ) the vigil is kept as a night watch. The Easter Vigil is for the Church the "mother of all vigils". In the Benedictine Rule , the eighth hour of the night is mentioned as the beginning of the vigil (cf. ibid. Chap. 8), which corresponds to around 2 o'clock. After the opening Lord open my lips, that my mouth proclaim your praise followed by a Psalm as a prayer Invitation ( Invitatory ) then the hymn . This is followed by two (or three) nocturnes . Each nocturn consists of several psalms followed by a longer reading. The reading of the first nocturn is taken from Holy Scripture, that of the second nocturn is taken from spiritual literature, especially from the Church Fathers . On Sundays and high feasts there is a third nocturn in which biblical cantica is sung instead of psalms . Afterwards the gospel of the Sunday or solemn festival is recited and the Te Deum is sung. The day's prayer concludes the Matins . The full vigil is only prayed by a few monastic orders. In the course of the liturgical reform of the Second Vatican Council, the reading chamber , which can be prayed at any time of the day, can take the place of the vigil, depending on the living conditions of the prayer . On Sundays, solemn festivals and celebrations, the reading chamber can be expanded into a vigil. After the Te Deum, three biblical cantica are prayed followed by the Gospel, one of the Easter gospels on Sundays and some solemn festivals, otherwise one of the gospels of the respective mass.
  • Laudes (actually Laudes matutinae , 'morning hymns of praise'): Laudes are held at dawn, usually between 6 a.m. and 8 a.m., as the rising sun is a symbol of Christ, to whom praise is offered with the lauds. They consist of the opening, hymn, morning and praise psalms, Old Testament canticum, scripture reading ( chapter ), responsory , Benedictus , preceses , our father , daily prayer and blessing. In the requests of lauds, prayers are made in a special way for the success and sanctification of the new day.
  • Prim , third , sixth , non ( small ears ): During the day, work should be interrupted three times by the so-called small ears: at the third hour (approx. 9 o'clock) from the third, at the sixth hour (approx. 12 o'clock) ) from the sixth and at the ninth hour, the traditional hour of Christ's death (approx. 3 p.m.), from the Non. In the past, the prim was also prayed at the first hour, usually immediately before the lauds. At the Second Vatican Council, however, the prim was abolished as a duplication of content to the lauds. The prim is only preserved in the prayer of the hours of the Carthusian monasteries and individual contemplative monasteries. In the hourly prayer of some active religious orders, the third, sixth and non are combined to form a daily hour .
  • Vespers : Vespers and Lauds are the pivotal points of the Liturgy of the Hours. Vespers consists of the opening, hymn, psalms, New Testament canticle, scripture reading (chapter), responsory, magnificat , intercessions, our Father, daily prayer and blessing. If Vespers is the last hour of the day that is prayed in community, the Marian antiphon usually follows . The day's work ends with Vespers. Every Sunday and every solemn festival (exception Easter) begins the evening before with the first Vespers, which is the liturgical opening of the Sunday or solemn festival. Vespers on the evening of the festival or Sunday is called the second Vespers.
  • Compline : Compline is the night prayer with which the day ends. As a rule, it is preceded by an examination of one's conscience with the following confession of guilt . The Compline consists of the hymn, psalms (traditionally the psalms 4 EU , 134 EU and 91 EU ), the short reading, the New Testament chant Nunc dimittis ( Lk 2,29–32  EU ), the oration and the blessing for the night. Thereafter, nocturnal silence applies in the monastic orders until morning.

At Laudes and Vespers, the altar of the Benedictus or Magnificat can be incensated . The altar kiss takes place in front of the altar incense, which in contrast to the Eucharistic celebration does not take place at the beginning and end of Vespers (cf. AES (= General Introduction to the Liturgy of the Hours) and the Roman Pontifical ).

The Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy of the Second Vatican Council, Sacrosanctum Concilium , emphasized the importance of the celebration of the Liturgy of the Hours, also for the laity:

“The pastors should make every effort to ensure that the main hearing, especially Vespers on Sundays and major festivals, is celebrated together in the church. The laity are also recommended to perform the divine office, be it with the priests, be it among themselves or each one individually. "

The prayer and hymn book of God's praise under the numbers 613 to 667 offers above all several templates and elements for lauds and vespers at various festive times of the church year , a funeral vespers, an evening praise with Lucerne and the Compline with the traditional complete psalms and the Marian antiphons . Numbers 31 to 80 contain further psalms that can be used in the congregation's daily prayer.


