Δήμος Πατρέων (Πάτρα)
|Region :||West Greece|
|Regional District :||Achaia|
|Geographic coordinates :||38 ° 15 ′ N , 21 ° 44 ′ E|
|Area :||333.14 km²|
|Residents :||213,984 (2011)|
|Population density :||642.3 inhabitants / km²|
|LAU-1 code no .:||3701|
|Districts :||5 municipal districts|
|Local self-government :||
10 city districts |
24 local communities
|Location in the region of Western Greece|
Patras ( modern Greek Πάτρα Patra ( f. Sg. ), Katharevousa and ancient Greek Πάτραι ( f. Pl. ) Patre or Patrai ) is an important port city of Greece in the Peloponnese and capital of the region of western Greece . The population is 213,984 (as of 2011), making Patras the third largest municipality in Greece after Athens and Thessaloniki .
The city rebuilt after its destruction during the War of Liberation in 1821 is located on the southeast coast of the Gulf of Patras in a fertile area.
Patras is the seat of the Archbishop of Patras and the University of Patras . The city is known in Greece as a carnival stronghold, the Carnival in Patras or Patrino Karnavali is an impressive festival in winter that lasts two months. It is the largest carnival in Greece with around 50,000 carnivalists. In 2006 Patras was the European Capital of Culture .
The city is bounded in the west by the Gulf of Patras and in the east by the foothills of the Panachaiko Mountains (Παναχαϊκό), which rise to 1926 m (summit Palavou Pyrgos Παλαβού Πύργος). Patras is located in an area with high earthquake frequency . The strait of Rio-Andirrio (Στενό Ρίου-Αντίρριου) between the Gulf of Patras and the Gulf of Corinth is particularly seismically active.
Cape Drepanon forms the northernmost point of the municipality , a little further to the west, Cape Rio marks the narrowest point of the Rio Strait, where the Charilaos-Trikoupis bridge connects Patras with the opposite Nafpaktia. It was opened to traffic in August 2004 after five years of construction. The world's second longest cable-stayed bridge with a length of 2252 meters connects the Peloponnese with the western Greek mainland.
The neighboring communities are (from west to east) Dytiki Achaia , Erymanthos and Egialia .
According to tradition, the city of Patras was founded in ancient times by the Achaean Patreus through the union of three cities, Aroe , Antheia and Mesatis . Archaeological finds go back to the Bronze Age : remains of Mycenaean chamber graves from the 14th to 12th centuries BC were found in various places in the city center . As well as by stone box graves from the transition from the Middle Helladic to the Late Helladic (17th / 16th century BC).
As a port city, it soon became one of the first among the twelve Achaean cities . From their alliance with three other Achaean cities around 280 BC. The Achaean League came into being. Augustus granted the priests, whose city was then rather dilapidated, the freedom as well as the rights and immunities of a Roman colony under the Achaeans alone. Since then, the city has borne the name Colonia Augusta Aroe Patrensis on the coins.
Patras also owned one of the first Christian communities in the country and, along with Corinth, was the starting point for the Christianization of the peninsula. According to legend, the apostle Andrew was martyred here. His bones came to Constantinople in 357 , the head reliquary (1462 to 1964 in Rome ) is venerated again today in Patras.
In 1205 the city was conquered by Wilhelm von Champlitte and made the seat of the Principality of Achaia . The Latin Archbishop, elected in the same year but confirmed papal only in 1207, was also the primate of the principality.
In 1408 John II sold his small empire to the Venetians, but the Byzantine despot of Morea and later the last emperor Constantine XI succeeded. 1429/30 the Greek reconquest. Seven years after the fall of Constantinople, Patras was also conquered by the Turkish Ottomans in 1460. In 1571 the naval battle of Lepanto took place between the fleets of the Holy League and the Ottoman Empire in the Gulf of Patras. In 1770 the Russians and Mainoten conquered Patras, but had to evacuate it in the same year, after which it was burned by the Turks.
