|Residents :||38,900 (2016 estimate)|
|Inhabitants (Opština) :||51,590 (2016 estimate)|
|Telephone code :||(+389) 046|
|Postal code :||6000|
|License plate :||OH|
|Structure and administration|
|Mayor :||Konstantin Georgieski ( SDSM )|
|Patron saint :||St. Kliment|
|City Festival :||December 8th|
Ohrid (sometimes also Ochrid , Macedonian Охрид , pronunciation: [ ˈɔxrit ] , Albanian Ohër , Turkish Ohri ) is the eighth largest city in North Macedonia with around 39,000 inhabitants . It is the administrative seat of a large municipality and is located in the south-west of the country on Lake Ohrid , not far from the Albanian border.
Ohrid forms a regional economic, cultural and religious center and is the largest place on Lake Ohrid. Ohrid Airport , one of the two international airports in North Macedonia, is close to the city .
Today Ohrid is a nationally known tourist attraction. The well-preserved old town, the fortress with a panoramic view, the many churches, monasteries and mosques as well as the large, million-year-old lake attract not only foreigners from the Balkans, but also from the rest of Europe and Asia. In 1979, UNESCO declared Lake Ohrid and a year later the area around the lake a UNESCO World Heritage Site .
In ancient times the place was known under the Greek name Lychnidós ( Λυχνιδός ), which comes either from lychnís λυχνίς (genitive lychnidós ; "a precious stone that radiates light") or from lýchnos λύχνος ("lantern", "portable light") and probably means "City of Light". Later, the Latin Lychnidus or Lycnidus developed from Lychnidos under the Romans .
A new name appeared in the early Middle Ages. In the year 879 the name Ohrid is documented for the first time , which probably comes from Slavic and means "on the hill" (vo hrid) , which referred to the location of the settlement. In Macedonian and the other South Slavic languages, the city is now called Ohrid ( Cyrillic Охрид). In Albanian it is called Ohri (masculine, definite form) and Ohër (indefinite form). In Turkish it is called Ohri , with the emphasis here on the I and not on the O as in Albanian . In Greek today the city is called Achrída Αχρίδα .
The Ohrid Plain extends between Ohrid and the village of Vapila - around 15 kilometers to the north. Then the hilly landscape of Plakenska Planina begins with heights of over . To the north-west of Ohrid, near the St. Erasmus Cave Church, a small mountain range rises, which separates the plains of Ohrid and the neighboring town of Struga . To the southwest, Lake Ohrid forms the natural city limit for around 4.5 kilometers. With the exception of the lake, waters are rare in Ohrid. The small streams Grašnica and Orman in the west of the city flow into the lake south of the city beach (Gradska Plaža) . Often, residential areas near a stream are threatened by flooding on rainy days. At the beginning of 2000, the city administration undertook some protective measures, such as lowering the bed of the brook, expanding the bank, partially channeling individual sections of the brook and building protective dams. The risk of flooding could thus be reduced.
Furthermore, a longer watercourse leads from the water source Biljanini Izvori (“White Springs”) in the southeast of the city to the lake, where there is a marina .
Monthly averages of some climate data
|Development of the population
numbers since 1900
According to the last census from 2002, Ohrid had 42,033 inhabitants. 33,987 professed to Orthodox Christianity , 7,599 to Sunni Islam , 119 to the Roman Catholic Church , four to the Protestant Church and 324 to other religions. The number of households was given as 12,043, which made an average of 3.4 inhabitants per household.
Ohrid was a rather small town at the end of the Ottoman period. Other cities in the region such as Bitola and Skopje were larger at the time and strategically more important for the Ottomans. At the beginning of the 20th century, Ohrid only had around 15,000 inhabitants; Bitola, on the other hand, had over 60,000 and Skopje just over 40,000 inhabitants. It was not until the time of Yugoslavia that the city grew and in 1981 already had almost 40,000 inhabitants. Waves of immigration from neighboring villages and cities in North Macedonia as well as the onset of industrialization had a strong influence on growth.
- For the population in the greater municipality of Ohrid, see section Population in the article “Opština Ohrid”.
The city of Ohrid is not officially subdivided, but larger quarters can be distinguished, but they usually do not have precise boundaries. The most important neighborhoods include Centar , Varoš , Košišta , Mesokastro , Leskaica , Voska , Daljan , Železnička , Eastern Ohrid , Pristanište and Biljanini Izvori . They were mostly named after the local conditions.
The quarters Košišta , Mesokastro and Varoš are located around the medieval fortress (clockwise and starting from the north) and together form the historical town center with numerous town houses and narrow streets. With other cities in the Balkans , including Berat (Albania) and Nessebar ( Bulgaria ), Ohrid has great similarities in terms of urban architecture.
The part of the city that was within the former city walls is called Varoš (formerly Grad , "city"). The two hills that enclosed the walls are named Gorni Saraj ("Upper Residence") and Deboj (formerly Novi Saraj , "New Residence"). The names of the hills and the current quarters of the same name can be traced back to the residences of the Albanian Derebeyi ("Talfürst") Cemâleddin Bey .
The bell-shaped citadel of the city's former fortress stands on the Gorni Saraj hill . It is called Samuilova Tvrdina ("Samuil Fortress") by the Macedonians , Kala / -ja by the Albanians and Kale by the Turks , and is the symbol of Ohrid. In summer the citadel is a popular destination, as the towers and walls offer a panoramic view of the city and the lake. Eighteen towers and four gates have been preserved in their original construction today, including the towers and gates of the city fortifications. The walls are up to 16 meters high and a total of three kilometers long. The ancient theater is just east of the citadel. Plaošnik archaeological site with ruins of ancient Lychnidos is also located on the hill just south of the main gate of Samuil Fortress. Right next to it is the St. Panteleon and Kliment Church, which was built in the 9th century, and in the southwest on the cliffs of Lake Ohrid, the St. John of Kaneo Church.
In the Varoš district within the old city walls in the north-east there is the Church of the Holy Mother of God from the Hospital, the Church of Saint Nicholas from the Hospital, the St. Kliment Chapel, the Robevi family house (today the town museum) and in the southeast the Sophienkirche.
