International Astronomical Union
The International Astronomical Union ( IAU ; French Union astronomique internationale , UAI ) is a worldwide association of astronomers founded in Brussels in 1919 with headquarters in Paris . Its aim is to promote astronomy and its research through international collaboration. Along with other similar organizations for other branches of science, it is a member of the International Science Council , which is also based in Paris. As of November 2008, the IAU has 9623 individual members from 86 countries around the world and 65 national members, that is, astronomical societies and academies .
The German astronomers and astronomical associations are represented in the IAU by the Council of German Observatories .
The non-governmental organization has held a general assembly every three years in alternating countries since 1922 . Exceptions are the world war years and 1973, when shortly after the regular one in Sydney an additional, unscheduled general assembly was held in Warsaw, on Polish request on the occasion of the upcoming 500th birthday of Nicolaus Copernicus . The additional date was enforced from 1967 by the German President of the IAU, Otto Heckmann , under the impression of German war acts in occupied Poland against the resistance of many astronomers.
At the general assembly, new astronomical discoveries are discussed and necessary collaborations and standardizations are dealt with. In this way, questions of nomenclature are clarified, such as the naming of stars , planets , asteroids and other celestial bodies as well as surface features such as mountains and craters.
|No.||Name of the commission|
|7th||Celestial mechanics and
|12||Radiation and structure of
the solar atmosphere
|14th||Atomic and molecular data|
|15th||Physical study of
comets and small planets
|16||Physical study of
planets and satellites
|20th||Positions and movements of small
planets, comets and satellites
|21st||Night sky light|
|22nd||Meteors, meteorites and
|25th||Star photometry and polarimetry|
|26th||Double and multiple stars|
|33||Structure and dynamics of
the galactic system
|36||Theory of stellar atmospheres|
|37||Star clusters and associations|
|41||History of astronomy|
|42||Close double stars|
high energy astrophysics
|50||Protection of the existing and
potential observatory sites
Search for extraterrestrial life
About 37 IAU commissions are responsible for various subject areas and for the planning and implementation of research programs at supranational level. There are also various working groups, such as those for the nomenclature of the planetary system (WGPSN: Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature).
The IAU is the patron of numerous international astronomical conferences such as special symposia and colloquia, as well as the Minor Planet Center and the Central Office for Astronomical Telegrams at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Massachusetts , which is responsible for the central intelligence service . In addition, the IAU also promotes astronomy in developing countries .
The commission of the Carte du Ciel project can be regarded as the original organization of the IAU, which from 1887 expanded its interest in the measurement of star positions to other areas of astronomy.
|Year and place of the general assembly|
|31.||2021||Busan , South Korea|
|30th||2018||Vienna , Austria|
|29||2015||Honolulu , United States|
|28.||2012||Beijing , People's Republic of China|
|27.||2009||Rio de Janeiro , Brazil|
|26th||2006||Prague , Czech Republic|
|25th||2003||Sydney , Australia|
|24.||2000||Manchester , England|
|23.||1997||Kyoto , Japan|
|22nd||1994||The Hague , Netherlands|
|21st||1991||Buenos Aires , Argentina|
|20th||1988||Baltimore , United States|
|19th||1985||New Delhi , India|
|18th||1982||Patras , Greece|
|17th||1979||Montreal , Canada|
|16.||1976||Grenoble , France|
|15th||1973||Sydney , Australia|
|14th||1970||Brighton , England|
|13.||1967||Prague , Czechoslovakia|
|12.||1964||Hamburg , FR Germany|
|11.||1961||Berkeley , United States|
|10.||1958||Moscow , Soviet Union|
|9.||1955||Dublin , Ireland|
|8th.||1952||Rome , Italy|
|7th||1948||Zurich , Switzerland|
|6th||1938||Stockholm , Sweden|
|5.||1935||Paris , France|
|4th||1932||Cambridge , United States|
|3.||1928||Leiden , Netherlands|
|2.||1925||Cambridge , England|
|1.||1922||Rome , Italy|
In 1922 in Rome , the IAU determined the current number of 88 constellations . In 1925 in Cambridge , England , the Belgian astronomer Eugène Delporte was commissioned by her to draw the exact boundaries of the constellations. In 1928 in Leiden these borders were approved by her.
The 30th IAU General Assembly took place from August 20 to 31 , 2018 in Vienna (Austria). The organizer was the Vienna University Observatory . During the two weeks of this conference, which was attended by around 3000 participants, 7 large symposia and 15 smaller conferences (focus meetings) took place in parallel . In addition, there were meetings of the 9 departments of the IAU.
- Rolf Sauermost (Ed.): Lexicon of Astronomy. In 2 volumes. Herder, Freiburg 1989 f., ISBN 3-451-21632-9
- Helmut Zimmermann and Alfred Weigert : ABC Lexicon Astronomy . 8th edition. Spektrum Akademischer Verlag, Heidelberg 1995, ISBN 3-86025-688-2 .
- Jacqueline Mitton: Astronomy from A to Z. Franckh-Kosmos, Stuttgart 1995. ISBN 3-440-07007-7
- Walter S. Adams: The History of the International Astronomical Union . In: Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Volume 61, 1949, pp. 5-12, bibcode : 1949PASP ... 61 .... 5A
- Official website (English)
- Resolutions adopted at the General Assemblies. IAU(English, complete except for the years 1952 and 1955).
- Transactions: Proceedings of the GAs (Vol. B). IAU(English, digital versions of the conference proceedings; complete except for the years 1922, 1925, 1961 and 1964).
- iau.org (PDF)
- XXXth General Assembly of the International Astronomical Union astronomy2018.univie.ac.at, accessed on February 19, 2018.