In 1820 Patras suffered significantly from an earthquake. It was here that the Greek Revolution began with the run-up of February 12, 1821, when the Turks were pushed into the citadel. A militarily important point, the city became a major site of struggle during the War of Independence, but was razed by the Turks on April 15, 1822, after Yusuf Pasha appalled the citadel. Ibrahim Pasha led the siege of Messolongi from Patras .
In 1828 the French auxiliary troops under Schneider took possession of it for Greece; In 1833 the French were replaced by Bavarian troops who had come to the country with the new king of Greece, Otto I, from the House of Wittelsbach . In the 19th century, currants were mainly exported to Great Britain and France via Patras . Gustav Clauss came to the area while buying currants and later founded Achaia Clauss , one of the largest wine trading companies in Greece. From 1902 to 1917 the tram operated Patras .
During the Second World War , the city was first targeted by Italian air raids and later occupied by Axis forces. A German command post was set up and German and Italian troops stationed in the city. On December 13, 1943, German soldiers killed 676 residents from nearby Kalavrita and surrounding villages in a retaliatory action in the Kalavrita massacre .
Patras has been a university town since the University of Patras (and Patras Technical Training Institute) was founded in 1964. The privately initiated Patras Wireless Metropolitan Network offers free WiFi internet in the city.
Patras has a direct connection to the Greek trunk road network. The national road 8a ( European route 65 ) towards Athens leads out of Patras in the east. In the meantime, it has been partially expanded to form Autobahn 8 . The second crossing point east of Patras connects West and Northwest Greece via the Charilaos-Trikoupis Bridge by means of the national road 5 and, in the future, the motorway 5 (Ionia Odos) . A bypass motorway leads around Patras in a south-westerly direction, continuing as National Road 9 ( European Route 55 ). The route from Patras along the west coast of the Peloponnese will in future be expanded to the southern part of Autobahn 5 (Olympia Odos) .
Rail transport and public transport
Patras was connected to Corinth by a meter-gauge railway line , which is being converted to standard gauge in several stages . The renovation was originally supposed to be completed by 2010, but was interrupted due to the ongoing economic crisis. The railway line continued south from Patras to Pyrgos , Kyparissia and Kalamata . The Proastiakos S-Bahn runs every hour between Agios Andreas and Rio. A bus service operated by the operating company shuttles between the Kastellokampos station and the University of Patras , with a stop in between at the University Hospital Patras . From 1902 to 1917 the tram operated Patras .
City buses of the KTEL-Patras (ΑΣΤΙΚΟ ΚΤΕΛ ΠΑΤΡΩΝ ΑΕ) have been operating in Patras since 1952. The 107 blue and white buses serve twelve lines and have been privately operated since 2008. From Athens, the national long-distance buses of the KTEL are currently the fastest connection to Patras. This will change after the completion of the new line to Patras.
In 1997 it was decided to build a new port about 3 km south of the existing port. The new port was officially put into operation on July 11, 2011. Along with Igoumenitsa, it is a gateway to the rest of the EU for Greece's road traffic . Most of the car ferries arrive in Patras from Italy .
Although the city does not have its own airport, Araxos Airport, about 40 km southwest of Patras, actually serves as the city's airport. This is mostly used seasonally by charter flights in summer.
Patras is the seat of a Greek Orthodox metropolitan . (See Church of Greece .) . There have been Roman Catholic Christians since the Crusader period. Most Catholics are either descendants of Italians who emigrated to Greece after Garibaldi's failure, or come from the Ionian Islands. However, their offspring are completely assimilated. There has also been a small Anglican community since the 19th century.
Patras lists the following 23 twin cities :
Culture and sights
The Patras Carnival is the largest event of its kind in Greece. In 2006 the city was European Capital of Culture. The International Panorama of Independent Film and Video Makers took place for the 12th time in 2012.
- Roman Odeon
- Roman amphitheater
- Patras Castle
- Patras Archaeological Museum
- Agios Andreas Church
- Apollon Theater
- Achaia Clauss winery
- Source of Demeter
- Rio-Andirrio Bridge
- Mycenaean Settlement and Necropolis Voundeni ( Mycenaean Park Patras )
As a port city, grapes, raisins and wines were handled in Patras. In this context, distilleries were established in the 19th century that produce liqueurs and schnapps. The liqueur Tentoura and the liqueur wine Mavrodaphne are well known . Drinks from the Loux lemonade factory have cult status .