To the east of the city hill Deboj extends the Mesokastro district with the plane tree square ( Çınar , Turkish for "plane tree"), or market square. There is the Zeynel-Abidin-Pascha Mosque from 1564 with the associated, now the only Tekke in the city and a Türbe . A 1100 year old plane tree gives the place its name. Further south of the Çınar on the promenade is the Ali Pascha Central Mosque from 1573; it is the largest mosque in Ohrid and a Muslim community center. To the north of Platanenplatz is today's market, where the wholesale market traditionally takes place on Mondays. The Mesokastro district encompasses the entire old town outside the city walls to the northern end of the promenade, where the old road to Struga begins and the Košišta district is located. The architectural unity of the old town was changed by construction activities, especially from the 1960s to 1990s.
In the plains around the historical city center, the Voska district is located in the northwest and the Leskaica district in the north and northeast . In Voska standing Haydar Pasha Mosque from the year 1490 and the Kuloğlu Mosque , which was probably built in the 15th or 16th century. The main street Goce Delčev , which used to be the only connection to neighboring Struga , runs through the district . The quarter is mainly inhabited by Albanians, Turks, Roma and Slavic Muslims.
To the west of Voska is the somewhat smaller Daljan district , which lies on the lake and is characterized by prefabricated buildings. The city beach (Gradska Plaža) stretches from the rock walls of the fortress hill for its entire length to the end of the city. It is divided into the sections Mladinski , Mladost , Partizan and Mizo (from west to east). To the northeast of Voska is the Železnička district , which used to be the terminus of the Kičevo railway line . Another large area is East Ohrid, with single-family houses and the city's only public hospital.
The Leskaica district is characterized by many newer single-family houses and some high-rise buildings. The Hajji Durgut Mosque from 1466 and the new bus station are in this area. There is also a textile factory and one of the largest primary schools in the city.
The Pristanište (“port”) district is located on the promenade that begins at the port . It is the tourist, gastronomic and cultural center of the city with nationwide famous hotels, restaurants, bars, cafes, pubs, pubs and discos. Cinema, theater and library are also located there. At the southern end of this promenade are the Biljanini Izvori (in German "White Springs"). This recreation area is popular with many residents because of the many parks and promenades. The football stadium, a tennis court, a swimming pool and a large concert hall are also located in this area.
The four-lane bypass Boulevard Turistička was laid out around the city center in the 1970s and 1980s; however, as the city has grown, it now runs through residential areas. Today, however, the majority of express traffic takes place via the new Železnička expressway in the north of Ohrid.
In the city center (Centar) there are city and municipal administration, post office, some banks, many service companies, numerous apartment blocks, dozens of shops, fire brigade and police. Some of the hotel complexes, some of which were very large, which were built in the Yugoslav era, are now completely empty and have a decisive influence on the appearance of the quarter.
The fish-rich lake and the strategically favorable location attracted the first settlers 5000 years ago. The oldest skeleton finds in the Ohrid city area date from the 4th millennium BC. Around 800 or 700 BC. Then the city was founded under the name Lychnidos (from the ancient Greek Λύχνιδος , "city of light"). Based on some archaeological evidence, it is believed that the founders descended from the Illyrian Encheleans . At that time they settled around the Lake Ohrid and on the upper reaches of the central and south-eastern Banian rivers Drin , Shkumbin and Devoll (see map in the article List of rivers in Albania ). For the time being, however, Lychnidos was a small, rather insignificant fishing settlement with few craftsmen and traders.
When the Macedonian Empire was able to expand its rule, Ohrid was not spared from the Macedonian campaigns. Although the area west of the Lynkestis was in a certain way independent from the neighboring Macedonians for a long time - no state is known - the Macedonian King Philip II , the father of Alexander the Great , conquered in 355 BC. The Lynkestis and was able to extend his sphere of influence to the shores of Lake Ohrid.
Around 335 BC Alexander the Great conquered large parts of Illyria and Thrace . From then on, the rather insignificant settlement Lychnidos developed into a city ( polis ), in which Greek colonists also settled. In this epoch of Hellenism , among other things, the ancient theater was built. For the first time there were muses in Lychnidos : comedies, tragedies and dramas were performed in the theater, which attracted hundreds of spectators.
After the gradual collapse of the huge empire of Alexander the Great (see the article Diadoches empires ), the Macedonian sphere of power shrank more and more, not least because of the three Macedonian-Roman wars , the result of which in 148 BC. Was the conquest by the Romans . Lychnidos also became part of the Roman Republic and thus Colonia . 146 BC The Roman military road Via Egnatia was created. Lychnido's location on the strategic road favored the further development of the city. With the traffic on this route, which connected Rome and Constantinople , traders, craftsmen and Roman colonists came to Lychnidos. The city became the administrative and commercial center of the Dassaretia region , which remained a free commune ( Latin libera gens dassaretiae ) until the early imperial era . The local authorities immortalized themselves in numerous monuments, the most important archaeological documents from ancient times in Ohrid. The Hellenization of the city was clearly expressed in cultural life: an agora , a gymnasion , a buleuterion and individual temples were built.
Christianization and the Bulgarian Orthodox Era
When the empire was divided in 395 , Lychnidos was awarded Ostrom . Some archaeological finds from this period, such as in the Polyconhous Basilica from the 5th century, prove the acceptance of Christianity . Lychnidos became a bishopric under the Byzantines in late antiquity . The only known metropolitan of the city, Bishop Dionysus of Lychnidus , is attested as a participant in the Council of Serdica (343 AD). On May 29 and 30, 526 AD, Lychnidus was shaken by a devastating earthquake; large parts of the city lay in ruins or were burned to rubble and ashes. Since those days there have been no more inscriptions on Lychnidos . It is unclear whether the city continued to exist as a settlement or was newly founded by the Slavs.
With the conquest of the Slavs in the Balkans , they also spread in the Lake Ohrid region. The city was first mentioned as a bishop's residence in the Fourth Council of Constantinople (879/880) with the name of Ohrid . However, it probably existed earlier and was probably annexed to the First Bulgarian Empire in 842 .