In the Orthodox monasteries of the Byzantine rite , the course of the day begins with Vespers at sunset. The Greek names of the individual hours are:

  • Hesperinos (Ἑσπερινός): Evening prayer at sunset
  • Apódeipnon (Ἀπόδειπνον): (literally "after eating") before going to bed. Meditation on the last sleep, death.
  • Mesonyktikon (Μεσονυκτικόν): Midnight prayer in monasteries
  • Orthros (Ὄρθρος): at sunrise
  • Prōtē Hōra (Πρώτη Ὥρα): The first hour, around six in the morning. Meditation on creation. Usually celebrated after the Orthros.
  • Tritē Hōra (Τρίτη Ὥρα): The third hour, at nine in the morning. Meditation on the descent of the Holy Spirit on Pentecost, which happened at that hour.
  • Hectē Hōra (Ἕκτη Ὥρα): The sixth hour, noon. Meditation on the crucifixion of Christ that happened at that hour.
  • Enatē Hōra (Ἐνάτη Ὥρα): The ninth hour, three o'clock in the afternoon. Meditation on the death of Christ that came at this hour.

In the Orthodox Liturgy of the Hours, the psalms are always prayed in divided groups, so-called Kathismata . In a one-week schedule, all 150 psalms are distributed over Lauds and Vespers, starting with the 1st Kathisma (Psalms 1 to 8) on Saturday evening. The Lauds are followed by the Eucharist on Sunday, both with the participation of the community. Vespers on the eve of Sundays and public holidays is also attended by the congregation. After the opening, the solemn Vespers consists of a first part in the monastic tradition, followed by a cathedral vesper with lucerne, the evening psalms 141, 142, 130 and 117 as well as a procession of the liturgists while singing the hymn Phos hilaron and the Nunc dimittis .

The psalms are performed using different techniques: as recitation of the text by a lecturer, sung by a singers' school or as a well-composed composition.


In the liturgy of the times of the day in the Coptic Church , the hearings expire the same way every day, 110 psalms are prayed daily in the vigils and six daily hears (Laudes, Terz, Sext, Non, Vespers and Compline). The Liturgy of the Hours thus belongs almost entirely to the monastic type. In the selection of the Gospel pericopes in the chapter, reference is made to the time of day. The hearing ends with the forty-one time Kyrie, Sanctus, Our Father, and an supplication.


The Protestant hymnal (1996) today contains four classic daytime prayers (about annexed Bavaria / Thuringia as "services to the times of the day" at # 727.) That the early church - Gregorian follow role models. In addition, other models are also possible. B. can follow the order from Taizé .

  • Mette (or Laudes , morning prayer): After the liturgical entrance, one to three psalms can be sung or spoken. This is followed by a scripture reading, a responsory , the hymn and the Benedictus ; Kyrie eleison , Our Father , intercessory prayer , a morning prayer, the cry of praise and the blessing close the hourly prayer.
  • Sext (midday prayer): After the liturgical entrance, a hymn of praise is sung or spoken. This is followed by a psalm and then the scripture reading, followed by a responsory; Kyrie, Our Father, a closing prayer / request for peace (Luther's “ Grant us peace graciously ”), the praise call and the blessing close the hourly prayer.
  • Vespers (evening prayer): The order corresponds exactly to that of Mette, except that the Magnificat is sung as a New Testament canticle instead of Benedictus .
  • Compline (night prayer): After the opening reading from the 1st Peter epistle (“Be sober and watch!”, 1 Petr 5,8  Lut ) follows a confession of sins, only afterwards the actual liturgical opening. This is followed by the three classical Compline Psalms ( PsLut , Ps 91  Lut , Ps 134  Lut ), the hymn, the scripture reading from Isa 14  Lut , the responsory and the third canticle (the Nunc dimittis ). The prayer part again consists of Kyrie, Our Father and the closing prayer; praise and blessings follow.

In the evangelical field there are a number of communities and spiritual communities that have their own and in some cases much more extensive forms of the divine office. In terms of their formal structure (number of services, distribution over the day), these can usually be derived from the early church patterns. In terms of their content (type of music, texts, etc.), on the other hand, they can be very different and partly follow Gregorian (Tagzeitbuch der Michaelsbruderschaft or Alpirsbacher Antiphonale ), partly modern musical forms (e.g. the Jesus Brotherhood Gnadenthal).


The Book of Common Prayer today includes the following prayer times:

  • Morning prayer: roughly corresponds to Matins and Laudes
  • Midday prayer: roughly corresponds to a combination of third and sixth
  • Evening prayer: Corresponds to Vespers (the so-called Evensong )
  • Compline: Sometimes combined with evening prayer

Ordained ones undertake to pray at times of morning and evening on behalf of the congregation. In Anglican religious communities (especially among the Benedictines ), however, more extensive versions of the Liturgy of the Hours are celebrated.