Patras suffered from de-industrialization in the 1990s. Industrial production fell by 7.5% between 1995 and 2001, partly due to the bankruptcy of the once large textile manufacturer Piraiki Patraiki in 1996 . While textile and food production in the Patras region continues to decline, mechanical engineering is experiencing an upswing. The bikes from Ideal Bikes are known nationwide . IT companies and research centers have settled in the Patras Science Park , which is located near the university.
science and education
The city is a relatively young location for science and education. There is the University of Patras and the University of Applied Sciences (TEI Patras) founded in 1972, as well as the Hellenic Open University and the 19th Greek State University. In terms of private investments, the Patras Science Park and the Business Innovation Center Western Greece should be mentioned.
sons and daughters of the town
- Arethas of Caesarea (* around 860, † after 944), Archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia and theologian of the Orthodox Church
- Benizelos Rouphos (1795–1868), politician and three-time Greek Prime Minister
- Kostis Palamas (1859–1943), poet, prose writer, playwright, historian and literary critic
- Antonios Pepanos (1866–1918), swimmer
- Dimitrios Gounaris (1867-1922), Greek Prime Minister (1915 and 1921-1922)
- Dimitrios Maximos (1873–1955), politician and Greek Prime Minister
- Andreas Michalakopoulos (1875 / 1876–1938), politician and Greek Prime Minister
- Stefanos Christopoulos (* 1876; † after 1906), wrestler and weightlifter
- Stylianos Gonatas (1876–1966), general, politician and Prime Minister of Greece
- Nikolaos Andriakopoulos (* 1878; † unknown), Turner
- Dimitrios Tofalos (1884–1966), weightlifter and wrestler
- Panagiotis Kanellopoulos (1902–1986), sociologist, historian of ideas, politician and two-time Greek Prime Minister
- Apostolos Sandas (1922–2011), resistance fighter
- Konstantinos Stefanopoulos (1926–2016), politician and President of Greece from 1995 to 2005
- Eleftherios Katsaitis (1929–2012), Greek Orthodox bishop
- Thanos Mikroutsikos (1947–2019), composer and politician
- Andreas Loverdos (* 1956), politician
- Christos Yiannopoulos (* 1957), German screenwriter and author
- Periklis Iakovakis (* 1979), hurdler
- Konstantinos Katsouranis (* 1979), football player
- Andreas Samaris (* 1989), soccer player
- Patras at the Greek National Tourism Organization
- Official website of the Patras Carnival
- Rubric about Patras from stern.de
- The history of Patras during the Roman and Byzantine years (PDF; 3.2 MB)
- ↑ Results of the 2011 census. ( Memento from June 27, 2015 in the Internet Archive ) ( MS Excel ; 2.6 MB) National Statistical Service of Greece (ΕΛ.ΣΤΑΤ)
- ↑ Iannis Moschos: Οι Μυκηναίοι στην Αχαϊα, Φαίδιμος 1. Mycenaeans in Achaea. Society for the Study of Mycenaean Achaea. Faedimos 1st Patras 2007, p. 21.
- ↑ Kayapınar, Ayşe (2016). Osmanlı Döneminde Mora'da Bir Sahil Şehri. Balya Badra / Patra (1460-1715). Cihannüma: Tarih ve Coğrafya Araştırmaları Dergisi, I (1), 67–93. doi: 10.30517 / cihannuma.283490
- ↑ Patras Suburban Railway - TrainOSE. Retrieved April 23, 2019 .
- ↑ trainose.gr ( Memento from October 22, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) (Retrieved October 23, 2012)
- ↑ www.patrasport.gr: Southern Passenger Port (English) accessed June 29, 2019
- ↑ Η λίστα με τις 23 αδελφοποιημένες πόλεις της Πάτρας - Υπάρχει ουσία όμως; ǀ Patras Events. Retrieved April 23, 2019 .
- ^ Sister Cities. Santa Barbara, accessed June 20, 2017 .
- ↑ urbact.eu ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) (PDF)