After the Bulgarians adopted Christianity in 863, Ohrid was expanded into a second cultural and religious center of the Bulgarian Empire alongside Preslaw , in which the city's patron, Kliment, founded the Ohrid School . As an episcopal city , Ohrid was an important spiritual center of the Bulgarian Empire and the Orthodox Christianity of Southeast Europe in the Middle Ages . The scholars Kliment and Naum worked there at the behest of the Bulgarian tsars. During this time the Sophienkirche , the St. Kliment Monastery (or St. Panteleon Monastery) and the Sveti Naum Monastery were built . Numerous religious manuscripts have been completed in the monasteries around Ohrid since the 9th century. The clergy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church were also trained there. At the beginning of the Old Church Slavonic writing culture, the cultural center was closely connected with the spread of the Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets in Southeastern and Eastern Europe .
Today the ruins of the castle of Tsar Samuil (Bulgaria) (958-1014), which were built on the walls of an ancient fortress, tower over the city . During the reign of Samuil, Ohrid was the capital of the Bulgarian Empire for 17 years and thus the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarch . Under the last rulers of the First Bulgarian Empire, Ivan Wladislaw and Presian II , the Byzantine emperor Basil II finally incorporated the region into his empire in 1018.
Byzantium, Fourth Crusade, Small States
Emperor Basil II reorganized the Bulgarian church by creating an archbishopric with the center of Ohrid in the place of the patriarchate . It was autonomous and subordinated only to the Byzantine emperor. Thus, Ohrid remained a cultural and spiritual center of the region even under Byzantine rule. At the same time, however, it also became part of the deployment area of western invaders. From the end of the 11th century, southern Italian Normans tried several times to march on the Via Egnatia to Constantinople. The area around Ohrid became a staging area at least three times, even if all invasion attempts ultimately failed.
At the end of the 12th century the Byzantine Empire began to fall apart. The Bulgarians made themselves independent again and recaptured Ohrid in 1198. Thereafter, the rulership of the city changed several times. As a result of the Fourth Crusade , the Byzantine Empire fell apart in 1204, and the despotate of Epirus prevailed in the west of Ohrid ; In 1214 the city fell to this land. In the battle of Klokotnitsa in 1230 the despot was defeated by the Bulgarians and Ohrid was again Bulgarian. In 1261 the second remaining Byzantine power, the Nicaea Empire , succeeded in regaining Constantinople; It gradually regained many of the former Byzantine areas in south-eastern Europe, including Ohrid. Above all Charles I planned the reconquest of Constantinople with the support of Venice by 1282. After successfully repelling the western invaders and despite the conquest of Thessaly and Epirus , the political decline of Byzantium began around 1285 and accelerated around 1330. Control over the western part of the empire was increasingly slipping away from the headquarters.
In 1343, Ohrid came under the rule of the Serbian Tsar Stefan Dušan and later under that of King Vukašin . The last Bulgarian episode followed in 1387, ended around 1400 by the Ottomans, who had gained a foothold in the Balkans since the mid-14th century.
Development under the Ottomans
The Ottomans conquered the city between 1385 and 1408, the exact year is not known. The nearby cities of Bitola and Prilep , as well as the areas of central Albania, fell under Ottoman rule in 1385. Belonging to one of the domains of local princes ( Marko Kraljević , Konstantin Dragaš ), who were Ottoman vassals, is not excluded. It is certain that Ochri /اوخری / Oḫrī , as the Ottomans called the city, became the center of a sanjak , an administrative unit, when it was conquered . In the following centuries the city became a supraregional center of Islam , in which mosques , madrasas , tekken and places of the dervish cult were built. The city also remained the center of Christian art and the Ohrid school with its fresco and icon painting until the middle of the 15th century.
During the reign of the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I (1413–1421), the Sophienkirche was converted into a mosque. After the fall of Constantinople in 1453, the Jewish population of Ohrid was deported to the new Ottoman capital. In 1462 the Albanian resistance fighter Gjergj Kastrioti (called Skanderbeg ) and his allies conquered the city. But a few years later Sultan Mehmed II recaptured it . In 1466, when Mehmed had a fortress built in Elbasan , he ordered the deportation of the Christian population of Ohrid there. This also affected the Archbishop of Ohrid, Dorotej , and part of the clergy. In addition, Mehmed had the St. Kliment Church, seat of the Archbishops of Ohrid, converted into a mosque. This Imaret mosque also ran a poor kitchen ( Ottoman عمارت İmaret ). The new bishop's seat was the Holy Mother of God vom Spital Church, in which the relics of Holy Kliment were also kept. Around 1568 the city was badly destroyed by an earthquake.
In the first Ottoman cadastral register (mufaṣṣal defter) of the Ohrid- Sanjak from 1583 it is mentioned that there were 25 Christian and one Muslim districts ( maḥalle ) in the city . The Muslim population, who made up 20% of the total population, were largely converted Christians and Turkish immigrants. From the cadastral register it can be seen that the entire population of Ohrid, regardless of their religious affiliation, was exempt from tax payments, as they were drawn to construction work on the city walls for a long time.
A description of Ohrid from the High Ottoman period (16th / 17th century) can be found in the Seyāḥatnāme ("travel book") of the Ottoman traveler Evliya Çelebi . He visited the city in 1670/71 and noted that it was a regional center. Of the 17 mosques, he mentioned the Ḥacı-Ḳāsım- , the Ḳuloğlu- , the Ḥaydar-Pasha and the Ḥacı-Ḥamza mosques next to the Aya-Ṣofya mosque , the former Sophienkirche. From the madrasahs Çelebi mentioned the Tekke madrasah of Sultan Suleyman I and the madrasah of Siyâvuş Pasha . Between these buildings there were three caravanserais and two bathhouses ( hammam ) .
Until the 18th century, the Archdiocese of Ohrid was responsible for a large part of the Orthodox Christians in the west and south of the Balkan Peninsula . Until 1767 it was not subordinate to the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople , but to the Sublime Porte . After the dissolution of the archbishopric, the Patriarchate of Constantinople endeavored to wipe out every trace of the archbishopric; the region around Ohrid was assigned to the diocese of Prespa . The population resisted the increasing Greek influence in a "church fight".