Old Catholic

In larger Old Catholic parishes, the daily liturgy is regularly celebrated as a parish service on individual days. The lucerne is often part of Vespers, in some versions the psalms are omitted.


In Germany, representatives of various Protestant and Catholic hourly prayer initiatives came together to form the “Ecumenical hourly prayer” initiative, which formed an association in October 2014 at Rothenfels Castle in Franconia .

In their daily prayers in the Church of Reconciliation, the ecumenical community of Taizé follows a rite put together by the community itself.


Text output
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    • Vol. 1. First Annual Series Part. 2. 6. – 34. Week in the annual cycle
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  • Rudolf Pacik , “burden of the day” or “spiritual nourishment”? The Liturgy of the Hours in the work of Josef Andreas Jungmann and in the official reforms of Pius XII. up to Vatican II (Studies on Pastoral Liturgy 12), Regensburg 1997, ISBN 3-7917-1551-8 (Habilitation thesis from 1995, slightly revised for printing and given a new title) - Awarded the "Research Prize of the City of Innsbruck 1997" .
  • Franz Karl Praßl : Office. In: Oesterreichisches Musiklexikon . Online edition, Vienna 2002 ff., ISBN 3-7001-3077-5 ; Print edition: Volume 4, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna 2005, ISBN 3-7001-3046-5 .
  • Fidel Rädle : The order of time through the Creator in the patristic and in the early Latin hymns. In: rhythm and seasonality. Congress files of the 5th Symposium of the Medievalist Association in Göttingen 1993. Ed. By Peter Dilg , Gundolf Keil and Dietz-Rüdiger Moser, Sigmaringen 1995, pp. 51–61.
  • Eric W. Steinhauer: The liturgical law and the duty to pray the hours. NomoK @ non web document:
  • Stephan Waldhoff: Book of Hours . In: Gert Ueding (ed.): Historical dictionary of rhetoric . Darmstadt: WBG 1992ff., Vol. 10 (2011), Col. 1279-1290

Web links

Wiktionary: Liturgy of the Hours  - explanations of meanings, origins of words, synonyms, translations

Individual evidence

  1. In their letters, the apostles repeatedly transmit prayers, especially praise and thanksgiving. They exhort us to prayers offered in the Holy Spirit through Christ God with all tenacity and perseverance. They assure us of its efficacy and sanctifying power; they call on us to praise, give thanks, petition and intercession for all people. AES, II No. 5.
  2. “In the Liturgy of the Hours, the Church exercises the priesthood of her head and 'without ceasing' offers God the sacrifice of praise, the fruit of the lips that praise his name. This prayer is 'the voice of the bride speaking to the bridegroom, yes it is the prayer that Christ, united with his body, addresses to his Father'. All who accomplish this therefore fulfill an obligation incumbent on the church and at the same time share in the highest honor of the bride of Christ; for by offering praise to God, they stand before the throne of God in the name of the Mother Church . ”AES, III No. 15
  3. Constitution Sacrosanctum Concilium No. 88
  4. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 19f.
  5. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 34f.
  6. Apostolic Constitutions and Canons ( RTF ; 972 kB)]
  7. Psalm numbering of the Vulgate ; in the Hebrew count and the Nova Vulgate : Psalm 63 and 141.
  8. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 25f.
  9. Andreas Pacificus Alkofer: ruminatio . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 8 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1999, Sp. 1360 .
  10. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 29f.
  11. Guido Fuchs: Lucernar . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 6 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1997, Sp. 1080 f .
  12. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, pp. 31–34.
  13. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 42.
  14. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, pp. 42-55.
  15. Eckhard Jaschinski: Office . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 7 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1998, Sp. 1008 .
  16. Martin Klöckener: Kreuzbrevier . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 6 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1997, Sp. 452 .
  17. Johannes Schlageter: Quiñónez . In: Walter Kasper (Ed.): Lexicon for Theology and Church . 3. Edition. tape 8 . Herder, Freiburg im Breisgau 1999, Sp. 774 .
  18. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 59.
  19. ^ For example in the foreword to the German Mass 1526.
  20. EG Mecklenburg / Pommern No. 727-730; EG Ostverbund No. 783-786; EG Rhineland / Westphalia / Lippe No. 836f .; EG Württemberg 779-782.
  21. SC, No. 100
  22. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 106ff.
  23. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 110f.
  24. Liborius Olaf Lumma: Liturgy in the rhythm of the day. A brief introduction to the history and practice of the Liturgy of the Hours. Regensburg 2011, p. 104f.