From the end of the 18th century until 1830, Ohrid and the sanjak of the same name were under the local rule of the Albanian derebeyi (" Prince of the Valley ") Cemâleddin Bey , son of the vizier Ahmed Pasha. Cemâleddin Bey had the Christian townspeople rebuild the fortress walls using forced labor. However, it is thanks to him that the city is supplied with better drinking water. In 1830 the reformed Ottoman army, on their way to İşkodra , where the Buşatli family had created another quasi-autonomous domain, was able to place Ohrid under Ottoman administration again. The new administrator Kaymakam Serif Bey built a new large madrasah in Ohrid in 1846. During the 19th century, some of the mosques in Ohrid were repaired or rebuilt. The most important of these is the domed Ali Pasha Mosque south of the market square.
In the course of the Tanzimat reforms (second half of the 19th century), Ohrid became the capital of a Kaza within the Sanjak and Vilayets of Manastır until 1903 . As a result of these reforms, a Bulgarian community was founded in Ohrid in 1868. Descriptions of the city from this period can be found in the autobiography of Simeon Radew , in the travel books of the Slavist Viktor Grigorowitsch and the albanologist and diplomat Johann Georg von Hahn . The Christian population of Ohrid had wealth, which came from fur processing and the fur trade, and which was expressed in the large and well-built houses in which they lived (a detailed description of fur processing in Ohrid can be found in the article Fur scraps ). According to Article 10 of the firman establishing the Bulgarian Exarchate was on February 27 jul. / March 11, 1874 greg. held a plebiscite in Ohrid . The overwhelming majority, namely 9,387 members of the Christian population, spoke out in favor of converting to the Bulgarian Orthodox Church . 139 were against it. The first Bulgarian metropolitan of the Ohrid eparchy was Nathanail von Ohrid . As a result, several Bulgarian schools were opened in Ohrid and the surrounding area and administered by the Bulgarian Church, including today's primary schools Sveti Naum (1876) and Sveti Kliment (1898).
In the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 was Bulgaria exempted . The Treaty of San Stefano awarded the new Bulgarian state of Ohrid and most of Macedonia . However, the Berlin Congress revised this and both Ohrid and Macedonia remained under Ottoman rule. This decision by the great powers led to the affluent Bulgarian population of Ohrid in particular leaving the city for Bulgaria. In the years that followed, an economic decline set in. Albanian criminals in the hinterland made it more difficult to deliver fur, affecting the city's most important economic sector, the fur trade. The increase in fishing around the turn of the century could not compensate for these losses. At that time there were one Greek, seven Bulgarian and four Turkish schools in the city.
Balkan Wars, anti-Serb uprising, First World War, interwar period
During the Balkan Wars , the Serbian army captured Ohrid on November 29, 1912. This ended the over 500-year sovereignty of the Sublime Porte. In September 1913 the Ohrid Debar uprising broke out in the region . It was organized by the Bulgarian Macedonia-Adrianople Revolutionary Committee (BMARK) and by Albanian clan leaders and was directed against the new Serbian rule. The uprising was bloodily crushed by the Serbian army two weeks later. More than 25,000 Albanians and around 30,000 Bulgarians fled what is now western Macedonia to Albania and Bulgaria. Later, Hagia Sophia was converted back into a church. During the First World War the city became part of Bulgaria and the administration of the city was left to the BMARK. After the war it fell back to the so-called Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes .
From the 1930s onwards, Ohrid experienced a major economic development, which had an impact above all on the population. On July 7th, 1939, Ohrid was electrified for the first time on a large scale: the first transformer stations were built and the city was connected to the national power grid. At this time, two small power plants were built, a coal and an oil power plant, which, however, could not meet the residents' electricity needs by far.
Second World War, Bulgarian again
During the Second World War the Albanian border drew closer; To the north-west and south-east of Ohrid, the Axis powers drew new frontiers, which included the Italian satellite state of Greater Albania . Ohrid was then part of Bulgaria, an ally of the Axis powers, and was only connected to the rest of the country by a road. After 1944, Ohrid and the region were reassigned to the Yugoslav state with the old borders .
|Natural and cultural heritage of the Ohrid region|
|UNESCO world heritage|
|National territory:||North Macedonia|
|Criteria :||i, iii, iv, vii|
|Reference No .:||99|
|UNESCO region :||Europe and North America|
|History of enrollment|
|Enrollment:||1979 ( session 3 )|
Cultural monument, tourism, Turkish emigration
After the Second World War, the entire old town of Ohrid was declared a national cultural monument of Yugoslavia. In the decades that followed, many of the medieval churches and surrounding monasteries as well as their wall paintings were restored and documented. To a lesser extent, Ottoman buildings were also included.
In 1955/56 most of the Turkish-speaking Muslims emigrated to Turkey . On July 17 and 18, 1967, the Macedonian Orthodox Church , which is not recognized by other churches, was founded in the Sophienkirche . Its headquarters are in Skopje . Since then, Ohrid has belonged to the Debar Kičevo diocese under canon law and no longer plays a significant administrative role.
The socialist era left its mark in Ohrid as in all of Yugoslavia. Tall prefabricated buildings, huge hotel complexes, wide streets, large parks and other infrastructure were built, which had never been done before. Ohrid now developed into a tourist center within Yugoslavia. The new buildings, newly pebbled beaches and open national borders attracted tourists, especially Dutch, Germans, Russians and Belgians.
After the fall of the Iron Curtain and the subsequent wars in Yugoslavia , Ohrid was hard hit by the economic consequences. The wars were followed by internal tensions with the largest minority in the country, which culminated in an uprising in 2001 . The tourists stayed away and foreign currency could no longer be earned. Almost all of the large hotels in the city and on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid were empty and some had to close. The infrastructure was also becoming obsolete and had been in poor condition for a long time. It was only in the economically stable years from 2005 that these deficiencies could be eliminated; since then, Ohrid has had high visitor numbers again and has experienced an economic boom.
In June 2000, Bulgarians living in North Macedonia founded the RADKO association in Ohrid. This was banned in April 2001 by the Macedonian Constitutional Court. This was followed by a lawsuit against the Macedonian state before the European Court of Human Rights . This decided in 2009 in favor of the association, which was re-established in Ohrid in the same year. In August 2009 the Macedonian state banned them again.
In 2001 the conflict between the Macedonian state, founded in 1991, and the Albanian minority (around 25 percent of the total population) flared up at the military level. Although the uprising took place in the north-western part of the country, all eyes were on Ohrid on August 13 of the same year: the conflicting parties signed the historical framework agreement of Ohrid for the Albanians , which guarantees the rights of the Albanian people in politics, administration and other areas should.
On September 5, 2009, an excursion ship with Bulgarian tourists on board sank in Lake Ohrid, around 250 meters from the shore of Ohrid, killing 15 people. The ship, built in Germany in 1924, was in good technical condition, according to the authorities, but there were far too many passengers on the ship.
The permanent exhibition of Slavic writing was opened in 1985 in the old building of the Kliment Ohridski School within the museum complex near the St. Kliment Church by the Institute for the Preservation of Monuments and the National Museum (Museum of Ohrid) . The approximately 500 exhibits include various photos, copies and originals of old manuscripts from the city. The collection was published on the occasion of the 1100th anniversary of the death of Method of Salonica and his brother Kyrill von Saloniki , whose work gave the Slavs a worthy place in the cultural community of the European peoples.
The city museum is housed in the Robevi family home. The house with three floors has the architectural style typical of many southern Balkan cities. The museum is the oldest in the city and has ethnographic and archaeological exhibits, including 9,000 ancient and medieval coins from the region.
The icon gallery in the old town has a collection of icons from churches in the region.
The museum of the Neolithic pile village in Gradište , south of Ohrid, offers an insight into the life of pile dwelling settlers around 1000 BC. 6,000 wooden stakes were found there that had been driven three to five meters into the ground. Archaeologists estimate the number of buildings at 16.
The public city library, founded in 1945, is named after Grigor Parlitschew and has 100,000 book copies.
In addition to the city festival on December 8th, the ecclesiastical feast day of Saint Kliment, several festivals take place in Ohrid, especially in summer, including the traditional Sindikalna Festival in May . In June the international Ohrid International Swimming Marathon will be held from Sveti Naum to the port of Ohrid. The Ohrid Summer Festival (Macedonian Летен Охридски Фестивал, transl . Leten Ohridiski Festival ) takes place from mid-July to mid-August . In summer there is the international folklore and dance festival The Balkan Festival of Folk Songs and Dances , the international Ohrid Choir Festival and the film festival for French-language films Festival of French Film .
Ohrid has a variety of sports clubs. The GFK Ohrid Lihnidos football club was founded in 1921 and plays in the regional league. The women's football club ŽFK Biljanini Izvori has existed since 2010. “Biljanini Izvori” is Ohrid's largest sports center with an indoor stadium with a capacity of around 18,000 seats. In addition to football, numerous other sports have become very popular. There are martial arts, boxing, tennis, kayaking, sailing and sport fishing clubs.
The fortress of Tsar Samuil , as the citadel is usually called today, stands on the highest point of the city, the city hill Gorni Saraj . It was part of the fortifications that enclosed the city. The first traces of a fortification, which may have been expanded by Philip II of Macedonia , come from the Encheleans in the 4th century BC. Between 992 and 1018, Ohrid was the capital of the first Bulgarian Empire and thus the residence of the Bulgarian tsar Samuil , who expanded the fortress and the city walls. Together with the city walls, the complex has around 20 wall and gate towers as well as six city and fortress gates. In summer, the fortress is a popular destination for tourists, as it offers a far-reaching panoramic view of the city, lake and mountains.
Churches and monasteries
Medieval Ohrid was a spiritual center of Christianity in south-eastern Europe. Numerous scriptories and libraries were housed in the many Orthodox churches and monasteries . The city owes its extraordinary art-historical fame to two churches:
Sophienkirche (Sveti Sofija)
On the foundations of an early Christian church, under the Greek Archbishop Leo (1036–56), a three-aisled cathedral with three apses , a mighty dome over the central part and a bell tower in front of the west facade was built in the 11th century . In 1317 Archbishop Grigorije had the building expanded by a large, two-story exonarthex with a vestibule, two further domes and galleries on the upper floor. The Turks transformed the church into a mosque, with the bell tower, central dome and inner galleries destroyed. They added the minbar that still exists today and whitewashed the frescoes , which - unintentionally - saved them over the centuries. These were only uncovered in the 1950s and are among the greatest achievements in European art history. The oldest paintings from the 11th century are only completely preserved in the chancel and narthex. In the vault of the chancel there is the monumental ascension of Christ : Christ is carried up to heaven by four angels, while the apostles and Mary remain on earth; underneath a frieze decorated with praying angels . In the apse konche the Enthroned Mother of God with child is shown frontally . The portraits of the sacrifice of Abraham , the Forty Martyrs of Sebaste on the frozen lake and the portraits of the Slav apostles Cyril and Method in the narthex are among the most important works. The frescoes of the narthex upper floor and the exonarthex date from the 14th century. With many picturesque details, they tell a wealth of different topics, including from the Old Testament . Several signatures (e.g. in the sword of the archangel in the picture of David's repentance ) refer to the master Johannes Theorianos .
Klementskirche (Sveti Kliment)
In 1295 the Byzantine general Progon Sguros and his wife Eudokia, the daughter of Emperor Andronikos II , founded a church that was initially dedicated to the Mother of God Peribleptos ( Periblèptos Περιβλὲπτος = highly respected). Only when the relics of Saint Kliment were later transferred did the church, which was now the archbishopric main church due to the conversion of the Sophienkirche into a mosque, receive the name Sveti Kliment. The Byzantine brick building on the plan of the "inscribed cross" is provided with an octagonal dome and a stepped altar apse. In the 14th century, two side churches were added on either side of the chancel. The frescoes, signed in several places, are the earliest works of the two painters Michael (Michailo) and Eutychios (Eutihije), yet they are masterfully composed with clear lines and uniform coloring. The youthful, athletic figures even of the old church fathers, who exude vitality and heroism, are striking. The frescoes by Sveti Kliment mark the beginning of a new era of Byzantine wall paintings. After the elegant monumental painting of the 13th century, as it was cultivated at the court of the Komnenen , they now lead to the painting of the so-called Palaiological Renaissance , in which an immense wealth of figures is depicted on all walls. Among other things, a crucifixion , the Lamentation of Christ and a full-length saint Kliment should be emphasized . One of the largest and most valuable collections of medieval icons is housed in the exonarthex. It offers an overview of different Byzantine style epochs between the 11th and 14th centuries.
Other important churches in the city
- The 13th century Church of St. John of Kaneo (Sveti Jovan Kaneo) stands on the lakeshore on a ledge above the former fishing village of Kaneo. In the chancel and dome there are remains of frescoes from the 14th century, first mentioned in 1447. After multiple Ottoman destruction, the church was abandoned in the 17th century, but restored by the local Bulgarians towards the end of the 19th century.
- Sveti Konstantin i Elena (not far from Sveti Kliment) is a single-nave building with a transept and a side church to the south, which was probably built in the 14th century. According to the inscription, the founder was the priest monk Parthenius, who is depicted on the south wall with a church model.
- Sveti Nikola Bolnički is a quarry stone church from the first half of the 14th century with frescoes from that period, including portraits of Tsar Dušan and the Ohrid Archbishop Nikola. The church also contains a valuable icon of Saint Naum from the second half of the 14th century.
- Sveti Bogorodica Bolnička is a three-aisled church that was built in the late 14th century and a transept was added in the 16th century. Inside are frescoes from the 14th, 16th and 19th centuries and a carved iconostasis by Karadžović.
- Sveti Nikola Gerakomija stands near the Sophienkirche and has housed wall decorations and icons since 1952, the remains of Saint Kliment.
- Sveti Dimitrije is a small church built in the 14th century, which stands by Sveti Kliment and contains remarkable frescoes.
- Sveti Vrači Mali is a single nave church. Inside are some remains of excellent frescoes and the oldest surviving iconostasis (both from the 14th century).
- Sveti Pantelejmon , the former monastery complex of St. Kliment is in the area of Plaošnik (maz. Плаошник). It was a medieval monastery that was built by the scholar Kliment von Ohrid on behalf of the Bulgarian Tsar Boris I. After the vita of St. Kliment, the construction work began in 886. The facility was the center of the Ohrid School and probably the clergy of the Bulgarian Church trained there. Kliment was buried in one of the monastery churches. The monastery with its churches has been rebuilt several times. After the Sophia church was converted into a sultan's mosque in the 14th century, the monastery or the grave church of St. Kliment became the seat of the archbishops of Ohrid. In 1453, the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed I had the archbishop and the clergy deported to Elbasan and the monastery with the churches destroyed. The Sultan Mehmed Mosque (also Imaret Mosque) was built in its place. Archaeological excavations took place on the site of the former monastery in 1943, 1965 and 2007. As a project of the Macedonian state, the former Church of the Holy Sepulcher was rebuilt from 2000 onwards, following the example of other buildings in the region. The newly built monastery church is named St. Kliment and Panteleon.
- In the south of the city is the only Catholic church in the region.
- Sveti Erazmo: About five kilometers north-west of the city is the church of St. Erasmus (Macedonian Свети Еразмо) on a rock wall. It was probably first built as an early Christian basilica in the 6th century. During archaeological work, a necropolis was found, from which 124 graves from the period between the 6th and 12th centuries come. Most of the church was originally painted with frescoes, only a few of which are still preserved today. B. the figure of a Byzantine ruler.
- Sveti Zaum: The Church of Our Lady of Zaum (Sveti Bogorodica Zahumska) is located about 26 kilometers south of Ohrid. It is located near the Galičica Mountains on the shores of Lake Ohrid near the fishing village of Trpejca . It is built below a hill that descends to the sea coast. The shore is hardly accessible on foot. The construction of the church was donated by the carpenter Grgur and the frescoes by Bishop Gregorius, one of the most influential dignitaries of the Ohrid Archdiocese at the end of the 14th century. It represents a typical cross- domed church , similar to the churches of St. Climent of Ohrid and St. John of Kaneo. The vestibule on the west side, the sea side, has collapsed. Bridle has an accented vertical, which gives the church a very elegant look. This vertical and the thinness are the basic features of the architecture of this monument. This essentially distinguishes this church from other architectural monuments of its time. The church is known among art historians for its Byzantine frescoes, which survived the destruction during the Ottoman period. Among them is the breastfeeding Mother of God, a specialty of Byzantine painting.
- Sveti Naum: The Sveti Naum Monastery and its eponymous monastery church are among the most important historical monuments in the region. You are about 30 kilometers south of the city at the southern end of Lake Ohrid on the Albanian border. The monastery was built between 893 and 900 by the scholar Naum under the name Archangel. After his death in 910 the monastery was renamed and dedicated to him. Naum is buried in the monastery. In 1870 a fire destroyed the monastery except for the monastery church. The current facility was built in the following time. After Serbia conquered the region in 1912, a residence of the Serbian king and the church of St. Ivan Vladimir were built near the monastery .
Over 500 years of Ottoman rule left many traces in Ohrid in the form of buildings and monuments. As the capital of a sanjak , it was a supraregional political, administrative, economic, religious and cultural center. This importance is shown in the high number of Ottoman architectural monuments.
First and foremost, the ten preserved mosques should be mentioned, which survived the wars of the last century and the urban planning measures of the subsequent governments. All in all, the Ottomans built 17 mosques in Ohrid (two of which were churches converted into mosques), most of which were the center of a mahalla . They were donated by scholars, politicians or the military and often housed a madrasa and an İmaret . The mosques are spread across the city but are concentrated in the historical centers. They are all used and operated by the Muslim community.
The Ali Pasha Mosque was built in 1573. Today it is the largest Islamic church in the city and was renovated in 1823. It once had two minarets . The flat main dome is flanked by three smaller domes that cover a porch. There is a wooden fountain in the courtyard. The mosque was restored in the 2000s.
The Zeynel Abidin Pascha Mosque or Tekke Mosque was built in 1564. In 1590 Mohammed Haji Hayati , a Persian dervish and member of the Sufi order of the Halveti , added a tekke . A Türbe was built for the founder in 1720 . In 2012 the entire building complex was restored.
The Hajji Durgut Mosque, or Mosque of the Cross, was built in 1466 on the old Bitola road and is now on the northern corner of 7-mi Noemvri and Marko Nestoroski streets . It has a 15 meter high minaret without a crescent moon or a star at the top. The main building has a square base and an octagonal dome. It is the oldest mosque in the city.
The Haydar Pascha Mosque was built in 1490 at the entrance to the city in the north-western Voska district on the old road to Struga. The rectangular building is flanked by a doorway on the street. The minaret stands in the corner of the two buildings and is 14 meters high. There are also some centuries-old graves in the courtyard.
The Kuloğlu Mosque was built in the 15th or 16th century and is located on the western corner of Goce Delčev and Hadži Mustafa streets in the Voska district . The octagonal main building offers space for around 80 believers in the prayer room and has a gallery. To the west of it is a newer small porch with a portico. The 14 meter high minaret stands between the two parts on the street side.
The Gurci Bey Mosque is a small building from Ottoman times and is located near the city beach at the end of Bistrica Street . The courtyard in front of the mosque is decorated with roses, a newer wooden fountain and other plants. The minaret is only two meters high.
The Emin Mahmud Mosque was built in the 15th or 16th century and stands in front of the Košišta district on the road to Struga. In addition to an octagonal prayer room, it has a minaret. There is a small fountain.
The Hajji Hamzah Mosque is a small building at the beginning of the Korzo promenade in the evening . It is right on the road on the slope of the Deboj hill . It can be reached via a 13-step staircase and has an eight meter high white minaret.
A little further on Marko Nestoroski Street at the eastern corner of Vasil Glavinov is the Keschan Mosque . The square main building has a pink facade and is flanked at the northwest corner by a ten meter high stone minaret. The mosque is named after the Thracian city of Keşan .
The Kara Bey Mosque is located in the southeast of the city on Dame Gruev Street . The surrounding neighborhood is named after her and is mostly inhabited by Muslims. The elongated rectangular main building is adjacent to a small annex on the street side. The small courtyard is almost completely covered by the well system. The five-meter high minaret is located on the western side of the main building.
The Hajji Kasim Mosque was the largest mosque in Ohrid. She stood in front of the so-called water gate of the city walls, where the central square Ploštad Sveti Kliment is now. The mosque without minaret was demolished by the Yugoslav state in the 1950s. There are now cafes, parks and a five-meter-high statue of the city's patron saint, St. Klement, on the site. In 2000 the Macedonian government removed the ruins of the Imaret mosque near Plaošnik . Since then, excavations of the ancient city of Lychnidos have taken place and the new center of the Macedonian Orthodox Church is now being built there.
Hamame, Türben etc.
In addition to the mosques, there are other well-preserved cultural monuments from the Ottoman period, the Voska- Hammām (oriental bath house); the Han ( caravanserai ), now a shopping center, the Ottoman clock tower ( Sahat Kula ) from 1725 and the Türbe (mausoleum) of Sinaneddin Yusuf Çelebi of the noble Ohrizâde family from 1591; they were all integral parts of the Ottoman urban architecture . The Voska-Hammam was in a very shabby state until recently. The building was hidden under tendrils and dust, walls and tiles were barely visible inside either. In 2012, however, the whole area around the hammam was renovated with Turkish help and a museum was opened.
Other historical buildings
The house of the Robevi merchant family was built between 1863 and 1864 by the builder Todor Petkow from the village of Gari near Debar . The order came from Konstantin Robev , head of the family at that time. The house had a previous building, which was built in 1827 and burned down in 1861/62 by the Ottoman administrator Ustref Beg. Today's Robevi house is divided into two parts, one half each for the sons of Constantine (Atanas and Konstantin). The two brothers lived here until 1900 when they moved to the larger Bitola. In the time after that they use it as a weekend house. When Ohrid was conquered by Serbia during the Balkan War in 1912, the house was confiscated. Serbian troops resided in the house between 1912 and 1919. During this time a large part of the household disappeared and the wooden ceilings were badly damaged or completely destroyed. After the Second World War, the merchant's house housed the cultural history museum. In 1990 the three-story building was completely renovated. Today the building is home to the Ohrid City Museum.
Economy and Infrastructure
The fishing is the oldest industry of Ohrid. Even the ancient Illyrians pursued this occupation, because the Ohrid lake offered plenty of food fish. While the townspeople were also active in other sectors, in the neighboring villages of Trpejca and Peštani, fishing was the only way to make a living for the residents. Another important branch of the economy was handicraft, which was spread through the Ohrid school . Broad strata of the population were carpenters, leather workers, boiler makers, saddle makers, goldsmiths, tailors, shoemakers and wood carvers. Until the end of the 19th century, the place was, next to the western Macedonian Kastoria , a center of fur processing and associated with the fur trade. Since Ohrid was a spiritual center, the local builders, craftsmen, painters and iconostasis makers were known nationwide.
The tourism is one of the most important economic factors. The historic old town, the cultural surroundings and the nature with the large lake attract not only locals, but also tourists from neighboring countries and travelers. The majority of the tourists come from Germany, as well as from Bulgaria, Serbia, Slovenia, the Netherlands, increasingly also from Russia and more recently from China and Israel. The city offers a lively nightlife in the summer season with numerous cafes, bars, pubs, restaurants and a large number of boutiques. During these months the city turns into a tourist stronghold: nightlife, full beaches, traffic congestion, concerts, festivals, amusement parks, numerous charter flights to Western Europe and hardly any empty hotel rooms.
The service sector is another economic factor in the region. The banking institutions Ohridska Banka , Stopanska Banka , Commercial Bank and Tutunska Banka have branches. In the industry, the textile factory Ohridski Tekstilni is one of the largest employers in the region. The majority of the population earn their living in trade and retail. Very few are employed in agriculture. The large bakery Жито леб (Žito leb, German: wheat bread), which produces bread, baked goods and sweets across the country, is based in Ohrid. In 2002 the amount of bread it produced was put at 18,300 tons.
Inner-city traffic is mainly handled by private cars, buses and taxis. The pollutant-rich exhaust gases often create smog over the city in the summer tourist season . Even in winter the air is heavily polluted by wood-burning stoves.
Many roads are in a rather poor condition, although they are constantly being repaved. The main artery is the Bulevar Turistička , which connects the Železnička bypass with the city center and with the tourist areas on the eastern shore of Lake Ohrid. The bypass road, on which heavy traffic is relocated from the city center, was renewed in 2011 and connects the road from Struga in the northwest with that of Bitola in the northeast of the city.
Until 1966 there was a rail connection on the Gostivar – Ohrid railway line . The narrow-gauge railway , which originated in the First World War and was built as an army field railway , needed more than 17 hours for the 167-kilometer route. As part of the Pan-European Transport Corridor VIII, the governments of Albania and Macedonia analyzed the possibilities of a new railway line from Kičevo to Struga and on to Albania, which would run just a few kilometers northwest of Ohrid.
On the road to Bitola is the new bus station (Macedonian Автобуска станица, translit. Avtobuska stanica ), the older one was in the city center, but the area of the former bus station has now been built on with apartment houses. There are daily connections from the new bus station to the largest cities in the country and neighboring countries such as Istanbul. Some western and central European locations are also destinations.
About eight kilometers northwest of the city center is located with the airport Apostle Paul Ohrid the second largest airport in Macedonia, which especially in the summer months for the charter is used.
Founded in 1992, the largest television broadcaster in Southwest Macedonia, TVM, is based in Ohrid. Around 120,000 viewers live in its broadcasting area.
Radio Ohrid , founded in 1957, looks after the communities of Struga, Debarca, Ohrid and Resen as well as parts of Albania.
The AMAC PRESS Ohridski Novini newspaper is published daily with around 4,000 copies and is a pioneer of journalism in the city.
Compulsory schooling in Macedonia lasts eight years; the five primary schools in Ohrid have large capacities as there are many students. There is also a school for those with a talent for music, which also takes eight years to attend.
There are three secondary schools available in the secondary level, one polytechnical, one gastronomic and one scientific. The third so-called Sveti Kliment Ohridski School also includes a grammar school that prepares learners for the tertiary level.
The third and last level of the Macedonian education system consists of two universities: the state-recognized University of Information Science and Technology St. Paul the Apostle with five faculties and approx. 200 students, and the European University of the Republic of Macedonia .
There is also the Faculty of Tourism and Gastronomy and the Institute of Hydrobiology at the Bitola University in Ohrid.
To the east of the city is the largest hospital in Ohrid and on the old road to Struga the St. Erasmus Hospital for orthopedic surgery and traumatology from 1950. It was an important center in this medical field in Yugoslavia; many patients came from the other republics.
Ohrid works with cities around the world, primarily in the field of tourism and cultural exchange, with which it has maintained numerous partnerships since 1977:
- Town twinning
- Kragujevac , Serbia, since 1977
- Vinkovci , Croatia, since 1979
- Piran , Slovenia, since 1981
- Wollongong , Australia, since 1981
- Windsor , Canada, since 1981
- Budva , Montenegro, since 1984
- Pogradec , Albania, since 2002
- Caen , France, since 2009
- Yalova , Turkey, since 2010
- Cooperating cities
- Plovdiv , Bulgaria, since 1999
- Nessebar , Bulgaria, since 2000
- Zemun , Serbia, since 2003
- Dalian , PR China, since 2003
- Bankya Raion of Sofia , since 2004
- Leskovac , Serbia, since 2005
- Ptuj , Slovenia, since 2005
- Veliko Tarnovo , Bulgaria, since 2006
- Sinaia , Romania, since 2006
- Gaziosmanpaşa , Turkey, since 2006
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- 55 mosques in Macedonia were destroyed during the civil war in 2001. ( Memento from October 27, 2009 on WebCite ) (in the WebCite archive)
- Integrated Rehabilitation Project Plan Survey of the Architectural and Archaeological Heritage Ohrid. (PDF file; 931 kB) p. 17 , accessed on March 7, 2011 (English).
- More detailed information on the tourist destination of Ohrid. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 27, 2010 ; Retrieved March 7, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Macedonia.co.uk: Macedonian Cities - Ohrid Monuments. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- Macedonia sights. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- The reconstruction of Ataturk's parental home strengthens ties with Turkey. In: Makfax newspaper. Official website of "Makfax", June 24, 2012, accessed on August 4, 2012 (Macedonian).
- Information on the ancient theater. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 21, 2009 ; accessed on March 7, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Muzej - Kuća Robevci. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on April 27, 2014 ; Retrieved December 27, 2009 (Macedonian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- D. Totchkoff, Ochrida: Studies on tobacco trade and skinning, especially in Ochrida (Macedonia) . Inaugural dissertation to obtain a doctorate from the Philosophical Faculty of the University of Heidelberg. Universitäts-Verlag vorm. Ph. Wiese, 85 pages
- Fish industry and wood carving. In: City administration website :. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- Focus Information Agency: Interview with the mayor of Ohrid Aleksandar Petreski about tourism in the city. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- Tourism in Macedonia. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on July 19, 2011 ; Retrieved March 7, 2011 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- CreditRiskMonitor.com, Inc .: Commercial Credit Report for Zito Leb (Macedonia). Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- Economic Commission for Europe : Overview of European roads. (PDF; 319 kB) Accessed March 7, 2011 (English / French / Russian).
- Charlie Lewis: The 60cm Ohrid line in 1965. In: The 76cm gauge railways of Yugoslavia. Retrieved March 10, 2011 .
- Corridor VIII, Analysis of Railway Infrastructure. (No longer available online.) Pp. 50–51 , archived from the original on February 6, 2011 ; accessed on March 7, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- About TVM Ohrid. (No longer available online.) TVM, archived from the original on December 26, 2010 ; accessed on March 7, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Media in Ohrid. Retrieved March 9, 2011 .
- Newspaper AMAC PRESS Ohridski Novini. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- Education. In: City administration website. Retrieved March 7, 2011 .
- University for Information Science and Technology "St. Paul The Apostole"
- Location. (No longer available online.) In: European University website. Archived from the original on February 7, 2011 ; accessed on March 7, 2011 (English). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Hydrobiological Institute of the University of Bitola. Retrieved March 7, 2011 (Macedonian). Faculty of Tourism and Gastronomy at Bitola University. Retrieved March 7, 2011 (Macedonian).
- Special Hospital for Orthopedic Surgery and Traumatology "Sv. Erazmo". (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on November 29, 2011 ; Retrieved March 7, 2011 (English, unknown language, Macedonian). Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- cities of Ohrid. In: City administration website. Retrieved March 7, 2011 (Macedonian).